Classification of Some Species Algae in the Tigris River within the City of Baghdad- Iraq
1Directorate of Environment and Waters Researches/ Ministry of Science and Technology
*Author corresponding firstname.lastname@example.org
Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/2022.07.03.53
Algae were diagnosed in three stations at three seasons for 2018-2019 in the Tigris River. It was diagnosed with 158 species for five main divisions (Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta, Pyrrhophyta and Euglenophyta). Chlorophyta division represented 14 genera and 33 species with a percent of 20.88%, Bacillariophyta division was 22 genus and 84 species with a percent of 53.16%, division Cyanophyta was14 genus and 41 species with 25.94%, pyrrhophyta division was four genus and four species with 2.53%, and the Euglenophyta division was one species with 0.63%. The study also showed the essential common species for quantitative and qualitative studies within the study stations: Chlorella vulgaris, Oscillatoria lemmetica, Amphiprora alata, Nitzschia clausii and Navicula enigmatica. In conclusion, the study showed an abundance of algae densities within the study sites.
Keywords: Classification, Algae, Tigris River.
The aquatic environment is essential, covering nearly 71% of the total area of the earth's surface, containing many living organisms such as bacteria, plants, phytoplankton and zooplankton., Freshwater represents 1% of the water area compared to salt water, as it represents a percentage of the total water and is unsuitable for drinking 1.
Inland water is limited in size and closed, strongly affected by the climate in the land around it. Due to its small size and lack of depth, the regular changes in the physical properties, chemical and distribution of organisms depends on these changes do not only get within the range is too narrow compared with what is happening in the sea, so the diversity of life in land waters far below as it owns inland water bodies a limited number of neighborhoods compared to marine water and because of the environmental changes in nature and that do not allow to remain only for those species that can adapt to these changes 2.
Algae generally live on the surface of the water and at different depths and are found in all water sources that are exposed to sunlight, phytoplankton plays an essential role in the food chain in the water as the photosynthesis process which produces food and carbohydrates that are used in metabolic processes or stored often in the form of starch or oils, so generally, phytoplankton and algae are primary products in many water systems. Its main sources of feeding fish, larvae, and other aquatic organisms, such as crustaceans and mollusks, are considered the most important food sources for humans 3.
In addition, algae are affected by many environmental conditions that help them to grow and reproduce, like temperature, pH, and other factors; therefore, the study of classification and diagnosis of algae is important for understanding species as inductor pollution or indicated to a high value of some elements2.
The study aims to diagnose phytoplankton in the Tigris River and the city of Baghdad in the selected study stations and identify the species that may be considered as an indicator to the quality of water by placing the numbers and types of algae present in the water.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study area
Conducted the current study on the Tigris River, selected three sites because of the pollutants that supply the Tigris River in those locations, as shown in Figure 1 ( S1, north of Baghdad: near Al-Wathbaa station, is an industrial area and S2, south of Baghdad: near Jadiriyah brigade and S3, near the Al-Douraa refinery, is agricultural areas).
Samples were collected during autumn 2018, winter and summer of 2019 by using glass bottles sterile with liter in size, taken from a depth of approximately 30 cm and three sites for each study station; samples were directed to the laboratory to conduct chemical measurements and by three replicates for each model and to complete the quantitative study proved by some drops of a local solution, then left to tow week in a sterile cylinder.
Figure 1. study stations on the Tigris
The qualitative study
Non-Diatoms were diagnosed through preparing temporary slides and examined using a microscope with a strength of 400X depending on the many sources in the diagnosis 4, 3, 5. Diatoms were detected after treatment dissolved organic matter to clarify its structure and strongly 1000X6.
Approved sources for the classification and wrote a list of algae
It has been relying on local and international authorities in the diagnosis and arranged a list of algae depending on Division, orders, classes, families and species, according to 7,8 in the arrangement of Diatoms depend on 9, 10,11,12 in the collection of green algae according to 8,12 in the order and structure of blue-green algae. At the same time, it relied on references 13 and 14 in the order and performance of Pyrrhophyta and Euglenophyta.
RESULTS AND DISSOCIATION
Phytoplankton is classified in the Tigris River within the city of Baghdad, in three selected sites in the three stations, as shown in Table (1).
Table 1. Classification of the Algae in Three Stations
Table (2) show the density of algal species amounting to158 species found within the five central Division in the world of algae, biomass in all stations of all species of algal 35.054 cell/l, including Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta, Pyrrhophyta and Euglenophyta with density amounting 14.907, 11.949, 7106,1040 and 53 cells / l, respectively. The density of algal species is different in all stations and seasons values studied, where the highest recorded density is Chlorella Vulgaris 1903 cells / l. Less density of 430 cells /l, at the St1 in the winter and summer, respectively, either the highest density of 423 cells / l in St1 to Oscillatoria lemnetica and less density was 42 cells / l in the St2 through the autumn season.
Table 2. Biomass and No. of total algae cell/l
The study showed the presence of 9 classes of 19 orders and included 36 families containing 55 species, which comprises 158 species. The majority of algae diagnosed as belonging to the division Bacillariophyta are 22, and the no. of species 84 in percent is 53.16%. In contrast, the Division of Chlorophyta contains a species of 33 and belongs to the 14 species with a percent of 20.88%, the blue,-green algae includes 41 species which belong to 14 species with a percent of 25.94%. Study agreement with 17 in the arrangement of dominant Division of algae, Division of Pyrrophyta includes four genera which contain four species with percent 2.53%. Finally, Euglenophyta has one Division that belongs to 1 genus with a percent of 0.63%, as shown in (Table3).
Table 3. A general classification for species within the classes
Results showed that the dominant bacillarophate on other algae appeared during the study seasons due to its ability to tolerate various environmental conditions 15 or maybe due to the silica 16. As well as considering primary products in the ecosystem and food enrichment or cause intolerable acidity and salinity 18, also noted the dominance of pinnules Bacillariophyceae on central Bacillariophyceae, which is regarded as an organic pollution indicator as Nitzschia sp. on the all-season and stations. The study was completed with 19. On the other hand, Cyclotella sp. appears in the autumn in all stations, a central Bacillariophyceae indicator of sewage contamination 20. The blue-green algae also seem to have a high diversity in the water, including O. Lemnetica, which was available in all seasons and stations and, despite the few prepared and features, tolerate high pollution levels 21.
Figure 2. Dominant algae species
The study also showed the essential common species for quantitative and qualitative studies within the study stations, namely Chlorella vulgaris, Oscillatoria lemmetica, Amphiprora alata, Nitzschia clausii and Navicula enigmatica. It showed an abundance of algae densities within the study sites.
There are no conflicts
1. Ali, S., H., Daham, and Abdul, Jalil L. Aware of the aquatic environment. National Library Directorate of Printing and Publishing, University of Mosul. .1986.
2. Al-Hussieny, A. A. Algae in Iraq and their environment classification. Asaddarat House Cultural Affairs Amh- Ministry of Culture. P 440.2017.
3. Prescott GW. How to know the freshwater algae. How to know the freshwater algae. 1964.
4. Felisberto, S.A. and Rodrigues, L. Periphytic Desmids in Corumba', Goiás, Brazil: Genu Cosmarium Corda. Braz. J. Biol., 64 (1):1-2.2004
5. Edward, G. Bellinger and David, C. Sigee . Freshwater Algae Identification and Use as Bioindicators. Printed in Great Britain by Antony Rowe, Ltd. Chippenham, Wilts.pp 285.2010.
6. Chia, A.M. S. P. Bako., S. Alonge. and A. K. Adamu. Records of Diatoms and Physicochemical Parameters of Seasonal Ponds in Zaria- Northern Nigeria. West African Journal of Applied Ecology,. 18.2011.
7. Mi-Ae Song, Ok-Jin Kim.and Ok-Min Lee. The distribution and Ecological factors of aerial algae inhabiting stoneworks in Korea. J. Algae, 27(4): 283-294.2012.
8. Lilian, C. F. and Simoni, M. L.Checklist of green Algae (Chlorophyta) for the state of Mato Grosso, Central Brazil. Journal of species lists and distribution. Check List 9(6): 1471–1483.2013.
9. Minh, N.P., Simon, M. and Hazelina, H .T.Checklist of the algae of Singapore, 2nd edition. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research National University of Singapore.2011.
10. Al-Mahdawi, M. M. and Huda, A. A. Fifteen new records for fresh water algae of Iraq. Journal of International Scientific Publications: Ecology and Safety. 8, ISSN 1314-7234.2013.
11. Jan, K., Karolina, F., Tomáš, H. and Markéta, B. Microvegetation on the top of Mt. Roraima, Venezuela. J. Fottea 11(1): 171–186. 2011.
12. Didem, K.; Kran, D. and Nurhayat, D. A Taxonomic Study on the Phytoplankton of Lake Uluabat (Bursa). J.Research Article, 28: 473-485.2004.
13. American Public Health Association (APHA). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater .17th Ed .American Public Health Association, 18 street, New York.1989.
14. Al-Hussieny, A.A, Hussain, S.F, Kamel, R.F. and Saja, N. M. Algae Spices list of Tigris River within Baghdad city – Iraq. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies.15 (3): 531-546.2016.
15. Leghari, M.K., Shah, M. and Leghari, M.Y. Ecological study of algal flora of Jhelum river – Azad Kashmir . Journal of Drainage and water management, 6(2).2002.
16. Moonsyn, P., Peerapornpisal, Y., Swasdipan, N. and Pimmongkol , A. Benthic diatom diversity and water quality in the Mekong River in the Vicinity of Ubon Ratchathani Province. Journal of Microscopy society of Thailand, 23 (1): 47-51. 2009.
17. Round FE. The taxonomy of the Chlorophyta. II. British Phycological Journal. 1971 Oct 31; 6(2):235-64.
18. Polge, N., Sukatar, A., Soylu, E.N. and Gönülol, A. Epipelic Algal Flora in the Küçükçekmece Lagoon. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 10: 39-45. 2010.
19. Kazim, Nahi Faleh,. The diversity of algae and its relationship with some physical and chemical characteristics of the Hilla River, Master Thesis, Faculty of Science, University of Babylon.2005.
20. Mason, C. F. Biology of fresh water pollution.3 rd.Ed. Longman, British.78pp.1991.
21. Onyema IC, and Nwankwo DI. Chlorophyll-a dynamics and environmental factors in tropical estuarine Lagoon. Researcher. 1:46-60.2009.
Received: 11 June 2022 / Accepted: 14 July 2022 / Published:15 August 2022
Citation: Mohammed Mahdi Z, Aidan Al-Hussieny A. Classification of Some Species Algae in the Tigris River within the City of Baghdad- Iraq. Revis Bionatura 2022;7(3) 53. http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/2022.07.03.53