INVESTIGATION / RESEARCH
Study the effect of khazra iron nano chelate fertilizer foliar application on two rapeseed varieties
Hasan H. Mahdi1, Lamiaa A. Mutlag1, Raghad S. Mouhamad1*
Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/2019.04.02.4
An experiment was conducted in Al-zafraniya station / Baghdad – Iraq, during the winter season 2017 - 2018 in order to study the effect of khazra iron nano chelate fertilizer foliar application on two rapeseed varieties for increasing yield and yield components. The experiment designed by randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) for three replicates. The first factor included two rapeseed varieties (Brassica napus var. oleifera and Brassica napus L. var. pactol) and second factor included khazra iron nano chelated in three levels 0, 5 (kg.ha-1) (0.5 kg nano iron fertilizers per 1000-liter water) and 10 (kg.ha-1) (1 kg nano iron fertilizers per 1000-liter water). Means of the treatments was compared with a significant difference in the use of the least significant difference (LSD) at the probability level (p ≤ 0.05). Results showed that effect of khazra iron nano chelate foliar application, rapeseed varieties and interaction of them had significant effects on yield, biological yield and total dry biomass, which were 1298.6 (kg.ha-1), 7900 (kg.ha-1), and 7288 (kg.ha-1) respectively, at level 10 (kg.ha-1) for rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera). While rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var. pactol) only had biological yield and total dry biomass which were 4260 (kg.ha-1) and 4460 (kg.ha-1) respectively. This is due to the genetic nature of each plant species. According to the results, rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera) with 10 kg. ha-1 khazra iron nano chelate fertilizer foliar application had the highest values at most of evaluated characters.
Keywords: Nano khazra iron chelate fertilizer, yield, varieties, biological yield, rapeseed
In the previous studies using khazra iron nano chelate zinc and manganese, supplements had the potential role in iron fertilizer 1. In another study 2, the influence of khazra iron nano chelate fertilizer on rice yield was examined and was shown that applied treatments have a significant effect on all characteristics except grain thousand weigh. Results show that wet weight and maximum leaf area index is influenced by the concentration of khazra iron nano chelate fertilizer and influence dry weight for both types of spinach. Using 4 kg. ha-1 khazra iron nano chelate fertilizer causes 58 and 47% increase in wet weight and maximum leaf surface index, respectively comparing to use of no fertilizer in wheat plant 3. The investigating the effect of khazra iron nano chelate foliar application of amino acids and nanoparticles and chelated iron on photosynthetic pigments and yield of potato 4. The interactive effect of amino acid and iron fertilizer indicated that application of amino acid, foliar application, and soil application of iron nano chelate had the best effects on chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll, and tuber yield. Other results indicated that both forms of khazra iron nano chelate fertilizer increased leaf chlorophyll concentration, compared to other spraying treatments and the control 5. Application of nano-forms of fertilizers, compared to chemical forms of fertilizers, increased the phosphorus concentration, biomass, and crude protein and soluble carbohydrate concentration.
Winter rapeseed starts growing early in the spring. Therefore, after the snow falls, it is necessary to survey winter rapeseed crops in order to establish the preservation of plants. 6,7. Apart from its role in direct feeding by humans and animals, it has expanded globally industrial use, including oil producing factories or as a source of biofuel in recent years 8. Higher yield per unit area can be achieved by improving modern cultural practices with better macro and micronutrient management 9.
Recent research has shown that a small number of nutrients, especially Zn, Fe, and Mn applied by foliar spraying significantly increased the yield of crops 10,11. Narimani and others reported that foliar application of microelements improved the effectiveness of macronutrients 12. Effect of iron and zinc on micronutrient levels in wheat (Triticuma estivum L.) are defined substances that are significant crop growth; however, they are used in lower amounts as compared to macronutrients, such as N, P and K 13.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiment carried out in Al-zafraniya station / Baghdad – Iraq, during the winter season (2017 - 2018). The factorial experiment that consists of two factors and with three replicates was designed by randomized complete blocks design (RCBD). The first factor consisted of two rapeseed varieties (Brassica napus var. oleifera and Brassica napus L. var. pactol) and second factor was three levels of khazra iron nano chelate fertilizer foliar application 0, 5 kg. ha-1 (0.5 kg khazra iron fertilizers per 1000-liter water) and 10 kg. ha-1 (1 kg khazra iron fertilizers per 1000-liter water). Rapeseed varieties were planted in a row with spacing 30 cm in plot (1 x 2) m2; the plots were separated by 0.5 m in width from all sides to avoid the effect of fertilization. The iron nano chelate fertilizer sprayed after one month of agriculture on leaf and branch of studied cultivars. Triple superphosphate added as a phosphate resource at the sowing time and urea as a nitrogen resource at sowing and tillering stages, as recommended. Soil properties of the area under study showed in table 1.
Table 1: Soil properties of the area under study
After physiological ripening biological yield were determined by draining of whole plants, which were harvested at 2 m2 of the center of each plot at 75 o C for 48 h, an oven. For evaluation of grain yield after measurement of biological yield, spikes were removed from stems, and after winnow, net gain weight were determined. In order to determine of chemical and physical properties of farm soil samples were prepared from 0-30 cm depth. Samples were sieved and were analyzed at the laboratory.
The contents of the mineral elements for Ca, Na, Mg, Mn, K, Zn, Cu and Fe in soil determined using the DTPA method and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Electrical conductivity values were determined by EC meter in 1:1 soil-water mixture 14. pH was determined by a glass electrode pH meter calibrated with a standard solution in a 1:1 soil-water mixture 15. Available of the phosphorus (P) determined by the ascorbic acid method of 882 nm in a spectrophotometer 16. N percentage determined by the Kjeldahl method. The Organic matter (OM) determined by Wakley - Black method 17. The Soil texture determined by reading the hydrometer in water mixture for 40 seconds and 2 hours 18. The contents of the mineral elements for Ca, Na, Mg, Mn, K, Zn, Cu and Fe in the plant determined using the digestion method and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Khazra fertilizer analyzed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques; table 2 shows the XRF analysis of khazra fertilizer.
Table 2. Major elemental concentration in Khazra fertilizer analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry
Data were subjected to analysis of variance using SAS and EXCEL software. The differences between the means were compared by the least significant difference test (LSD) (p ≤ 0.05).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Khazra iron nano chelate fertilizer: Khazra iron nano chelate had the strong and stable complex with 3<pH<11 range and make 9 % of solved iron in water available for the plant. Zinc and manganese supplements had a specific role in this fertilizer 19. The results showed increases in micronutrient essentials elements such as Zinc, Iron, Manganese, Sodium, and Sulphur (table 2). Using khazra iron chelate enhances the process of photosynthesis as well as the speed of food preparation within plant leaves, and increases the number of sprouts and flowers, leading to the height of crop volume and speed of productivity in plants 20. The presence of sulfur in khazra complex is one of its many advantages over similar fertilizers, as sulfur partially acidifies the unsuitable and alkaline soil and increases the absorption rate of microelements such as Iron, Manganese and Zinc 21.
The results in table 3 show increasing significantly in the seed yield 1298.6 kg. ha-1 for rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera) at a level of 10 kg. ha-1. While, rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var. pactol) not has, seed yield. The status of seed yield is the most important field scale. The high seed yield for winter rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera) may be due to increasing the number of capsules in the plant, the number of seeds in capsules and response to khazra iron nano chelate fertilizer and adaptation for climatic conditions. Rezaeei et al. 22 according to results, using of khazra iron nano chelated fertilizer foliar application at 2.5 % increased grain yield for wheat in drylands. Nazaran et al. 23 in order to study the effect of khazra iron nano chelated fertilizer application on quantitative and quality of wheat an experiment was arranged and results showed that khazra iron nano chelated fertilizer foliar application at shooting stage let to 99% increasing of grain yield. The rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var. pactol) not have seed yield can be explained by non-response to khazra iron nano chelate fertilizer and non-adaptation to climatic conditions.
As shown in table 3, the results of an increase in nano-Fe concentration increased biological yield. The rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera) has 7900 kg. ha-1 at level of 10 kg. ha-1. The rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var. pactol) had 4460 kg. ha-1 at the level of 10 kg. ha-1. In experiments conducted earlier, biological yield loss due to Fe deficiency has been reported Mahmoudi et al. 24 Ziaeian and Malakoti 25 compared the effect of Fe and manganese application in soil with the foliar application, and the combination of both, increased grain yield, biological yield, and protein content in wheat farms. The results are consistent with the findings of the research on the effect of micronutrient of iron on soybean seed 26.
Table 3 shows increasing significantly in the total dry biomass 7288 kg. ha-1 for rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera), While the rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var. pactol) had total dry biomass 4260 kg. ha-1 at level of 10 kg. ha-1. This may be due to increased growth rates of cells in number and volume, which lead to increased carbonation and dry matter production 27. Dry matter in field crops is the result of the accumulation of net carbon representation during the growing season. Which is the result of the efficiency of vegetation in the interception of solar radiation as the dry weight of the plant generally increases slowly in the early stages of growth and continues to increase in the plant growing season and then decrease with time 28. That is similar find in report peyvendi et al. 29, the highest mean dry and fresh weight of stems; roots and leaves were obtained in the nano-iron chelated treatment.
Table 3: The effect of Khazra fertilization (0, 5 and 10 kg. ha-1) on yield, biological yield and total dry biomass content of two rape varieties in Al-zafraniya station (2017-2018)
The nutrient content of leaves: in this study, adding khazra iron nano chelate fertilizer to winter rapeseed varieties significantly affected the contents nutrients in leaves (table 4). This is due to the genetic nature of each plant species, which in turn determines phenotypic properties, internal content, growth, and specific conditions 28.
The rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var. pactol) have the highest N 1.11%, P 0.56 mg kg-1, S 1.6 mg kg-1, Fe 259 mg kg-1 and Mn 36.1mg kg-1 at level of 10 kg. ha-1. While the rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera) has, N 1.09 %, P 0.44 mg kg-1, S 1.38 mg kg-1, Fe 246 mg kg-1 and Mn 30.6 mg kg-1 at level of 10 kg. ha-1. The efficiency of using nano fertilizer from nitrogen and phosphorus is very high, rapid release and absorption by plants, which reduces the loss of unwanted nutrients in soil, water and air by direct absorption and avoids nutrient interaction with soil, microorganisms, water and air 29.
Table 4: The effect of Khazra fertilization (0, 5 and 10 kg. ha-1) on the nutrient content of leaves of two rape varieties in Al-zafraniya station (2017-2018).Values marked with the same letter do not differ significantly at p ≤ 0.05
The nutrient content of roots: in table 5, adding khazra iron nano chelate fertilizer to rapeseed varieties significantly affected the content of nutrients in roots. The rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var. pactol) have the highest N 1.31%, P 0.46 mg kg-1, S 1.06 mg kg-1, Fe 253 mg kg-1 and Mn 38 mg kg-1 at level of 10 kg. ha-1. While the rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera) had, N 1.19%, P 0.34 mg kg-1, S 0.88 mg kg-1, Fe 243 mg kg-1 and Mn 31 mg kg-1 at level of 10 kg.ha-1. Results show the nutrient content in roots of two rapeseeds varieties at different levels of nano fertilizer was directly proportional to the increase in the level of fertilizer.
Table 5: The effect of Khazra fertilization (0, 5 and 10 kg. ha-1) on the nutrient content of the root of two rape varieties in Al-zafraniya station (2017-2018) .Values marked with the same letter do not differ significantly at p ≤ 0.05
The significant effect of khazra iron nano chelate fertilizerfoliar application at level 10 kg.ha-1 to rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera) show increase in the majority of the studied traits; yield, biological yield and total dry biomass. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var. pactol) only has total dry biomassandbiological yield. The rapes(Brassica napus L. var. Pactol) was significantly outweighed the (Brassica napus var. oleifera) in the nutrient content of leafs and roots (N, P, S, Fe and Mn).
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Received: 8 April 2019
Accepted: 30 April 2019
Hasan H. Mahdi1, Lamiaa A. Mutlag1, Raghad S. Mouhamad1*
1Soil and Water Resources Center, Agricultural Research Directorate, Ministry of Sciences & Technology, Baghdad, Iraq
*Corresponding Author, e-mail: email@example.com,