Files > Volume 7 > Vol 7 No 2 2022
Obsessive-Compulsive disorder is a severe threat to society
1. M.Pharm, Pharmacology, NSHM College Of Pharmaceutical Technology, NSHM Knowledge Campus, B.L. Rd., Kolkata - 700053, W.B. India
2. B. Pharm, Sardar Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute Of Bio-medical Science and Research, Balawala, Dehradun- 248161, Uttarakhand.
3. Assistant Professor, Department Of Pharmacology, Bharat Technology, Uluberia, Howrah – 711316, W.B.
4. Associate Professor, Department Of Pharmaceutics, Mata Gujri College of Pharmacy, Mata Gujri University, Purab Pali Road, Kishanganj, Bihar - 855107.
Corresponding author: [email protected]
Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/2022.07.02.11
To give an overview of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In this review, the vital information about OCD and the possibility of linking suicide through this mental issue, getting to provide references for cover. OCD is a chronicle real unbalanced form of mental disorder that leads to an unreasonable configuration of obsession and compulsion. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is usually believed to follow a persistent, repetitive course. The onset of illness has a bimodal peak – in early adolescence and adulthood. Obsessions are the elevation of thoughts and feelings irrespective of common or genuine sentiments, infuriating and repetitive effects on mental beings. Compulsion is a short part tempo result after the obsession to repeat a particular activity. This anomalous situation helps us understand that it turns out to be critical and last for a short period; it gets back as before when done. Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a psycho-neurological issue that sets out to be impulsive and cause distress and uneasiness in a person's life. OCD has the potential to trigger suicide. An obsessive-compulsive disorder is outlined by the two proximity of continuous impulse and compulsions, and recent studies have also identified neuroimaging and neuropsychological correlations of a natural outcome, but these need further replication. After a comprehensive study, the evidence provided in this article presents that OCD may be a grueling mental issue and a significant threat to society.
Keywords. OCD; Obsession; Compulsion; Neuropsychiatric; Treatment; Survey.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a neurological disorder that distinguishes the appearance of obsession and/or compulsions for a prolonged time zone and makes the sufferer uncomfortable and distressed. OCD can occur in any seniority or age group regardless of race or sexuality, or religion. OCD has been evaluated with approximately 8 billion dollars per year as per U.S. data. Despite being frequent and impaired, according to studies, almost 60% of patients suffering from OCD wait for a long time to get treated, or some do not get proper treatment scarcity of health professionals to recognize the disorder of OCD1.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder distinguished by the existence of two different phenomena: obsession and compulsions. The prevalence rate of OCD is 2 to 3 percent, and in India, it is lower than 0.6 %. OCD is common in both males and females, although males are more prone to this disorder. The existence of OCD in various studies ranges from 0.4-to 2.5 %. Occurrence in elder patients ranges from 0.6% to 2% of patients. According to epidemiologic studies, India has found a lifespan existence of 0.6%. Males are more significant than that of females. Sexual obsession was characterized in the early age of onset, and getting more beneath those continuously leads to compulsion. Females have compulsive washing (66%) and avoidance (26%). More percentage of divorce is one reason reported in OCD sufferers in contrast with married people. It has also been reported divorce rate in men is 40% and in women is 39.6%2.
In addition to high acceptance of clinical OCD, symptoms of OCD have been experienced without actual disorder of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Episodes of OCD have been experienced by one-fourth of the population once in their lifetime. According to reports, sub-threshold OCD has an acceptance rate of 12.6%. Reported community studies in OCD have a slight female majority, and sub-threshold OCD has been reported among males. Epidemiological studies and phenomenological studies have chief benefits. OCD has been associated with other psychological and anxious symptoms. In the group of people with OCD, sufferers consume a high rate of powders and liquors. Other issues related to OCD are hyperactivity issues (ADHD) to adolescence OCD. Various groups of OCD have clashed with other reports of co-event running from 0% to 60%. Barely any examinations likewise report high rates of sexual maltreatment in OCD3.
Obsessions are the repetition of intense occurrence of thoughts/emotions or feeling (e.g., fear of something); compulsions are recurrent physical/mental that are amenable to obsession and very acute episodes of own coincide (e.g., abnormal washing of hands etiquette). OCD currently has a compound genetic pattern and combination with psychosocial factors on an inheritance basis. In the studies, X chromosomes have an obsessive-compulsive disorder in family members' background4.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder occurs throughout the lifetime, and youngsters as young as 6 or 7 present with the characteristic impairing symptoms. At the opposite end of the age range, patients may present for the primary time in adulthood. Maximum adults with this disorder report onset in childhood or adolescence. The condition may result in considerable disability; for instance, children may drop out of education, and adults can become housebound. The planet Health Organization rates obsessive-compulsive disorder as one of the highest 20 most disabling diseases. It generally persists and evidence-based psychological and drug treatments are available if untreated. Recent epidemiological study results report prevalence rates of 0.8% in adults and 0.25% in 5-15-year-old children, although earlier studies suggested rates as high as 1-3% in adults and 1-2% in children and adolescents 5–8.
Criteria for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Either obsessions or compulsions where Obsessions as well-defined by recurrent and persistent thoughts, images or impulses that are felt, at certain times during the commotion, as intrusive inappropriate and that cause marked anxiety, nervousness or distress. It also can be said that the thoughts, thoughts or impulses that aren't, without a doubt, are immoderate concerns causing approximately real-existence problems. The character tries to disregard or suppress such thoughts and impulses to neutralize them with a few different notions or actions. The character acknowledges that the obsessions with thoughts, and impulses, are made of their thoughts and now no longer imposed from without as in notion insertion.
Compulsions as described via way of means of repetitive behaviors like hand washing, ordering, checking or intellectual acts like praying, counting, repeating phrases silently that the man or woman feels pushed to carry out in reaction to an obsession or in keeping with regulations that have to be carried out rigidly. It is likewise the behaviors or intellectual acts are geared toward stopping or decreasing misery or stopping a few dreaded occasions or situations; however, those behaviors or intellectual acts both aren't linked in a practical manner with what they're designed to neutralize or save you or are truly excessive.
During the disorder, the individual has been diagnosed with obsessions or compulsions that are immoderate or unreasonable. The obsessions or compulsions purpose marked distress, are time-ingesting, take greater than 1 hour a day, or drastically intervene with the individual's ordinary routine, occupational or educational functioning, or ordinary social sports or relationships. If every other Axis I disease is present, the content material of the obsessions or compulsions isn't confined to it. The disturbance isn't because of the direct physiological outcomes of a substance like a drug of abuse, a medicinal drug or a fashionable clinical condition.
Source: The above three paragraphs are obtained from the works of Professor Dan J. Stein, the University of Cape Town9, where form it is adapted from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision; DSM-IV-TR (i.e., American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000). For educational purposes only and omitted from the DSM-V. This has been changed in the DSM-V (American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The symptoms of another mental disorder9 do not better explain the disturbance.
The Symptoms Associated With OCD
Sufferers/patients were necessary to be rated for suicide threat and proximity of subjects over the lap of their sickness. The cure is signified when OCD reflection impairs the victim and leads to a big disaster. Good cure aim is working through which an hour irrespective of the whole day over the most necessary work and leads to uncertain opposition with everyday conditions. Fig 1A (Obtained from Foss K, California OCD and Anxiety Treatment Center10, Available: https://www.calocd.com/obsessive-compulsive-disorder/scrupulosity/) and Fig 1B(Obtained from Soule K, Soule Therapy11, Available: https://www.souletherapy.com/post/how-to-tell-if-you-have-ocd-and-what-to-do-about-it) showing mark of rhythm of OCD. The psychological condition leads to patients with the worsened condition of OCD12–14.
Some Common OCD Patterns
Common Obsessive Compulsive Disorder patterns are counting and repeating, protecting against contamination, checking, hoarding, strange movements, and scrupulous 13. Fanatical considerations are not possible to support; they naturally occur. Obsessions cause shivering, which resembles the inclination to get in the abdomen or when making emotional prospective like seems like a stranger. The restlessness and tension are terrifying, and teenagers have episodes of obsession which results in continuous compulsions. However, compulsion can never reshape or add up until the obsession becomes enlarge14.
Figure 1. A and B represent The different patterns and cycles of OCD
The psychological etiquette that have the massive rate of commandment in anyone's with OCD involvements such as depression which leads to lifetime occurrence range from 45.9 percent to 68.4 percent. Commonly uneasiness or anxiety disorders that lead to whole life range from 31.9 percent to 34.6 percent. Social phobias, which lead to lifetime occurrence, range from 17.3 percent to 36.1 percent. Specific phobias which lead to lifetime occurrence range from 15.1 percent to 33.0. Panic disorders that estimate lifetime co-occurrence range from 12.8 percent to 20.2 percent (panic disorder and/or agoraphobia). Post-traumatic stress disorder leads to lifetime occurrence ranging from 11.6 percent to 19.2 percent 15.
Behavioral Treatment & Dysfunctional Beliefs Associated With OCD
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is explained by the proximity of unachievable, probing to others' matter and movement (depressingly dull and bleak). OCD in teenagers has been cleanup up by the change in research since the 1980s. Focus in the USA and the U.K. have proven that OCD in teenagers can be built under guidance; the cognitive conduct treatment I.e., Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), becomes the primary treatment. The supper psychological cure for OCD turns on gaining hypothesis. The idea behind their chief use was straight; the practice was being driven and secured by declining in difficulty caused by fixation. Regularly, the fixation is commune as a few kinds' of physical misbehaviors going to the particular patient. Though it happens to be gradual amorphous, some children are unwell to show frustration. The conduct treatment in shapes consists of admiring to break the network within the declining of difficulty by allowing self to consider the pressure and will not start the impulse. A notable contemporary intellectual model is designed by the obsessive-compulsive awareness active breed. Such a massive congress of more than 40 members showed their interest in getting to know the job of mental means in obsessive-compulsive disorder by attaining a document concerning those most severe basis sufferers' of OCD, and they classified them according to thought and thought space which was said to provide the similar screening. Two own-result estimates of the Obsession reliance on personality inventory and the self believes of intrusions examination –were designed to screen different zones16,17.
Treatment of OCD
Clomipramine hydrochloride (Anafranil) was the chief FDA-initial therapeutic medication for OCD. They know that it is a powerful serotonin reuptake blocker by a molecular structure having tricyclic stimulant properties. It is slightly more specific than the SRIs and leads to increasing antagonistic complications. The more particular operators have many results and give the image of being vigorous as clomipramine hydrochloride in scanning, and the same gets into SRI in fewer days upon day dosages of 25mg to 50mg; if a higher amount of chlorpromazine hydrochloride can lead to risk due to hindrance. Dimensions of tricyclic depressants in OCD patients' blood samples will be examined habitably to determine whether the two therapeutic medications are correct. For elevated amounts of tension (I.e., for those patients who are disabled with the last motto), benzodiazepines are of great use in treating dominion. On other thought, antipsychotic drugs are also recommended with SRI18.
Haloperidol dosage of 0.5mg to 5mg is a customarily used therapeutic drug. In some screening, the atypical antipsychotics (e.g., Olanzapine, Risperidone) have some effects. Buspirone hydrochloride is added to SRI for use. Jotted that is barely utilized, psychosurgery (e.g., sub caudate tractotomy, foremost capsulotomy, or limbic leucotomy) coincides with the efferent pathway, frontal cortex, and basal ganglia with the extreme of 67% cases. By having all the desired proof and confirmation, therapeutic drug and cognitive-behavioral therapy variants take Obsessive Compulsive Disorder efficiently, some OCD patients sake from their merger. The data do not clearly explain the superiority of merger therapy over the most effective mental therapy. Initially, psychotherapy is the first step to reducing the unwanted price and danger of therapeutic drug19.
Anatomical Effect on Brain
Mutual differences from the normal with the white issue volumes have been detected in OCD patients and dependence from the starting with the few issue changes in OCD. Duran, Hoexter, Valente, Miguel, Busatto (2009) stated that an increase in white issue volume in the two ways appendages of the inner ear is affiliated with symptomatic OCD severity. A meta-analysis later concluded that OCD sufferers had a specified white issue promoting the corpus callosum. Similarly, a VBM ponder said white issue promotes OCD in cerebrum areas, such as the prerogative dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, center frontal gyrus, precuneus, and substandard parietal lobe20.
Observation from a spread of research sources has made it possible to think about the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in terms of brain anatomy. Neurological patients showing obsessions and compulsions generally have diseases involving the basal ganglia or the inferior frontal area. Neuropsychological alterations in patients with OCD include deficits within the executive functions of the frontal lobes. Neurosurgical procedures to treat OCD symptoms directly or indirectly disconnect frontal subcortical loops. Functional brain imaging reveals orbitofrontal and basal ganglia hyper-metabolism in patients with OCD at rest and through symptom provocation that normalizes with response to treatment 21–23.
Mental Disorder Leading to Suicide
It is reported in a study that maximum suicide victim has suffered from mental disorders 24,25 and it can be a strong predictor of suicidal behavior26, anxiety, personality, eating factors, and trauma-related disorders; mental disorders are the contributing factors of suicide27. Frustration, depression, shame and loneliness can also be the main factor for being a victim of suicide. Any obsession leads to depression, and depression leads to death. In this generation, mental health is equally important as physical health. Women with OCD are at more risk of suicide than men with OCD28.
OCD is associated with an inflated risk for suicidal tendency, and with depression and hopelessness, it correlates with suicidal behavior. Treatment of depression may be subjected to alter the risk for suicide, and hence patients with OCD must undergo tests for suicide risk associated depression29–31. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) was delegated as an anxiety issue, and like other minor mental issues, OCD is additionally a mental incapacity related to extreme trouble and suffering32. 15% of undiagnosed depressed patients may commit suicide, but the highest risk of suicide occurs in combinations of affective or psychotic disorders with abuse of alcohol or drugs33.
90% of people who commit suicide are considered to be suffered from a psychiatric disorder34, and about 6.7% of suicidal patients received a diagnosis of OCD as per a study made by Hollander and team33,35. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are related to suicidal outcomes independently of depressive symptoms or mood instability, and thus OCD is a threat to suicide as in own rights28,36.
There are several studies on OCD reported cases concerning years. For the best finding and understanding, a data-sheet prepared upon a literature survey is observed the percentage of cases reported in a research paper against previous reports. Although the graph is decreasing, if we consider the percentage 2.3%, it is enormous in the annual population, i.e., the of people is enormous against non-OCD people concerning time. The hike in 2020 is likely due to the COVID 19 pandemic, which took the world by surprise. This changed people's lifestyles and habits, causing fear and anxiety, which resulted in OCD.
There can be no exact value upon the number of reported cases against all the years as not all data gets published. Lack of information helps the data sheet to be incomplete. The value obtained is solely based on the available information gathered. The authors do not claim the numbers or figures are accurate as it is impossible to quantify as per the author's perspective. Different sets of data are reported for different countries yet not complete.
All or few of us have always wondered about our manifold tendency and views and have it in rituals through which we bought up like having a desire cent or having a good path for different ways but the one with extreme persistence with strand ford practice take a different shape leads to pressure on every day. Fanatical urgent turmoil, the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a savior, and neurological, a psychiatric disorder that grazes with the appeal for hard three percent of the people, the scheme of its illustration it's challenging to pigeon disseminated the officer in the media. Persistently like one, is suggested to the radically different approach.
OCD is explained by critical, continuously unwanted happenings, aspiration or simple image that makes other perfection or wishes. Addiction is hazardous and irritating leading to provocative action in daily basis activities. Feelings or emotion with a different state of mindset and physiological activities which are being taken out over and over again. The occurrence of OCD leads to a pragmatic input cycle where daily basis activities create the add-on pressure and load with a feeling of uncomfortableness. The person may feel restlessness and quickly suffer from any contagious substance resulting in getting ill, or might want to wash their hands to avoid such illness frequently. This habit of frequently washing hands or cleaning things can make him feel satisfied but only for some time, but still, if he gets ill makes him again unsatisfied and irritated.
OCD patients expose to two types of therapeutic drugs. For example, SSRIs are used in OCD patients. Haloperidol, Buspirone hydrochloride, Olanzapine, and Risperidone are some therapeutic drugs used in OCD. The most widely used treatment for OCD is CBT. CBT is a brief objective having mental therapy/ psychotherapy that is used to guide patients on how their thoughts and emotions make their work/ task more unsatisfied. A comprehensive study and the investigation provided in this article present that OCD may be a challenging mental issue and a significant threat to society hence more research is required.Acknowledgment
The authors are very thankful to Mr. Suprodip Mandal (Assistant Professor, Department Of Pharmacognosy, School Of Pharmacy, Techno India University, Salt Lake Sec-V, Kolkata - 700091, W.B.) for providing valuable information, the suggestion for this work and especially for his professional devotion, vigor and for his guidance.
For the publication of this article, permission has been obtained from Prof. Dr. Dan J. Stein (Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town), for giving the copyright of publishing Criteria For Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder included in this paper from one of his major publications. For the images used in this paper, permission has been obtained from Mr. Kevin Foss (California OCD and Anxiety Treatment Center) and Miss. Kathryn Soule (Soule Therapy).
Credit Authorship Contribution
Anupam Saha: Literature Review & Investigation, Software, Data Curator Visualization, Acquiring Permissions, Writing – Original Draft Preparation & corresponding author. Drishti Maheshwari: Reformatting, Software. Arijit Das: Manuscript Preparation. Souvik Biswas: Writing – Reviewing and Editing. Puja Saha: Manuscript Preparation.
Conflict of Interest
The authors do not claim any conflict of interest.
Source of Funding
The authors declare that there is no such funding related to this article.
1. Alvarenga PGD, Mastrorosa RS, Rosário MCD. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder In Children And Adolescents. Geneva Int Assoc Child Adolesc Psychiatry Allied Prof. 2012;(F3):1-17.
2. Rajashekharaiah M, Verma P. Phenomenology of obsessions and compulsions in Indian patients. Int J Contemp Med Res. 2016;3(7):2139-2143.
3. Jaisoorya T, Janardhan Reddy Y, Nair Bs, et al. Prevalence and correlates of obsessive-compulsive disorder and subthreshold obsessive-compulsive disorder among college students in Kerala, India. Indian J Psychiatry. 2017;59(1):56. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.204438
4. Moonga SS, Pinkhasov A, Singh D. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in a 19-Year-Old Female Adolescent With Turner Syndrome. J Clin Med Res. 2017;9(12):1026-1028. doi:10.14740/jocmr3195w
5. Heyman I. Obsessive-compulsive disorder. BMJ. 2006;333(7565):424-429. doi:10.1136/bmj.333.7565.424
6. Skoog G, Skoog I. A 40-Year Follow-up of Patients With Obsessive-compulsive Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999;56(2):121. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.56.2.121
7. Wittchen H-U, Jacobi F. Size and burden of mental disorders in Europe—a critical review and appraisal of 27 studies. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005;15(4):357-376. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2005.04.012
8. Heyman I, Fombonne E, Simmons H, Ford T, Meltzer H, Goodman R. Prevalence of obsessive–compulsive disorder in the British nationwide survey of child mental health. Br J Psychiatry. 2001;179(4):324-329. doi:10.1192/bjp.179.4.324
9. Stein DJ. Obsessive compulsive disorder. South Afr J Psychiatry. 2013;19(3):7. doi:10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v19i3.951
10. Foss K. California OCD and Anxiety Treatment Center. Scrupulosity Treatment. Published 2019. Accessed October 22, 2020. https://www.calocd.com/obsessive-compulsive-disorder/scrupulosity/
11. Soule K. Soule Therapy. How to tell if you have OCD... And what to do about it. Published October 8, 2018. Accessed October 22, 2020. https://www.souletherapy.com/post/how-to-tell-if-you-have-ocd-and-what-to-do-about-it
12. Fenske JN, Petersen K. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Diagnosis and Management. Am Fam Physician. 2015;92(10):896-903.
13. Stewart & Associates. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) - Counselling Topics. Published 2018. Accessed April 18, 2019. https://counsellingservicevancouver.com/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd/
14. Klepsch R. Is computer assessment of obsession and compulsion applicable in obsessive-compulsive disorder?: Preliminary results using the Hamburg obsession compulsion inventory-computer short form (HOCI-CS). Comput Hum Behav. 1990;6(2):133-139. doi:10.1016/0747-5632(90)90001-W
15. SAMHSA Advisory. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Substance Use Disorders. Fall. 2016;15(3):1-9.
16. Abramowitz JS. The Psychological Treatment of Obsessive—Compulsive Disorder. Can J Psychiatry. 2006;51(7):407-416. doi:10.1177/070674370605100702
17. Williams TI, Shafran R. Obsessive–compulsive disorder in young people. BJPsych Adv. 2015;21(3):196-205. doi:10.1192/apt.bp.113.011759
18. Neel JL, Stevens VM, Stewart JE. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Identification, neurobiology, and treatment. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2002;102(2):81-86.
19. Wheaton MG, DeSantis SM, Simpson HB. Network meta-analyses and treatment recommendations for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016;3(10):920. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30280-2
20. Gonçalves OF, Sousa S, Carvalho S. Alterations of gray and white matter morphology in obsessive compulsive disorder. Psicothema. 2017;(29.1):35-42. doi:10.7334/psicothema2016.86
21. Pujol J, Soriano-Mas C, Alonso P, et al. Mapping Structural Brain Alterations in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(7):720. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.61.7.720
22. McGuire PK. The brain in obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1995;59(5):457-459. doi:10.1136/jnnp.59.5.457
23. Insel TR. Toward a Neuroanatomy of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992;49(9):739. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1992.01820090067011
24. Robins E, Murphy GE, Wilkinson RH, Gassner S, Kayes J. Some Clinical Considerations in the Prevention of Suicide Based on a Study of 134 Successful Suicides. Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1959;49(7):888-899. doi:10.2105/AJPH.49.7.888
25. Too LS, Spittal MJ, Bugeja L, Reifels L, Butterworth P, Pirkis J. The association between mental disorders and suicide: A systematic review and meta-analysis of record linkage studies. J Affect Disord. 2019;259:302-313. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2019.08.054
26. Khasakhala L, Sorsdahl KR, Harder VS, Williams DR, Stein DJ, Ndetei DM. Lifetime mental disorders and suicidal behaviour in South Africa. Afr J Psychiatry. 2011;14(2):134-139. doi:10.4314/ajpsy.v14i2.5
27. Brådvik L. Suicide Risk and Mental Disorders. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(9):2028. doi:10.3390/ijerph15092028
28. Fernández de la Cruz L, Rydell M, Runeson B, et al. Suicide in obsessive–compulsive disorder: a population-based study of 36 788 Swedish patients. Mol Psychiatry. 2017;22(11):1626-1632. doi:10.1038/mp.2016.115
29. Kamath P, Reddy J. Suicidal Behavior in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68(11):1741-1750. doi:10.4088/JCP.v68n1114
30. Albert U, Pellegrini L, Maina G, Atti AR, Ronchi DDe, Rhimer Z. Suicide in obsessive-compulsive related disorders: prevalence rates and psychopathological risk factors. J Psychopathol. 2019;25:139-148.
31. Chaudhary RK, Kumar P, Mishra BP. Depression and risk of suicide in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: A hospital-based study. Ind Psychiatry J. 2016;25(2):166-170. doi:10.4103/ipj.ipj_63_16
32. Singh H, Kashyap S, Sivakanthan A. An overview of obsessive compulsive disorder and suicidal behaviour. Open J Psychiatry Allied Sci. 2018;9(2):92. doi:10.5958/2394-2061.2018.00029.0
33. Dhyani M, Trivedi JK, Nischal A, Sinha PK, Verma S. Suicidal behaviour of Indian patients with obsessive compulsive disorder. Indian J Psychiatry. 2013;55(2):161-166. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.111455
34. Cavanagh JTO, Carson AJ, Sharpe M, Lawrie SM. Psychological autopsy studies of suicide: a systematic review. Psychol Med. 2003;33(3):395-405. doi:10.1017/S0033291702006943
35. Hollander E. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: the hidden epidemic. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58 Suppl 12:3-6.
36. Bowen R, Rahman H, Dong LY, et al. Suicidality in People With Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms or Personality Traits. Front Psychiatry. 2019;9:747. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00747
37. Stumbo Zaimes J. A Case Study of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Some Diagnostic Considerations. Jefferson J Psychiatry. 1995;12(2). doi:10.29046/JJP.012.2.011
38. Subramaniam M, Soh P, Ong C, et al. Patient-reported outcomes in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2014;16(2):239-254.
39. Benatti B, Albert U, Maina G, et al. What Happened to Patients With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder During the COVID-19 Pandemic? A Multicentre Report From Tertiary Clinics in Northern Italy. Front Psychiatry. 2020;11:720. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00720
40. SingleCare, Sison G. OCD statistics 2021. The Checkup. Published January 21, 2021. Accessed March 7, 2021. https://www.singlecare.com/blog/news/ocd-statistics/
Received: 5 December 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2022 / Published:15 May 2022
Citation: Saha A, Maheshwari D, Das A, Biswas S, Saha P. Obsessive-Compulsive disorder is a severe threat to society. Revis Bionatura 2022;7(2) 11. http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/2022.07.02.11