Bionatura
Bionatura
Go to content
2023.08.01.75
Files > Volume 8 > Vol 8 No 1 2023

Influence of sage leaf water extract on several economic characteristics of Chinese duck
Haider Hameed Blaw1, Hanan Habib Kaim2, and Jassim Kassem Al-Gharawi3
1    College of Agriculture, Al-Muthanna University.
2    College of Agriculture, Al-Muthanna University.
3  College of Agriculture, Al-Muthanna University.
*   Correspondence: [email protected]
        Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/2023.08.01.75
  
ABSTRACT

 
This study was conducted in a private field for duck breeding in Al-Muthanna Governorate from 12/14/2021 to 02/14/2022. One hundred twenty-one-day-old chicks were reared from Pekingese ducks, with an average weight of 42 g. Ducklings were prepared from local markets in Al-Diwaniah Governorate; chicks were raised at a semi-enclosed hall with dimensions of 25 × 10 m. Chicks were randomly distributed into four treatments; each treatment was three replicates (10 chicks/replicate) placed in 12 Pens, and the area of one pen was 1.5 × 1 m. The experiment treatments were as follows: the control treatment (T1), and other treatments, used the water extract of sage leaves at a concentration of 2.5, 5 and 7.5 ml per liter of drinking water for treatments T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The results indicate that all treatments of the sage leaf extract gave the best results for the economic parameters compared to the control treatment. The T4 treatment gave the best financial performance compared to the rest of the treatments of the aqueous extract of sage leaves.
 
Keywords: water extract of sage leaves, economic traits, Chinese duck

 
INTRODUCTION

 
Medicinal plants have been used for centuries because of their antibacterial as well as antioxidant properties1,2. Antispasmodic, expectorant and antifungal, as a result, these plants have shown many interests as an alternative feeding strategy to replace stimulants and antagonists3. Sagebrush was a medicinal plant of the oral family, originating in the Mediterranean countries4. As a result, it contains antioxidant properties, can activate oxidative enzymes and the oils in the sage plant, and can be used as a supplement to poultry feed to prevent or delay oxygen-free radicals in broilers5.
 
The sage plant was found for the first time in Mediterranean countries it was later spread to England, then France and Switzerland in the fourteenth century6. The sage plant is the most famous and oldest plant used in ancient and modern medicine; the plant was found in the Mediterranean basin. The plant is found mainly in mountainous areas and undeveloped lands, especially in the spaces between the mountain and the ground stone cliffs; in places, it is called locally (Al-Rumayyan), and in other places, it is called the bush7.
 
Gerrard mentioned in the seventeenth century that the sage plant strengthens weak memory and restores it quickly; the other active compounds of sagebrush are ocamine, cineole, limonene, and terpenes; most terpenes act as antioxidants, it can kill many types of bacteria8.
 
The current study aims to determine the effect of the aqueous extract of sage leaves on some economic traits of Chinese ducks.
 
 
MATERIALS AND METHODS

 
Experiment birds
 
This study was conducted in a private field for duck breeding in Al-Muthanna Governorate from 12/14/2021 to 02/14/2022. One hundred twenty-one-day-old chicks were reared from Pekingese ducks, with an average weight of 42 g; ducklings were prepared from local markets in Al-Diwaniah Governorate. The chicks were raised in a semi-enclosed hall with dimensions of 25 × 10 m. Chicks were randomly distributed into four treatments; each was three replicates (10 chicks/replicate). Placed at 12 Pens, the area of one pen is 1.5 × 1 m. The experiment treatments were as follows:
 
T1: control treatment (no addition).
 
T2: Water extract of sage leaves at a concentration of 2.5 ml/ L drink water.
 
T3: Water extract of sage leaves at a concentration of 5 ml/ L drink water.
 
T4: Water extract of sage leaves at a concentration of 7. ml/ L drink water.
 
Sage leaves were brought from local markets in Al-Muthanna Governorate.
 
Preparation of water extract of sage leaves:
 
The aqueous extract was prepared according to the Hernandes et al. (1994) method, which includes mixing a quantity of dry powder of sage leaves with an amount of distilled water in a ratio of 1 g: 2 ml of distilled water, put it in a water bath at 60°C for one hour, then leave the solution for 24 hours at room temperature, the resulting mixture was filtered by several layers of sterile medical gauze, then the liquid concentrate was ready to use by different levels in the study, the first concentration was 2.5 ml/liter of drinking water, second concentration 5 ml/liter drinking water, the third concentration was 7.5 ml/liter of drinking water.

 
Economic traits
 
The economic traits include Economic Profit (EP), Net Cash Income (NCI), Pay Back Period (PBP), Benefic Cost Ratio (BCR), Operation Ratio (OR) and Productivity Profitability (PP), according to Donald and Malone9; Al-Qaisi and Al-Ezzi10; Al-Ezzi11; Youssef12; Khader13; Al-Shammari14; Al-Ruwais15; Al-Mashhadani16;  Al-Ezzi17; Abu Zaid18; Hawari et al. 19.
 
 
RESULTS

 
Economic Profit (EP)
 
EP measurement account has been known in Table 1; the calculation of the total EP for all treatments has been recorded, totaling 199,650,000 ID, in (aqueous extract of sage leaves at a concentration of 7.5 ml/ L  water), compared to all treatments, reached 58,800,000 ID.
 
 


 
Table 1. Effect of sage leaves water extract on Total Cost (TC), Total Revenue (TR) and Economic Profit (EP) as a thousand dinars.
 

 
Net Cash Income (NCI)
 
Table 2 shows the effect of the aqueous extract of sage leaves on the measure of net cash income (NCI), all treatments gave 215,280,000 ID, T4 gave the best net cash income (63,450.000) ID, superior to other treatments.


 
Table 2. Effect of sage leaves water extract on Variable Costs (VC), Total Revenue (TR) and Net Cash Income (NCI) as a thousand dinars.
 
         

 
Pay Back Period (PBP)
 
Table 3 shows that PBP in all treatments was 1,428619 months, it was noticed through which to know the minimum period for recovering the capital in T4, it was noticed that the period of PBP  was 1.360816  months; it was noted from the table that all treatments of aqueous sage extract were superior to the control treatment, reached 1.543808 months.
 

 
 
Table 3. Effect of sage leaves water extract on Pay Back Period (PBP) as a month.
 
 
Benefit-Cost ratio (BCR)
 
Table 4 shows the study of the effect of the aqueous extract of sage in the drinking water of Chinese ducks on Benefic Cost Ratio (BCR), were reached 1.404024 dinars for all treatments; T4 was the best of BCR (1.470588 dinars), compared with T1 (1,296296 dinars).
 


 
Table 4. Effect of sage leaves water extract on Benefic Cost Ratio (BCR) as ID.
 
 
Operating Ratio(OR)
 
All the experimental parameters showed percentages less than 1 (Table 5), it was 0.713875 ID, T4 was the lowest OR (0.68 ID), which was outperformed compared with T1 and other treatments, which recorded 0.771428 ID.
 

 
Table 5. Effect of water extract of sage leaves on Operating Ratio (OR) as ID.
 
 
Productive profitability (PP)
 
Table 6 shows that all experiment treatments give the best PP (40.402476%); T4 was the superior compared toT1, as well as with the rest of the treatments of the aqueous extract of sage in the experiment with the productivity measures of profitability, as it recorded (47.058823%). The table also showed the superiority of all treatments of aqueous sage extract compared to the control treatment. PP profitability for the control transaction was about (29.629629%).
 
 

 
Table 6. Productive profitability of the research sample.
 
 
DISCUSSION
 
The values of net cash income for all water-extraction treatments of sage leaves in duck projects achieve a good productive return. It is possible to recover the trial capital in a shorter period than T1 using an aqueous extract of sage. Moreover, it was noted that all the treatments of the aqueous extract of sage in the duck drinking water were superior to the investment dinar return index. Finally, the Chinese duck projects may achieve the best economic efficiency and good21. Includes mixing a quantity of dry powder of sage leaves with an amount of distilled water in a ratio of 1 g: 2 ml of distilled water, put it in a water bath at 60°C for one hour, then leave the solution for 24 hours at room temperature, several layers of sterile medical gauze filtered the resulting mixture, then the liquid concentrate was ready to use by different levels in the study, the first concentration was 2.5 ml/liter of drinking water, second concentration 5 ml/liter drinking water, the third concentration was 7.5 ml/liter of drinking water
 
 
CONCLUSIONS
 
the water extract of sage leaves at a concentration of 2.5, 5 and 7.5 ml per liter of drinking water for treatments T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The results indicate that all treatments of the sage leaf extract gave the best results for the economic parameters compared to the control treatment. The T4 treatment gave the best financial performance compared to the rest of the treatments of the aqueous extract of sage leaves.
 
 
REFERENCES

 
1.     Glisic, S., J. Ivanovic, M. Ristic and D. Skala. Extraction of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) by Supercritical CO2: kinetic data, chemical composition and selectivity of diterpenes, Journal  of Supercritical fluids, 2010. 52: 62-70.
 
2.     Al Salman, N.T.Sh. and J.K.M. Al-Gharawi. Effect of Eucalyptus leaves water extract on some productive traits of broilers. Plant Archives Vol. 19, Supplement 1, 2019 pp. 920-923.
 
3.     Baricevic, D. and T. Bartol. The biological/pharmacological activity of the Salvia genus V Pharmacology. In: Kintzios SE, editor. Sage: the genus Salvia. Abingdon, Marston: Harwood Academic Publishers, 2000: 143-184.
 
4.     Dweck, A.C. The folklore and cosmetic use of various Salvia species. In Kintzios SE (Ed.), SAGE – The Genus Salvia, Harwood Academic Publishers Amsterdam. 2000.
 
5.     Ryzner, M., J. Takáčová, K. Čobanová, I. Plachá, K. Venglovská and Š. Faix. Effect of dietary Salvia officinalis essential oil and sodium selenite sup. 2013.
 
6.     Krutch, K., J. Wood and GP Herbal. Putnam’s Sons: New York, 222. 1965.
 
7.     Erats, O.N., Guler, T., Ciftici, M., Dalkilic, B., The effect of an essential oil mixed derived from oregano, Clove and anise on broiler performance. I. J. Poultry. Science., 2005. 4 (11) 879-884.
 
8.     Vichi, S., Zitterl, K., Jugl, M. and Franz , C. Determination of the presence of antioxidants deriving from  Sage and oregano extract added to animal fat by means of assessment of the radical scavenging capacity By photo chemiluminescence analysis. Nahrung, 2001. 45(2): 101-104.
 
9.     Donald, J. and W. Malone. Introduction to Agricultural Economics MacMillan Publishing co:39. 1981.
 
10.  Al-Qaisi, I.H. and J.M. Al-Ezzi. Economic feasibility and performance evaluation in field pistachio farms. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2010. 41 (4):85-74.
 
11.  Al-Ezzi, J.M.H. 1988. Farm management between theory and practice. Higher Education Press. Baghdad University.
 
12.  Youssef, A.M. Financial aspects of feasibility studies for investment projects. Commerce College. Cairo University. pg: 194. 2018.
 
13.  Abdulateef SM, Al-Bayar MA, Majid AA, Shawkat SS, Tatar A, Al-Ani MQ. Effect of exposure to different light colors on embryonic development and neurophysiological traits in the chick embryo. Veterinary World. 2021 May;14(5):1284..
 
14.  Al-Shammari, K.T. Financial and economic analysis in project evaluation and feasibility studies. first edition. Wael Publishing House, Amman. Jordan. AS: 279. 2010.
 
15.  Al-Ruwais, K. Agricultural Establishments Department, Agricultural Economics Department. College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University., Palace., p.: 213. 2009.
 
16.  Al-Mashhadani, A.M. Financial calendar for poultry projects (broiler production fields). Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2002. (4) 33:213-222.
 
17.  Al-Ezzi, J.M.H. Introduction to the evaluation of agricultural projects. Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. Baghdad University. 1989.
 
18.  Abu Zaid, FHM Analytical study of management systems and economics for fish farming projects in Fayoum Governorate, Master's thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University. 2017.
 
19.  Maysaloon W. Ibraheem, Abdulkhaliq A. Farhan, Sataa M. Salih, Th.T. Mohammed. Carcass characteristics of Awwasi lambs supplemented with Selenium and Vitamin D3. Iranian Journal of Ichthyology.2022, Vol 9, No. 1, pp: 355-359.   
 
20.  Suwaid, A. H. .; Rashid, M. A. .; Taha, M. M. . Genetic Analysis For Combining Ability And Estimation Of Some Genetic Parameters Of Yield And Its Components In Maize Using Half Diallel Cross. ). Journal of Life Science and Applied Research. 2020, 1, 60-64
 
21.  Hernandez, M.; R.Lopez; R.M. Abanas; V. Paris and A. Arias. Antimicrobial activity of Visnea mocanera Leaf extracts. Journal Ethnopharmacology. 1994. 41; 115-119.
 

 
Received:   January 15, 2023 / Accepted: February 25, 2023 / Published:15 March 2023
 
 
Citation: Blaw, H.H.; Kaim, H.H.; Al-Gharawi J.K. Effect of water extract of sage leaves on some economic traits of Chinese duck. Revis Bionatura 2023;8 (1) 75. http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/2023.08.01.75
Back to content