Response of buckthorn seedlings to foliar spraying with Kelamyth Fe and algae mixture on vegetative growth traits for cultivar AL-Tafahi.
Hajer Ismaeel Hashash El- Hamdani 1 , Hameed H. AL-Ali 2,*
1 College of Agriculture - University of Anbar. Iraq ; [email protected]
2 College of Agriculture - University of Anbar. Iraq
*Corresponding author: [email protected].Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/2022.07.04.29
This study was done in the lath house of the Horticulture and Gardening Dept. / College of Agriculture / University of Anbar during the growth season 2021 to study the effect of leaf spraying kelamyth chelated Fe in three levels (0, 50, 100 mg.L-1), with three levels Alga Mix of (0, 1, 1.5 g.L-1) and their interaction on vegetative growth traits and leaf content of minerals for buckthorn seedlings AL-Tafahi cultivar. The results showed that the interaction between chelated kelamitic Fe and F2S2 algae mixture at a concentration (100 mg.L-1 kelamitic Fe + 1.5 g.L-1 algae mixture) had given a significant increase in plant height, number of branches, leaf area, chlorophyll, carbohydrates, Fe and saponins. Successively with values (75. 057cm, 19.183 units.seedling-1, 23.833cm2, 41.537 mg. g-1 fresh weight, 3.800%, 194.000 ppm, 1.545 c.ml-1), compared to control treatments.
Keywords: Ziziphus mauritiana, chelated iron, seaweed extract, foliar spraying, Buckthorn.
Buckthorn, Ziziphus mauritiana Lam belongs to the genus Ziziphus and grapes family Rhamnaceae includes 58 geniuses and more than 900 species and contains trees, standing or climbing bushes and rarely grasses. The original home of buckthorn trees in South Europe regions, the Himalayan mountains, North China, Sudan, the Arab Peninsula, Iraq, South America and maybe North Africa 8. In Iraq, it's cultured in central and southern areas 1. Buckthorn fruits are featured with delicious taste and attractive colors. They're widely consumed for their high nutrient content as they contain saccharides, proteins, organic acids, amino acids, vitamins like vitamin C and carotene, suitable concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, Fe iron, lipids, fibers mineral salts and antioxidants 7,16, 17,4. Fertilizing is a necessary process that influences the growth of fruit trees in general, and to increase fertilizing efficiency, the plant is supported via leaf fertilizing (foliar application), especially Fe iron element that is considered a microelement that is important in plant growth and development as it plays a fundamental role in nucleic acid and plastid assimilation; so, it participates manufacturing chlorophyll though it isn't included in its structure. It also acts in building cytochromes important for photosynthesis and respiration processes. It also enters plant protein manufacture 21. Alga mixes are organic sources used for agricultural production and are fertilizer complements, not substitute24. They're used, therefore, in massive amounts and could reach 15 million tons in the agricultural field worldwide. These extracts induce plant growth, enhancing plant physical and chemical characteristics by containing macro and microelements, amino acids, organic acids and growth regulators like oxins and cytokinins, hormones, vitamins and polysaccharides. It functions by increasing plant resistance to salinity and draught15. Due to the lack of studies interested in the effect of foliar spraying of essential nutrients to buckthorn seedlings, in this study, spraying of Kelamyth Fe element and algal mixture on the shoot system of buckthorn seedlings cultivar AL-Tafahi was carried out to determine the effect of Kelamyth Fe and algal mixture on the growth of buckthorn seedlings cultivar AL-Tafahi.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was carried out on buckthorn seedlings AL-Tatahi cultivar, inoculated on the seedy origin of two years old, cultured in black plastic anvils of 10kg capacity (soil + bitmus) in (1:1) ratio. They were treated by spraying the shoot system with Kelamyth Fe in three levels (0, 50, 100 mg.L-1) and alga mix in three levels (0, 1, 1.5 mg.L-1) and the trees were sprayed to wet on the following dates: April 11, 2021, May 11, 2021, June 11, 2021, September 11, 2021, and October 11, 2021. A factorial experiment (3X3) was done according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD); so, the investigation included nine treatments in three replications, and every four seedlings were isolated as a single experiment unit, and the data were analyzed according to the statistical apparatus (Genstat). Mean values have been compared using the least significant difference (LSD), and subsequent studies and measurements were made.
Average Increase in Plant Height (cm)
Seedlings' height was measured using metric measuring tape starting from the stem-soil surface joint spot to the top apical meristem on the main seedling stem at the beginning and end of the experiment; the difference between the two readings is the increased value.
Average Increase in Vegetative Branch Number (branch.seedling-1)
The number of components per seedling was counted according to the average number of vegetative features for each replication, then the average number of vegetative branches was extracted for each treatment.
Leaf Area (cm2)
Measuring was done using a specified computer software where leaves were photo-scanned via a scanner with a measuring ruler to determine the space and measure the leaf area2.
Leaf Chlorophyll Content (mg. g-1 fresh weight)
Total chlorophyll was estimated depending on the model of 19.
Estimating Leaf Total (Structural) Carbohydrate Content (%).
Leaf total carbohydrate content was estimated based on what's mentioned by10.
Leaf Fe Content (ppm): leaf Fe content was estimated by the model of 11.
Estimating Leaf saponins Content (g.ml-1)
A 20g sample was taken, 80ml ethanol was added to the precipitant, and then re-extraction was made from 20 ml di-ether. This operation is repeated many times, and then 60ml butanol is added and filtered, and the precipitant is washed with (5% NaCl). Then, evaporate the extract and weigh the precipitant that represents saponins in sample 23
Plant height (cm)
The results in Table 1 showed the effect of foliar spraying of buckthorn seedlings, cultivar AL-Tafahi, with kelamyth Fe and seaweed mixture extract, separately or shared on the average increase in plant height. Thus, treatment F2 at 100 mg. L-1 has significantly dominated, giving the highest value of 72.52cm. Followed by treatment F1 at a concentration of 50 mg.L-1, which, in turn, has dramatically dominated over F0 and reached 69.82cm, while the lowest value was in the control treatment F0, which obtained 65.73cm. Besides, spraying alga mix extract has led to a significant increase in plant height; so, the treatment S2 at concentration 1.5 g.L-1 with the highest value of 72.47cm, followed by treatment S1 at concentration 1 g.L-1 significantly dominated on S0 and reached 69.87cm, while the most negligible value was at treatment S0 as 65.74cm. Regarding the study factors interaction, a significant effect in the trait was pronounced by achieving the treatment F2S2, the highest value of 75.05cm, compared to the control treatment F0S0, which made the most diminutive average plant height 60.11cm.
Table 1. Effect of Leaf Spraying Kelamyth Fe and Alga mix and their interactions in Average Increase of Plant Height (cm).
Table 2 results showed significant differences in the average increase of branch number; so, the treatment F2 has significantly dominated the other two treatments, giving the largest number of vegetative branches as 15.13.seedling-1, followed by treatment F1 that reached 11.16 branch.seedling-1, which in turn has significantly dominated on F0 that reached 9.42 branch.seedling-1. Turning to alga mix spray caused a significant increase in this trait, especially for treatment S2 that reached 13.50 branch.seedling-1, followed by treatment S1 that reached 11.69 branch.seedling-1 that did not differ significantly from S0; while the least value was at the control treatment S0 that reached 10.52 branch.seedling-1. While the interaction between both study factors has shown a significant effect in this trait via achieving the treatment F2S2, the highest value is 19.18 branch.seedling-1, compared to control treatment F0S0 made the least average vegetative branches number as 9.05 branches seedling-1.
Table 2. Effect of Leaf Spraying Kelamyth Fe and Alga mix and their interactions in Average Number of Vegetative Branches (branch.seedling-1)
Leaf Area (cm2).
Results of Table 3 showed that study treatments had significantly influenced leaf area. So, the treatment F2 made the largest leaf area at 22.62cm2, followed by treatment F1, which reached 22.05cm2, which didn't differ significantly from the first one, while the most negligible value was with the control treatment F0, reached 19.66cm2. Also, spraying the alga mix caused a significant increase in leaf area, especially at treatment S2, which came 22.47cm2, then the treatment S1, which reached 21.81 cm2, which didn't differ significantly from it, while the most negligible value was at the control treatment S0 that went 20.05cm2. Considering the interaction between both study factors, it showed its effect in this trait through the treatment F2S2, which made the highest value as 23.83cm2, while the control treatment S0F0 made a minor average leaf area at 17.10cm2.
Table 3. Effect of Leaf Spraying Kelamyth Fe and Alga mix and their interactions in Average Leaf Area (cm2)
The Leaf Chlorophyll Content (mg. g-1 fresh weight)
Results of Table 4 showed that leaf spraying kelamyth Fe on buckthorn seedlings significantly affects leaf chlorophyll content. So, the treatment F2 especially dominated the two other treatments with 41.09 mg. g-1 fresh weight significant increase that differed substantially from F1 reached 39.09 mg. g-1 new weight, which didn't vary significantly from F0, while the most negligible value was with the control treatment F0 that went 38.02 mg. g-1 fresh weight. Considering the alga mix spray, the table shows significant differences, especially at treatment S2, which reached 41.20 mg. g-1 new weight, followed by treatment S1, which didn't differ significantly from the latter, as it gained 39.83 mg. g-1 fresh importance. In comparison, the most negligible value was with treatment S0 which reached 37.16 mg. g-1 new weight. Considering the interaction between both study factors, it showed its significant effect in this trait through the treatment F2S2 that made the highest value as 41.53 mg. g-1 fresh weight. In comparison, the control treatment F0S0 has made the most negligible chlorophyll content as 34.59 mg. g-1 new weight.
Table 4. Effect of Leaf Spraying Kelamyth Fe and Alga mix and their interactions in Leaf Chlorophyll Con
Leaf Total (Structural) Carbohydrate Estimation (%).
Results of Table 5 show that leaf total carbohydrate content has been influenced significantly by study treatments. So, treatment F2 made the highest carbohydrate content at 2.42%, then treatment F1 reached 1.91%, while the lowest value was at the control treatment F0, which was 1.82%. Also, spraying with algal extract has caused a significant increase in leaf carbohydrate content, especially with treatment S2, which reached 2.45%, followed by treatment S1, which gained 1.89%, while the most negligible value was at control treatment S0 got 1.80%. Considering the interaction between the two study factors, it showed its significant effect on this trait through the treatment F2S2, which made the highest value at 3.80%. In contrast, the control treatment F0S0 made the minor carbohydrate content at 1.45%.
Table 5. Effect of Leaf Spraying Kelamyth Fe and Alga mix and their interactions in Leaf Total (Structural) Carbohydrate Content Estimation (%)
Leaf Fe iron Content (ppm)
Results of Table 6 showed that leaf spraying kelamyth Fe had increased leaf Fe iron percentage; so, the treatment F2 significantly dominated the other treatments to reach 190.66ppm. They were followed by treatment F1, which gained 187.88 ppm, which, in turn, significantly dominated treatment F0, which went 185.66 ppm as the small leaf Fe iron percentage. In return to alga mix spray, the table shows that treatment S2 also significantly increased leaf Fe iron percentage to 189.66ppm, followed by treatment S1, which reached 188.77 ppm, which didn't differ considerably from S2. In contrast, the control treatment S0 has made the minor Fe percentage at 185.77ppm. In return, both study factors' interaction influenced this trait by making the treatment F2S2 the highest leaf Fe percentage as 194.00. In contrast, the control treatment F0S0 has reached the most negligible value at 184.00%.
Table 6. Effect of Leaf Spraying Kelamyth Fe and Alga mix and their interactions in Leaf Fe Content (ppm)
Leaf Saponins Content (g.ml-1)
Results of Table 7 confirmed that study treatments had significantly influenced leaf saponins content. So, the treatment F2 has made the highest saponins content at 1.21 g.ml-1, dominated substantially the two other medicines, followed by treatment F1, which reached 1.02 g.ml-1, did not significantly differ from F0, while the most negligible value was at the control treatment F0 that was 0.96 g.ml-1. Likewise, spraying the algae mixture led to a significant increase in leaf saponin content, especially with treatment S2, which reached 1.18 g.ml-1, with a behavior similar to that of Kelamyth Fe in its effect on this trait, followed by treatment S1, which gained 1.02 g.ml-1, which did not differ significantly from S0, while the lowest value was in the control treatment S0, which reached 0.99 g.ml-1. When we return to both study factors' interaction, it showed its significant effect on this trait by achieving the treatment F2S2 the highest value as 1.54 g.ml-1, while the control treatment F0S0 has mad the most miniature leaf saponins content as 0.92 g.ml-1
Table 7. Effect of Leaf Spraying Kelamyth Fe and Alga mix and their interactions in Leaf Saponins Content (g.ml-1)
The reason for the height of the plant is due to the role of the element iron, which enters into the representation of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA necessary for cell division. It also joins as a catalyst in forming chlorophyll and enzymes that promote the construction of materials needed for the plant. Therefore, it increases the height of the plant 14. The reason can be attributed to its role in the structure of chlorophyll. However, it did not enter in its formation, as it was found that (70%) of the total iron is present in chloroplasts, in addition to its entry in the form of cytochromes important in the process of photosynthesis. And respiration 5 explains the increase in the number of branches and leaf area and is consistent with what was found in 9 in Hibiscus sabdariffa, were spraying with chelated iron increased the number of components. Therefore, it agrees with 20 strawberry seedlings, cultivar Winter dawn, were spraying with chelated iron rose leaf area. Glutamate to Y-aminolevulinic acid to Y-aminolevulinic acid and the process of converting the complex Mg-protoporphyrin 1x methyl ester to Proto-chlorophyllide are two essential steps in building chlorophyll 18that caused the increase in carbohydrate content in Buckthorn leaves when sprayed with chelated iron To the role of iron in activating the process of respiration and photosynthesis, as it participates in the formation of protein and the manufacture of chlorophyll, which has an essential role in the process of building carbon and increasing the stomata delivery of carbon dioxide, which leads to an increase in the accumulation of processed nutrients in plants that leads to the collection of carbohydrates in Leaves12 increase in the percentage of iron in the leaves when spraying with chelated iron is due to the increase in the leaves' absorption of this element to increase its share in the spray solution and may be due in the rise in the vegetative growth of seedlings as it contributes to the chlorophyll synthesis processes 6. The effect of seaweed extract spraying on most vegetative growth characteristics is that it contains many nutrients that play an essential role in increasing the plant's metabolic activities. Potassium activates enzymes to synthesize amino acids and proteins, as well as helps to synthesize the necessary chlorophyll in the process of photosynthesis and the formation of proteins, sugars and ATP energy compounds, leading to an increase in plant growth and size and, therefore, an increase in vegetative growth 13. Perhaps the increase in chlorophyll content in leaves treated with seaweed extract is due to the effect of seaweed extract in inhibiting the decomposition of chlorophyll by Betaines compounds. Glycine betaines, which led to the continuation of photosynthesis as mentioned, 3and this may be due to the marine algae extract containing organic acids that can increase the permeability of cell membranes and facilitate the transport of nutrients that have an influential role in activating metabolism for proteins and enzymes that accompany carbohydrate metabolism 22.
The F2 concentration was superior in most indicators of vegetative growth and the content of mineral elements in leaves. The effect of foliar spraying with marine algae extract, especially at a concentration of 1.5 S2 g/L-1, on all indicators of vegetative growth and the content of mineral elements in the leaves.
1. Agha, J.T and David A. D. 1991. Production of evergreen fruits. The second part . Mosul University - Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research - Iraq.
2. Abdullatif, S. A. and Jassim S. N. 2010. Measuring the paper area of rosa SP rose plant using different slope equations. Karbala University Scientific Journal 8. (3 ) :114-119.
3. Blunden, G. ; T. Jenkins and Y. Liu . Enhanced leaf chlorophyll levels in plants treated with seaweed extract. Journal of Applied Phycology , 1997 . 8: 535 – 543.
4. Bose,T.K..Fruits of India tropical and subtropical . Nayarkash calkutta six India , 1985. pp. 591.
5. Broadley , M , P. Brown, I. Cakmak , Z . Rengel , F . Zhao . Function of nutrients : Micronutrients . In Marschner p ( Ed) Marschner,s Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants . 3rded . Academic Press , San Diego , CA, USA . 2012. . PP . 191- 248. Stain . Dev . 35: 369-400.
6. Guller, L. and M. Kruka . Ultra-structure of vine (vitis vinifera L.) coloroplasts under Mg. And Fe deficiencies photosynthetica. 1993. .29 (3): 417 – 420.
7. Guo, S., Duan, J. A., Qian, D., Tang, Y., Qian, Y., Wu, D., and Shang, E. Rapid determination of amino acids in fruits of Ziziphus jujuba by hydrophilic interaction ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 2013. 61(11), 2709-2719.
8. Hamed, A. G. and Qureshi M . 2017. Extraction and separation of some secondary metabolic compounds of the Zizyphus lotus L wild seder plant. . Master's thesis, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences - Martyr Hamah University for Khader al-Wadi - Algerian People's Democratic Republic.
9. Ibrahim, O.H.M. Chelated iron and magnesium boost Productivity and anthocyanins content in calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa l . Assiut J. Agric. Sci., 2019 .50 (2) :(93-108). Website: www.aun.edu.eg/faculty_agriculture/journals_issues_form.php E-mail: [email protected]
10. Joslyn, M. A. 1970. Methods in Food Analysis, Physical, Chemical, and Instrumental Methods of Analysis. 2nd ed. Academic Press, New York and London.
11. Kalra, Y. P. 1998. Reference Method for Plant Analysis. Soil and Plant Analysis. Boca Raton Boston London. Washington DC New York.
12. Kemira, GH 2004. Application of micro nutrients: pros and cons Of the different application strategies .IFA International Symposi-Um on micronutrients .internet / International fertilizer industry Association .23-25February .New Delhi ,India.
13. Martin , J . 2011. Impact of marine extracts applications on cv . Syrah grape ( Vitis Vinifera L. ) yield components , harvest juice quality parameters, and nutrient uptake . A Thesis , the Faculty of California Polytechnic State University , San Luis Obispo .
14. Mengel, K., and Kirkby, E. A. 2001. Principles of plant nutrition., 5th edn (Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, The Netherlands).
15. Morales – Payan ,J .P. and J . Norrie . 2010. Accelerating the growth of Avocado (Persea Americana) in nursery using a soil applied, commercial extract of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. International Seaweed Symposium pp.189.
16. Najafabadi, N. S., Sahari, M. A., Barzegar, M., and Esfahani, Z. H. Effect of gamma irradiation on some physicochemical properties and bioactive compounds of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba var vulgaris) fruit. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 2017. 130, 62-68.
17. Nazni, P., and Mythili, A. 2013. Formulation and optimization of vitamin-C rich beverage prepared from ziziphus jujube. International Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences, 2(2), 54.
18. Porra, R. and H. Meisch . The biosynthesis of chlorophyll. Treads Biochem. Science, 9: 99-104 (C.F.J. Plant Nutr. 1984. 9(12): 1585-1600).
19. Ranganna, S. Plant pigments. Manual of Analysis of Fruit and Vegetable Products. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing company limited. New Delhi, . 1977. 72-93.
20. Saha, T., Ghosh, B., Debnath, S.,and Bhattacharjee, A. Effect of micronutrients on growth, yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria× ananassa Duch.) cv. Winter Dawn in the Gangetic Alluvial Region of West Bengal. Journal of Crop and Weed, 2019. 15(1), 92-95.
21. Taiz, L., and Zeiger, E. 1998. Plant physiology 2nd ed Sinauer Associates. Inc., Publ. Saunderland, Massachusetts. 792p.
22. Teixeira, W. F., Fagan, E. B., Soares, L. H., Umburanas, R. C., Reichardt, K., and Neto, D. D. Foliar and seed application of amino acids affects the antioxidant metabolism of the soybean crop. Frontiers in plant science, 2017. 8, 327.
23. Van-Burden,T.P.Robinson W.C. 1981. Formation of complexes between protein & tannin acids.Agtic. Food Chem.1:77.
24. Verkleij, F. N. Seaweed extracts in agriculture and horticulture: a review. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, 1992. 8(4), 309-324.
Received: August 25, 2022 / Accepted: October 12, 2022 / Published:15 November 2022
Citation: El- Hamdani, H AL-Ali H. Response of buckthorn seedlings to foliar spraying with Kelamyth Fe and algae mixture on vegetative growth traits for cultivar AL-Tafahi. Revis Bionatura 2022;7(4) 29. http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/2022.07.04.29