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Effect of temperature and extract (Ascophyllum nodosum) On the vegetative characteristics of marjoram
Abeer Jalil Jabbar1,*, Intedhar Abbas Marhoon 2
1Al-Qadisiyah University/College of Science/Botany Department; 0000-0003-2302-0154   
2Al-Qadisiyah University/College of Science/Botany Department; 0000-0003-1156-9043
*Correspondence: [email protected].
Available from.


The effect of temperature and the addition of asco phylum node sum extract on some vegetative characteristics represented by plant height, number of branches, fresh and dry weight, and chlorophyll percentage, and it was found through the results that treating the plant with a concentration of 50% of algal extract is one of the best treatments in improving vegetative characteristics and The least productive treatments were for plants whose seeds were treated at low temperatures. The results were statistically analyzed according to the randomized complete block design and using the computer according to the SPSS system. The averages were compared using the ANOVA test at a probability level of 5%.  
Keywords: extract- marjoram- Ascophyllum nodosum- Effect of temperature
Temperature is one of the most critical environmental factors that regulate the process of germination and control, to a large extent, the growth of seedlings and plants 1. It has an apparent effect on the speed of seed germination2, where low temperatures contribute to a decrease in the rate of germination3, and high temperature contributes to achieving an optimal level of germination4.                                                                                                                                                
Scientific studies have proven the use of marine algae to aid in soil fertility5, as some researchers have found inventions related to extracts of seaweed that have proven effective in helping the plant absorb mineral elements from the soil6
Benefiting from light energy7, as well as marine algae, helps the plant synthesize amino acids inside it and increases the amount of starch8.                                                                                                                                  
Among the essential marine algae extracts is the Ascophyllum nodosum section, which improves plant vigor, increases root growth at a better level, enhances chlorophyll synthesis, promotes early flowering, reduces pod breakage, delays aging, and enhances tolerance to abiotic stress9.
Because of the importance of this plant economically and medically at the global level in general, and at the level of Iraq in particular, and because of the low production of this plant in central and southern Iraq, it is necessary to use the best methods or modern techniques that lead to an increase in yield and encourage growth in the cultivated area to raise productivity and resource The economic. One of the justifications for this study is the lack of academic studies that have focused on studying the physiology of the marjoram plant.                 
Temperature is a significant factor in controlling the seed germination rate, as temperature is essential in the adaptation and change of growth factors in the specialized medium (water in the soil) 10. However, it does not integrate into the plant itself, as there are three temperatures in The effect on germination, where the highest percentage of germination is in the optimum11. Germination occurs, "The maximum temperature is the thermal ceiling above which germination will not occur, as in this case the protoplasm of the seed will decompose and die" 12
A study was conducted by the researcher13 using the algal extract acrosin by spraying on citrus seedlings, which included four concentrations (zero, 25, 50, 70). The results showed that increasing the concentrations of spreading with acrosin led to an increase in most studied traits. Such as increasing the diameter of 3 the stem, the number of leaves, the number of growths, and the content of leaves from the elements magnesium, nitrogen and chlorophyll.                                                                                                  
One of the critical studies is the study (Daab, 2021)  that used "the aqueous extract of Sargassum vulgare at various concentrations (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%) and its application as a spray fertilizer on eggplant plants, as one spray every seven days and evaluated as a trait, fertilizer and stimulant.

This study was carried out in one of the greenhouses of a farm in the city of Diwaniyah during the winter season of 2021 AD. The seeds were sown in pots containing sandy soil mixture to study the effect of temperature difference and algal extract on the germination of marjoram daughters, the impact of temperature and algal section on the germination speed, and some vegetative characteristics. The seeds were treated with three different temperatures; the first group was treated with temperature. The second group was treated with a temperature of 50 degrees Celsius, and the third group was treated with a temperature of -5 degrees Celsius.                                                                            
A solution of Ascophyllum nodosum extract of Canadian origin contains nutrients such as macrosaccharides, carbohydrates 7-9%, the mineral iodine, and fats. It has over thirty natural compounds and elements (K2O 4% - P2O5 4% - N 4%). Natural growth stimulants and microelements (manganese - magnesium - calcium - zinc - boron - iron-sulfur - copper). In addition to vitamins, enzymes, amino acids (organic substance, at a rate of 18-21%), auxins, gibberelins, and cytokinins.                                              
A solution of algae extract Ascophyllum nodosum was prepared by taking 25 ml of the solution added to 975 ml of distilled water named in the first concentration (A1), and the second concentration was designed by taking 50 ml of the solution added to 950 ml of distilled water called in the second concentration ( A2). Then we prepared 45 anvils; each five anvils on one side were designated for average temperatures, they were filled with 20 seeds for each anvil, and five anvils were allocated for the first concentration (A1) and five other anvils for the second concentration (A2), and each of them was filled with 20 seeds for each anvil. The concentrations were added (the first and the second) to the anvils assigned to them. Five special anvils were prepared at a temperature of 50, where the seeds were exposed to a temperature of 50, then added to the anvils, and five other anvils were prepared at a temperature of -5, where the roots were exposed to a low temperature of -5. Five different anvils were assigned to a temperature of 50 and worked with concentration A1, five other anvils to a temperature of 50 and worked at a concentration of A2, five anvils to a temperature of -5 and worked at a concentration of A1 and five anvils to a temperature of -5 and worked at a concentration of A2. According to the height of the plant (cm), the vegetative and dry weight (grams) and the number of branches, the field chlorophyll was measured in the leaves of the plant with the Chlorophyll meter SPAD-502 manufactured by Konica Minota company.       
Should provide a concise and precise description of the experimental results, their interpretation, and possible practical conclusions:
It was noted from the results of Table 1 that all concentrations of the algae extract significantly affected the rate of growth of marjoram, as they differed substantially in the rate of plant height, as marjoram outperformed significantly in size after the second treatment, as it reached the average rate of height of a plant (35,63) at the concentration of 50% at a temperature of 50.                                                                                                                        
The increase in the composition of the added extract had a significant effect on increasing the height of the plant during the experiment season, as the effect increases with the increase in the concentration level of the algal extract.

Table 1. Effect of temperature and Ascophyllum nodosum extract and their interactions on the rate of plant height cm and marjoram.

It was noticed from the data of Table 2 that the marjoram plant significantly outperformed the secondary branches after the second treatment, as the average number of components in the plants treated with temperatures reached 50. For both concentrations, the highest percentage was 32.00 at the concentration of 50% of the algal extract. The lowest rate was in the plants treated at different temperatures, averaging 13,68. It becomes clear that the increase in the added extract's concentration significantly affects the number of secondary branches of the plant. The reason for this is attributed to the extract's role in improving the plant's nutritional status and achieving an agreement in the ratio of the vegetative group to the root system. It contains nutritious minerals, which may be due to stimulating the plant to produce cytokinins essential in encouraging lateral bud growth. This is due to the effect of cytokinin in its antagonism with the action of auxin accumulated in the terminal bud, which led to overcoming the apical dominance, growth and unfolding Lateral buds, and thus an increase in secondary branches.

Table 2. Effect of temperature and extract of Ascophyllum nodosum and their interactions on the average number of branches of marjoram plant.

The data in Table 3 showed the effect of the study's treatments on the dry weight of the vegetative group, as the difference in the variety has a significant impact on this trait, as it reached the dry weight of the plant in the plants that were treated with a concentration of 50% and the plants that were treated at a temperature of 50 and a concentration of( 50% of the algal extract) 25,27, 24,74 (g. Plant1-) respectively for marjoram.
The data of Table 4 showed the effect of the study treatments on the fresh weight of the vegetative group, as the difference of the variety had a significant impact on this trait, as the importance of the new plant in the plants treated with both concentrations reached the highest percentage (28,43 32,16) g. Plant-1, respectively, for marjoram.

Table 3. Effect of temperature and Ascophyllum nodosum extract and their interactions on the dry weight of marjoram plant.

It is noted from Table No. 5 that the marjoram plant has a significant effect on the chlorophyll pigment, as the marjoram plants were distinguished in this characteristic. It was seen in the field that the stems of the marjoram plant were colored purple, indicating that it is an anthocyanin pigment, which may have a role in increasing the concentration of the chlorophyll pigment. It is also evident from the table that increasing the spraying with the added extract's attention affects the chlorophyll pigment, as the effect increases with the increase in the spray concentration. The table shows that there is a significant difference between the treatments, as the plants sprayed with a concentration of 50 ml / L and 25 ml / L gave an average rate of chlorophyll dyes, which amounted to 9.8 8.6, which is a percentage close to the plants that were treated with a temperature of 50 and sprayed with a concentration of 50 ml / L and 25 ml / L, which It reached 9.7 to 8.8 in marjoram plants, and it was noted that there was no change in plants that were treated with average temperature and plants that were treated with temperature 5, and at temperature 5, which reached an average rate of 6.1, and there was a slight change in plants that were treated with temperature 5 with concentration A1 A2, which amounted to, The reason may be attributed to several factors, including a lack of certain mineral nutrients in the soil, such as a lack of iron, magnesium or zinc.

Table 4. Effect of temperature and Ascophyllum nodosum extract and their interactions on fresh weight of marjoram plant.

Table 5. Effect of temperature and algal extract on chlorophyll content of marjoram leaves.

As a result of the research, the results obtained are very close to being accurate, or we can call them authentic. These results are somewhat close to what was reached by the researcher who conducted a study of the physiological characteristics of the marjoram plant 21, as the researcher studied the effect of marine extracts on the formal attributes of vegetative growth (plant length and number of branches), as the plant height reached 43.8 cm. However, the level of gibberellins elongates cells and increases chlorophyll synthesis, thus increasing photosynthesis and the production of proteins essential in plant growth activity. The effectiveness of the extract in inhibiting the action of the enzyme (dehydrogenase) of the (Pentose phosphate cycle) and preserving the movement of the (Ribonuclease) enzyme, whose concentration increases when the leaf enters the aging stage 19. Perhaps the reason is due to the manufacture of porphyrins, which have a role in building the chlorophyll pigment molecule. The reason may be increased chloroplast division and chlorophyll pigments in the cell. These results are consistent with what was found. Also, the results are close to what was mentioned, 14, and with what he saw, 22.  
By studying the characteristics of plants such as plant height, number of leaves, number of flowers and number of fruits, the results showed that using aqueous extract of Sargassum vulgare at 40% concentration was sprayed on the leaves of eggplant. Eggplant plants gave the best results compared to fertilized plants using other concentrations.
Funding:No external funding was received for this research, or "This research was funded.
Data Availability Statement: This section provides details regarding where data supporting reported results can be found, including links to publicly archived datasets analyzed or generated during the study. Please refer to the suggested Data Availability Statements in the "Bionatura Research Data Policies" section at You might exclude this statement if the study did not report any data.
Conflicts of Interest: Declare conflicts of interest or state, "The authors declare no conflict of interest." Authors must identify and declare any personal circumstances or interests perceived as inappropriately influencing the representation or interpretation of reported research results. Any role of the funders in the study's design, in the collection, analysis or interpretation of data, in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results must be declared in this section. If there is no role, please state, "The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results".

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Received: 25 June 2023/ Accepted: 26 August 2023 / Published:15 September 2023
Citation:  Jabbar  A J ; Marhoon I A F.  Effect of temperature and extract (Ascophyllum nodosum) On the vegetative characteristics of marjoram. Revis Bionatura 2023;8 (3) 133
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