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Hasan Fadel Radi 1,  Husam Jasim Hussien Banana 2
1 Directorate of  Babylon agriculture-Ministry of Agriculture      
2 College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences-  University of Baghdad
Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: This study was conducted in order to know the effect of adding aqueous extract of Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Martius) to the semen extender of Awassi rams on semen Parameters after storage at cooling. This study was carried out in the animal field and laboratories of the Department of Animal Production-College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences-University of Baghdad from November 15, 2021 to April 25, 2022. Three local Awassi rams were used in this experiment, their ages were between 2.5 - 3 years and weighed Between 50-58 kg, semen was collected from them using an artificial vagina to obtain one ejaculate from each ram per week, the sampls were divided using Tris extender As follow:1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 mg Acai extract / 1 ml Tris in addition to the control group. The necessary tests were performed to evaluate the semen in terms of es-timating individual motility, the percentage of sperms viability, as well as the percentage of abnormal sperms, the integrity of the plasma membrane and the acrosome integrity. There was a Significant increasing (P<0.05) in the percentage of sperms viability of the T3 treatment periods (48 and 72 hours) compared to the control group C for the same two periods, also there were  no significant differences between all groups in the two periods (0 and 24 hours) of preservation in comparison with the control treatment C. Moreover T3 recorded a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the percentage of sperm abnormality after 24 hours of preservation when compared with the control group C in the same period, while there were no significant differences between groups T1, T2, T3 and T4 compared with the control group C in the periods 0, 48 and 72 hours.
Keywords: ram semen, acai fruit, plant extracts

   
Hayfaa Mohammed Salih Al-Taie1 , Ammar Qahtan Shanoon2
1 Dept. of Animal Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Kirkuk
Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The experiment was conducted to study the effect of pollen of adding local and Egyptian palm pol-len to broiler feed on some parameters of blood biochemistry and intestinal flora, and by using 400 broiler chicks Ross308 one-day age and divided into 8 treatments and 5 replicates, each treatment includes 50 birds, 10 birds per replicate. Palm pollen was added to the diet from the first day till the end of the experiment (42 day). The first treatment was a control without any addition. The second and third treatments included the addi-tion of 1 and 2 kg / ton from local palm pollen, while the fourth and fifth treatments added 1 and 2 kg / ton from Egyptian palm pollen As for the sixth treatment, the addition of 1 kg of local palm pollen / ton +1 kg of Egyptian palm pollen / ton as well as the seventh treatment 1 kg of local palm pollen / ton + 2 kg of Egyptian palm pollen / ton and the eighth was the addition of 2 kg of local palm pollen / ton+1 kg Egyptian palm pol-len/ton. The results of the experiment showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the concentra-tion of protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, Cholesterol and LDL when adding palm pollen compared to the control treatment, and a significant increase in HDL in the treatments added with palm pollen, and the activity of liver enzymes ALT and AST, There was an improvement in the antioxidant status, as there was a decrease in the levels of malondialdehyde and an increase in the levels of GSH glutathione in the palm pollen supple-mentation treatments compared to the control treatment. Also, a significant decrease recorded in addition treat-ments in the numbers of E. coli bacteria and a significant increase in addition treatments in the numbers of Lactobacilli compared with the control treatment.
Keyword: broilers, palm pollen, antioxidants, antimicrobials

 
 
Izdihar Abbas Alwan1, Ahmed Kareem Kadhim AL-Wasmee2, Mohanad. O. Al-Jubouri3
1Department of genetic engineering, College of Biotechnology, University of AL_Qasim Green, Iraq
2Department of internal and preventive medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Al-Qasim Green Univer-sity, Iraq
3Department of pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Al-Qasim Green University, Iraq
Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: This study was conceded out to examining the occurrence of possible pathogenically species of bacterium in C. zillii  in Al-Diwaniya River. A overall of 100 fishes of C. zillii , during the period (April) 2021 till (March) 2022. Bacteria were recognized using the VITEK 2 system and designated biochemical tests. species were recognized with a different percentage in C. zillii , P. luteola, S. thalpophilum, S. lentus, A. so-bria. Antimicrobial susceptibility test of 16 antimicroials, which are (Ampicillin, piperacillin/ tazobactan, ami-kacin, cefazolin, Ceftriaxon, Ertapenem, Gentamycin, cefoxitine, ciprofloxacine, imipeneme, ceftazidim, li-vofloxacine, cifepime, tigecyclin, Nitrofuran, and trimethoprime- sulphamethoxazole) were recognised and studied for antimicrobial susceptibility test using the Vitek II system. The best antimicrobial susceptibility were Ciprofloxacine (<= 0. 11μg/ ml), Imipenem (<= 0. 25, μg/ ml), when tested in vitro on P. luteola, S. thalpoph-ilum, S. lentus, A. sobria, and Livofloxacin (<= 0. 22, <= 0. 20, <= 0. 25, <= 0. 21, μg/ ml), when examined in vitro on P. luteola, S. thalpophilum, S. lentus, A. sobria while, it was resistant to Cefazolin ( > = 70 , >= 70, > = 76, >= 68, μg/ ml), when examined in vitro on P. luteola, S. thalpophilum, S. lentus, A. sobria.
Keywords: Coptodon. zillii bacteria Antibiotics, Iraq.

 
Samah R. H. AL – Badri1, and NIDHAL M.S. AL-Janabi 2
1 University of Baghdad , College of Agricultural Engineering , Department of Food Sciences and Biotechnology
2 University of Baghdad , College of Agricultural Engineering , Department of Food Sciences and Biotechnology
Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: we aimed to apply vaeions solvents and extraction techniques for rice bran amber and jasmine Variety (certified and commercial) to get tricin by using distilled water at boiling point with 70 Cο , distilled water with a 70Cο, ethanol 80% and methanol 80%  by maceration extrac-tion with distilled water with 70 Coshowed superiority over the other extraction solvents by de-pending on the concentration of phenols and total flavonoids as total phenols reached of the amber variety (certified and commercial) were 79.82 ±2.95, 79.17 ±2.57 mg/g respectively and flavonoids 0.71 ±0.08 and 0.79 ±0.08 mg/g respectively, was adopted as the extraction solvent in the assistant extraction  methods ,soxhlet ,ultrasounication and microwave, rice bran of the commercial jasmine excelled by possessing the highest of total phenols 78.75 ±2.95, 53.19 ±2.06 and 50.91 ±2.47 mg/g respectively and flavonoids 0.87 ±0.20, 0.79 ±0.14 and 0.63 ±0.15 mg/g respectively, therefore rice bran adopted the commercial jasmine for extraction by thiolysis, Base, acid, and the thiolysis was the best with the total of phenols 109.82 ±6.41 mg/g and total flavonoids  1.112 ±0.26 mg/g ,the results of separation were shown on a silica gel 60 column identification was proved by HPLC technology the presence of tricin at highest concen-tration in the thiolysis extract followed by the base hydrolysis reached 23.487 ±1.07and 12.257 ±0.86 µg/ml respectiveluy and was not found in the acid hydrolysis extract tricin gave an anti-inflammatory activity 92.42 ±4.08 % at a concentration 500 mg/ml.
Keywords: Rice bran, Tricin, Extraction ,Solvent, Flavonoids, Anti- inflammatory

 
 
Sarbaz Faki Jaafar Omar1  , Jassim Mohammad Aziz Al-Jubouri2
1 Kirkuk University/College of Agriculture                  
2 Tikrit University/College of Agriculture
* Corresponding author: [email protected] ,  [email protected]
 
Abstract: An experiment was carried out in the plastic house at the Agricultural Research Station in Bani Maqam, affiliated to Jam Jamal Agriculture Directorate in Sulaymaniyah Governorate, in a randomized com-plete block design, with three replications, on June 10, 2021. And 4, 8, 12 and 16 kg hectares when planting and before the first irrigation and after each mowing process, and the second factor was spraying with seaweed extract Alga000 at three levels 0, 1, and 2 ml (2 and 4 ml per liter of total spray) and at two intervals after 20 and 30 days of planting After 10 and 25 days of mowing, at a height of 20 cm from the surface of the ground, the mineral content of leaves and dry stems samples of the first mowing plants was estimated. It included the content of calcium, iron and manganese (mg/100g dry matter) and the percentage of each of nitrogen, phos-phorous and potassium. Indicators of the nutritional value of the leaves and stems of the first mow, which in-cluded the estimation of the percentage of total carbohydrates, ash, protein and fiber. The results showed that adding 16 kg hectares of potassium humate and spraying at a concentration of 2 ml per liter twice with algae extract Bahriya recorded the highest content of iron (42.3 and 19.82), calcium (2103.7 and 1009.29) and man-ganese (40 and 10.15) mg/100 g of dry matter for leaves and stems, and the highest percentage of phosphorous was 0.333% in dry leaves, and the highest percentage of nitrogen (3.89%) and 1.58%), potassium (1.601% and 1.24%), protein (24.314% and 9.885%), total carbohydrates (35.23% and 11.86%), and the lowest fiber content (4.57% and 25.45%) in the dry matter. For leaves and stems.
Keywords: morinca, potassium humate, marine algae, mineral content, nutritional value

 
   
Taibat A. Wahhab1 , Fikrat M Hassan2
"Department of Biology, College of Sciences for Woman, University of Baghdad
Corresponding author: [email protected] , [email protected]
 
Abstract: Protection of a lentic ecosystem became important issues during the dilemma of acute water scarcity and global warming in the worldwide and particularly in Iraq. The study amid to investigated the change in hy-dro=-chemical properties and water quality index (WQI) of Baghdad Touristic Island Lake as a lentic ecosys-tem during the change in Iraqi climate.  Three sites were selected in the lake to study the hydro-chemical properties and its water quality. Lake water is alkaline, very hard, good aeration and oligotrophic.  Results recorded alteration in water properties in some parameters while other was within presumable values. WQI re-sults revealed the alteration in water quality and ranged between poor- marginal criteria for protecting the or-ganism life. Therefore, its needs to enhancement the lake management and kept it within oligotrophic states to prevent reach to eutrophication and supporting the survival of lake for tourism.
Keywords: Water Quality, Lentic Ecosystems, pollution  

   
Omar F. Nasser B.D.S.1*, Hayder F. Saloom PH.D.2
1,2Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected].
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Orthodontic growth estimation for growing individual is essential for diagnosis and treatment planning, essentially in the management of cases with skeletal growth defect. Researches have revealed a substantial correlation between tooth calcification stages and skeletal maturity, also many biomarkers have been investigated as maturity indicators, and studies show a promising result. Therefore, the present research was accomplished to assess if salivary alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level and maxillary canine calcification stages with that of developmental stages of modified middle phalanx of third finger (MP3) are reliable skeletal maturity indicators. No previous study conducted the reliability of both canine calcification stages and ALP level as skeletal maturity indicators. this prospective observational study with a cross-sectional design, 80 subjects were selected with age between 8-16 years. Unstimulated saliva to assess ALP, periapical radiographs for the maxillary canine to assess the dental calcification by relying on the Dermirjian's stages, and periapical radiographs for the middle phalanx of third finger region were taken from 80 individuals (from eight to sixteen years old) to assess the skeletal maturation state. The data were analyzed using the statistical package of social science (SPSS version 26), using spearmen correlation test and Kruskal-Wallis test. The maxillary canine's calcification stages and MP3 stages showed a significant correlation coefficient; however, the correlation coefficient of MP3 stages and maxillary canine calcification stages with salivary ALP was non-significant. The maxillary canine calcification stages practically can be utilized as an indicator for the assessment of skeletal maturity but the salivary ALP level showed no correlation with skeletal maturity indicators.
Keywords: Skeletal maturity indicator; Canine calcification stages; Alkaline phosphatase; Middle phalanx of third finger.

   
Hayder Qahtan Oleiwi1, and Thamer H. R. Al-Falahy2
1United Nations Population Fund Activities, Anbar, Iraq
2Department of Horticulture, Agriculture College, University of Anbar, Iraq.
*  Correspondence: E-mail: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The experiment was conducted in the lath house affiliated to College of Agriculture / University of Anbar, to investigate the effect of foliar spray of urea and GA3on some vegetative growth traits of mandarin saplings cv. clementine during the period from April 2021 to December 2021, spraying urea(46% N) included, 0(spray with distilled water as control), 4, 8 and 12 g.l-1 , on the other hand, spraying GA3 included, 0(spray distilled water as control), 30 and 60 mg.l-1. The results showed that urea spray had a significant effect in in-creasing all vegetative traits especially 12 g.l-1 compared to the control, on the same context, GA3 at 60 mg.l-1 spray had led to increasing all vegetative growth characteristics, like plant height, leaves number increment, leaves area, shoot number, shoot length and rootstock diameter increment compared to the lowest value in con-trol.
Key words: Foliar Spray, Urea, Nitrogen, GA3, Vegetative Growth, Mandarin.

 
 
9.      Possibility of Improving Some Growth Traits and Chemical Con-tent of Mandarin Saplings cv.Clementine by Foliar Application with Urea and GA3.

Hayder Qahtan Oleiwi1 and Thamer H. R. Al-Falahy2
1United Nations Population Fund Activities, Anbar, Iraq
2Department of Horticulture, Agriculture College, University of Anbar, Iraq.
*  Correspondence: E-mail: [email protected]
 
Abstract: This study was conducted in the lath house affiliated to College of Agriculture / University of Anbar, to find the effect of foliar spray of urea and GA3on some growth characteristics and chemical contents of mandarin saplings cv. clementine during the period from April 2021 to December 2021, spraying urea(46% N) included, 0(spray with distilled water as control), 4, 8 and 12 g.l-1 , on the other hand, spraying GA3 in-cluded, 0(spray distilled water as control), 30 and 60 mg.l-1. The obtained results revealed that the imposition different concentration of urea and GA3 had a significant effect in improving all vegetative traits and chemical contents viz, stem diameter, vegetative and root dry weight, mineral content (N,P,K,Fe and Zn) and branch content of carbohydrate, especially (12 g.l-1 urea + 60 mg.l-1 GA3 ) in comparison with control which sprayed water only.
Key words: Foliar Spray, Urea, GA3, Vegetative Growth, Mineral content, Clementine.

 
   
Ayat K. Abdulellah1,*, Monther F. Mahdi2, and Ayad M.R. Raauf3
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Collage of Pharmacy, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Collage of Pharmacy, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Collage of Pharmacy, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
*  Correspondence: *E-mail address: [email protected] Tel: +9647705953904
 
Abstract: New series of 1,3-oxazole attached to bromonabumetone derivatives  have been designed and in sil-ico studying as molecular docking using (GOLD) suite program and determination of pharmacokinetic proper-ties using Swiss ADME suite, and then best fitting compounds were synthesized successfully, and confirmed using spectral analysis FT-IR, 1 HNMR and 13 CNMR. In vitro evaluation as anti-proliferative activ-ity for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Tyrosine kinase using MTT assay. The anti-proliferative in-vestigation revealed a dose dependent impact on lung cancer cell (A549) with inhibitory concentration IC50 for compound 4b and 4c (6.14 & 14.8) µM respectively which was significantly higher than that of erlotininb IC50 = 24.6 µM. While compounds 4a had IC50 (26.8) µM which consider closely related with erlotininb.
Keywords: 1,3-Oxazole, EGFR, nabumetone, A549 cell line, molecular docking, pharmacokinetic study



Raed K. A. Al-Mohammadi 1 and Maath M. M. Al-Abdaly2
1 Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, Iraq.
2 Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, Iraq.
*  Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: A field experiment was carried out at the Agricultural Research Station of College of Agriculture, University of Anbar for agricultural season 2021-2022. This experiment aimed to study effect of potassium and sulfur application on growth, yield, and quality of local garlic. The experiment included four levels of po-tassium soil fertilization (0, 200, 250, and 300 kg.ha-1), three levels of foliar spraying of potassium (0, 5, and 10 g.L-1), and three levels of soil fertilization of sulfur (0, 40, and 50 kg.ha-1). The study was carried out ac-cording to the randomized complete block design (RCBD) in form of combinations. The results showed that there were significant differences in the characteristics of vegetative growth, yield characteristics, and qualita-tive characteristics. The combination (300 kg K2O.ha-1 +10 g.L-1 + 50 kg S.ha-1) significantly exceeded by giv-ing highest leaves number, leaves area and shoot dry weight, which amounted to 11.42 leaf.plant-1  and 795.00 cm2.plant-1 and 10.87 g.plant-1, respectively. In comparison, control treatment gave (8.80 leaf.plant-1 and 571.00 cm2.plant-1 and 8.17 g.plant-1), for the same above traits respectively. The same combination achieved a significant increase in yield traits (cloves number, clove weight, yield/plant, and total yield) with 37.58 cloves, 2.71 g, 102.03 g, and 51.01 t.ha-1, respectively, compared to the control treatment which gave (32.00 cloves, 1.81 g, 58.17 g, and 29.08 t.ha-1). The same treatment led to an increase in the percentage of potassium and sul-fur in the bulbs, which recorded the highest percentage of 1.67% and 0.60%, respectively, compared to the control treatment, which recorded the lowest percentage of 1.36% and 0.40%, respectively.
Keywords: Garlic, Fertilization, Potassium, Sulfur, Growth, Yield.


 
Ashwaq Wadi Majeed1, and Altifat Fadhil Altaai2
"1 Al-Rasheed University College, Iraq
2 Al-Rasheed University College, Iraq
*  Correspondence: Emails: [email protected] , [email protected]
 
Abstract: This experiment was carried out in canopy belong to Department of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering / College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences / University of Baghdad, in 2019. A two-factor factorial experiment was designed according to randomized complete block design (RCBD), first factor includ-ed irrigation for two periods (3 days and 6 days) and second factor included organic fertilizer (Fulviegrow) with three concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 ml.L-1). With the aim of knowing the effect of adding organic fertilizer on the endurance of these transplants exposed to water stress, It includes 6 treatments, three replications, and two transplants for each experimental unit, the number of transplants is 36. The results showed that the irrigation periods had a significant effect, as it gave (the irrigation period every 3 days) a significant increase in shoot and root dry weight, percentage of vegetative mass dry weight to root system dry weight, leaves area (cm2), leaves calcium content, As for the organic fertilizer, it was significantly superior in most of the mentioned characteris-tics compared to control treatment.
Key words: Water Stress, irrigation period, Organic Fertilizer, Citrus Lemon.


 
Riyam A.S. Al-sofy1, Talib A. Hussein2 and Suaad A. Brakhas3
1,2Department of Biology, College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
3Department of Immunology –Allergy Specialized Center, Baghdad, Iraq.
*Correspondence: mailto: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The current study was focused to study Anti-TPO and Anti-TG , in (80) Chronic Urticaria patients were Clinically diagnosed by dermatologists in Specialized Center of Allergy in Baghdad/Al-Rusafa with age ranged between (11-60), as well as a control group 40 with age ranged between (11-60) from November 2021 to April 2022, The results of demographic and clinical characteristics revealed the rate of female patients was higher than male56.3%, 43.8% respectively, The results showed there was highly significant difference between the patients and the control in Anti-Tpo also the results showed Anti-TG  were higher than control but no significant differences while the patient with age 21-30 year and 11-20 had highest Anti-Tpo and  Anti-TG, the level of  Anti-Tpo and Anti- TG between post-treatment and pre-treatment showed various re-sults , Anti-Tpo and Anti- TG in  post-treatment was lower than pre-treatment but higher than the control group significant difference between those group at p ≤ 0.05 The results showed Finally The ROC showed the Anti-Tpo and Anti- TG were discriminated as accurate biomarkers  for CSU.
Keywords: Anti-Tpo , Anti- TG, CUS, Age and treatment.


 
Ali J Hussein1,*, and Mahmood. SH. Ahmed2
"1 Dept. of Hort. and Landscape, Coll. of Agric., Univ. of Anbar, Iraq
2 Dept. of Hort. and Landscape, Coll. of Agric., Univ. of Anbar, Iraq
*  Correspondence: *Email: [email protected]
 
Abstract: This study was conducted in a glass house, Dept. Of Hort. and Landscape, College of Agriculture, Univ. Anbar, during 2021-2022 growing season to investigate the influence of shading and fertilization on growth and leaf mineral content of gardenia plants. This study included two factors: two levels of shading at 0 (S0), shading 50 % (S1) and four treatments of fertilizations, control (F0), chelated iron spray at 2 ml.L-1 (F1), addition of magnesium sulfate to pots at 7 gm.plant-1 (F2) and chelated iron spray at 2 ml.L-1 + addition of magnesium sulfate to pots at 7 gm.plant-1 (F3) and their interaction. Treatments were replicated three times at Split plots design (Shading is main plot) in a RCBD. The number of plants used was 36 plants. The results showed that, interaction treatment (S1F3) significantly increased in plant height of 6.517 cm , highest increased in shoot length of 11.267 cm, leaves number of 94.107 leaf.plant-1 , highest leaves area of 9437.463 cm2, high-est leaf nitrogen content of 1.877 % and highest leaf potassium content of 0.561 %, while lower values of these traits was in interaction treatment (S0F0).
Keywords: iron, sulfur, vegetative growth, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis

 
   
Anas M. Almamoori1, Hadeel A. Kadhum2, Israa H. Ibrahim3
1Department of Anesthesia, Hilla University College, Iraq.
2Ministry of Education, Iraq.
3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Warith Al-Anbyaa, Iraq.
* Correspondence: Corresponding Author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The current study included studying the possibility of a fungi in removing two types of dyes used in textile factories (red and yellow), three concentrations of dyes (500, 100 and 300) ppm were treated with fungi and measured. Removal efficiency measured after 72 hours, the fungus was more efficient in removing the red dye. The removal efficiency was (99.77, 96.02 and 92.19) % for the red dye and (94.11, 93.65, and 88.9) % for the yellow dye. Results indicated the degradation rate of the low concentrations was higher than high con-centrations of the both dyes. The results recorded a decrease in pH values for both dyes and for all concentra-tions as well, it decreased from (7.33, 7.27 and 7.27) to (4.83, 4.83 and 4.87) after 72 hours of red dye treat-ment, and from (7.23, 7.23 and 7.27) to (4.83, 4.83 and 4.8) for the yellow dye. The electrical conductivity also decreased for both dyes and for all concentrations, decreased from (1509, 1466 and 1501.33) Microsie-mens/cm to (968, 975 and 972.33) Microsienes/cm for the red dye. While it decreased from (1472.67, 1481 and 1487) microsomens/cm to (988.33, 997 and 999.33) Microsiemens/cm for yellow dye. Total dissolves sol-ids values decreased also for both dyes and for all concentrations, decreased from (1011, 982 and1005)mg/l to ( 648, 653 and 651) mg/l from the red dye. While the yellow dye decreased from (986, 992 and 996) mg/l to (662, 667 and 669) mg/l.
Keywords: Texitile Dyes, Aspergillus niger, pollution


 
Rehab A.M. Al Hassani1, Asim A. Balakit2, Hassan Khuder3
1Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-Iraq
2College of Pharmacy, University of Babylon, Hilla-Iraq
3Science Department, College of Basic Education, University of Babylon, Hilla-Iraq
Corresponding Author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The present study involves the synthesis of new Schiff base ligand (L) and its complexes(C1-C5) with Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II), Pd (II), and Pt (IV). The ligand was synthesized by the condensation reaction of 4-Amino-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxy phenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione (1) with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde (2). The structures of the new ligand and its complexes were confirmed by FT-IR, UV-visible, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectrometry, microelement analysis (CHNS), atomic absorption flame (AAF) spectrophotome-try, conductivity, and magnetic susceptibility analysis. The antibacterial activity of the ligands (L) and their complexes (C1–C5) were examined in vitro against the gram positive and gram negative bacteria Staphylococ-cus aureus and Escherichia coli, with the (MIC) values being compared to two of common antibiotics. Fur-thermore, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium spp. were used as test subjects for the novel compounds' antifun-gal properties                                                                                                                          
Keywords: Schiff base, triazole, metal complexes, antibacterial, antifungal.

 
Hiba Riyadh Al-abodi1
1 Department of Environment, College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq , ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9160-8318     
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
ABSTRACT: One of the most significant zoonotic pathogens in humans, leishmaniasis can result in serious, potentially fatal infections. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of the immune response in chil-dren with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The analysis of some blood parameters in the affected children revealed significant differences (P<0.05) for the hemoglobin rate, which was observed to be lower in the patient popula-tions compared with control group. The findings revealed statistical difference in the values of the heterogene-ous tiers of INF-Y, IL6, IL10, and SOD, GPX, and CAT between the group of sick as well as healthy chil-dren (P 0.05), but this rise will not only cause the parasite to be died, but also cause oxidative damage to the af-fected child's cells and tissues and may reach a level that is impossible to control, indicating the incidence of oxidative DNA damage and the beginning of an infection.
Keywords: Cytokines, enzymatic antioxidants, cutaneous leishmaniasis


 
Yasamin Ghassan Saeid 1, Sabaa Taher Mohammed 2 and Luma Qasim Ali 3,*
1Department of Biology, Al-Farabi University College (FUC),, Baghdad, Iraq. [email protected]
2,3 Biology Department, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University; [email protected]
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: this study was conducted to investigate the effect of parasitic infection on the functions of the thy-roid gland by hypo- or hyperthyroidism and inflammation, by measuring some physiological and immunolog-ical indicators. 130 blood and stool samples were collected from both genders, and included 80 samples from people with thyroid disorders and 50 samples from healthy people. Anti-TG, anti-TPO and IgE were estimated by using the Cobas e411 device, the general stool examination was carried out for confirming the presence of a parasitic infection, and for determining the type of parasites. As for the type of parasites that were found ac-cording to the most effected, they were: Entamoeba histolytica, then Giardia lamblia, followed by Blastocystis hominis, and the last parasite Cryptosporidium. Anti-TG, anti-TPO, IgE immunoassays, showed significant increase in hypo and hyperthyroidism cases compared to the control, and increase was high in parasitic infected patients than in non-infected patients compared to the control. Results of infected were as follows: (94.41, 27.96, 361.44) IU/ml and (54.13, 18.48, 308.18) IU/ml, for non-infected (55.46, 18.48, 149.67) IU/ml and (89.56, 20.80, 90.67) IU/ml. Compared to the control (22.3, 7.05, 62.93) IU/ml, respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that infection with parasite affected on performance of thyroid gland.
Keywords: Parasites; Thyroid Disorders; Anti-TG; Anti-TPO; IgE.

   
Yasamin Ghassan Saeid 1, Sabaa Taher Mohammed 2 and Luma Qasim Ali 3,*
1Department of Biology, Al-Farabi University College (FUC), Baghdad, Iraq. [email protected]
2,3 Biology Department, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University; [email protected]
*Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: this study was conducted to investigate the effect of parasitic infection on the functions of the thy-roid gland by hypo- or hyperthyroidism and inflammation, by measuring some physiological and immunolog-ical indicators. 130 blood and stool samples were collected from both genders, and included 80 samples from people with thyroid disorders and 50 samples from healthy people. Hormones Levels and Lipid profile were estimated by using the Cobas e411 device, the general stool examination was carried out for confirming the presence of a parasitic infection, and for determining the type of parasites. As for the type of parasites that were found according to the most effected, they were: Entamoeba histolytica, then Giardia lamblia, followed by Blastocystis hominis, and the last parasite Cryptosporidium.  Hormonal tests and depending on the level of hormones, it was found that 44 out of 80 patients showed a decrease in hormones levels, and they were counted as hypothyroidism, while 36 showed increase and were counted as hyperthyroidism. The results of cholesterol level, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein for hypothyroidism showed an increase in patients without parasites, higher than those parasitic infected compared to the control. Conclusion: This study showed that infection with parasite affected on performance of thyroid gland.
Keywords: Parasites; Thyroid Disorders; Thyroid Hormones; Lipid Profile.


 
Sally A. Abdul Wahed1 , Nagham M. Al-Azawi2,*
1,2 field of crop science, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract:  three genotypes of maize namely (Baghdad, 5018, Sara) were invstigated in the fields of the Col-lege of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad/ Al-Jadriya in fall season 2021-2022. With three sowing dates (26 July, 4 August, 12 August), The experiment was implemented according to a random-ized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The aim of detecting the expression of the INCW1 gene associated with sucrose-to-glucose analysis, which is critical for many metabolic functions in different sink tissues, and determining the amount of fold gene expression to find out which of the genotypes contain the invertase gene, and which ones have a high level of gene expression based on the fold of gene expression. The results showed significant differences in the activity of the invertase enzyme for the genotypes. The best genotype was (Sara) which showed value 1.14 mg-1.units.protein. Followed genotype (Baghdad) 0.86 mg-1.units.protein. The least effective protein was for genotype (5018) which showed value 0.40 mg-1.units.protein. As for the sowing dates, the second sowing dates, (D2) was the best which showed value 1.39 mg-1.units.protein. Followed by the third sowing dates (D3) which showed value 0.51 mg-1.units.protein , the first sowing date date (D1) which showed the least value 0.51 mg-1units. The expression of  INCW1 gene varied in the genotypes of three sowing dates with values ranging between (0.30) and (2.38), where the genotype (Sara) at the second  sowing date (D2) which showed value highest of gene expression (2.38) and the same date (D3) gave INCW1 gene showed value (2.21).For genotype (Baghdad). The genotypes also var-ied in their degree of tolerance to increase or decrease the expression of the gene, which is considered one of the most important sucrose decomposition genes for maize crop.
Keywords: - Invertase, gene expression,  Zea mays.L,  Sowing date, Genotype.

 
   
Rasha M. Salman1, Jameel S. AL-Sariy2, Muhanned R. Nashaat 3,*
1,2 Dept. of Biology/College of Science, Wasit University.
3 Agricultural Research Directorate, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract:  The current study aims to know the effect of the WasitPower Planteffluents (WPP)on the physical and chemical factors of Tigris River.Samples were collected monthly for the period from January to December 2021. The water temperature ranges from 1.4-6.1°C compared with the high temperature at WPP. The water was classified as low salinity, oligohaline, low turbidity, very hard and highalkalinty, with an increase in pH values of approximately 0.8-0.9 compared with the first site. The study also showed that high values of con-ductivity, salinity, turbidity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, nitrate and phosphate increased near WPPefflunts. The results showed a negative effect of WPP on the physico-chemical properties especially onthe site near WPP effluen..
Keywords: - Physico-chemical parameters, Tigris River,  ThermalPower Plant.

 
Amal Radhi Jubier1 and Mustafa Thabit Ail2,*
1,2 field of crop science, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq
* Correspondence: [email protected]

Abstract:  The study area was chosen to include three physiographic sites on the Diyala River, as it is located in the village of Umm Al-Azam between longitudes 33.71785 east and latitudes 44.6185 north. Four pedons in each Aphysiographic unit, two of which are in cultivated sites and the other two are in unexploited agricultural sites, so that the total of the studied pedons is twelve. The results of laboratory analyze showed that the lowest content of available nitrogen for the cultivated sites was in the soils of river levee and the highest content in the soils of the river basins, while in the abandoned soil sites it was the lowest content in the soils of the river ba-sins and the highest content in the soils of depressions, and that the variance of the available nitrogen content in the soils of the cultivated pedons sites was moderate. The results indicated that the available phosphorous con-tent in the sites of cultivated pedons soils ranged between 17.25 – 40.24 mg kg-1   as it was the lowest content in river levee and the highest in the depressions soils, while the available phosphorous content in the soils of the abandoned pedons sites ranged between 19.19 - 43.00 mg kg-1 as it was the lowest content in river basins and the highest content in depressions soils, while the variance of phosphorus in the cultivated soils pedons was of little variation available. As for the available potassium content in the soils of the planted pedons sites, it ranged between 175.60 - 255.17 mg kg-1, as it was the lowest content in the river levee and the highest in the soils of the river basins. As for the available potassium content in the soils of the abandoned pedons sites it ranged between 170.64 - 257.45 mg kg-1, where the lowest content of The available potassium was in the river levee soils, and the highest content was in the depressions soils. Also, the variance of the available potassium in the pedons soils was very little . As for the effect of the interaction between agricultural exploitation and physiographic sites and horizons in the characteristics of the study area, the results of the statistical analysis in-dicated that all study indicators represented by sites, type of use, horizons and their interactions did not have a significant effect of increasing nitrogen in the soil of the study area, as well as phosphorous and potassium.                                                  
Keywords: - N , P , K, nutrients , physiographic location , agricultural exploitation.


 
Amal Radhi Jubier1 and Mustafa Thabit Ail2
1 College of Agriculture, Al Qasim Green University, Iraq
2 College of Agriculture, Diyala University, Iraq
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The study area was chosen to include three physiographic sites on the Diyala River, as it is located in the village of Umm Al-Azam between longitudes 33.71785 east and latitudes 44.6185 north. Four pedons in each A physiographic unit, two of which are in cultivated sites and the other two are in unexploited agricultural sites, so that the total of the studied pedons is twelve.The results of laboratory analyzes showed that the sand content in the physiographic units of the cultivated soils ranged between 151.19 - 583.20 g kg-1, as it was not-ed that the highest content was in the soils of river basins, while in the physiographic units of the abandoned soils, the sand content ranged between 146.62 - 600.50 g kg -1, as its highest content was in soils River basins as well.As for the silt particle, the results showed that its content in the physiographic units of the cultivated soil ranged between 170.00 - 543.11 gkg-1, as it was noted that its highest content was in the soils of the de-pression unit, while in the physiographic units of the abandoned soils, the content of the silt ranged between 54.42 - 553.01 gkg-1, as the highest content was in pedons soils the river.As for the particle clay, its content in the cultivated physiographic units ranged between 52.10 - 375.67 gkg-1, as the highest content was in the soils of river levee, while in the soils of the abandoned physiographic units it ranged between 54.42 - 335.57 gkg-1, which was the highest value for it. When soils levee of rivers.
Keywords: particle, distribution , physiographic location , agricultural exploitation

 
Marwa Mawfaq Mohamedsheet Al-Hatab1,* , Aseel Thamer Ebrahem2,* , Ali Rakan Hasan AL-JADER3,* , Maysaloon Abed Qasim4,*, and Entisar Y. Abd al-jabbar5,*
1 Technical Engineering Collage, Northern Technical University (NTU), Mosul, Iraq, [email protected]
2 Technical Engineering Collage, Northern Technical University (NTU), Mosul, Iraq, [email protected]
31 Technical Engineering Collage, Northern Technical University (NTU), Mosul, Iraq [email protected]
4 Technical Engineering Collage, Northern Technical University (NTU), Mosul, Iraq  [email protected]
5 Technical Engineering Collage, Northern Technical University (NTU), Mosul, Iraq , [email protected]
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: At beginning of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid -19) pandemic the world needed to develop an innovative accurate system for how to care and follow up patients remotely to reduce the massive influx of patients into hospitals. Therefore, the well-established Internet of Things (IoT) technology was used to build an applied model for health care. The main objective of this study was to create a system connected to an applica-tion that allows continuous remote and early detection of clinical deterioration. By monitoring different levels of biometrics to reduce the patient's risk of serious complications. Assessments were conducted on four sub-jects (two males, two females) aged 30-50 years patients Covid -19. The system was examined under condi-tions and medical supervision in the hospital, following a schedule of vital measurements (oxygen saturation rate, heart rate and temperature). An average of 4 examinations was recorded per day over a week. The model has been recorded the mean of error of oxygen saturation rate (SpO2), pulse rate and body temperature are (0.3975%), (0.2625%) and (2.925%) for four patients.
Keywords: Healthcare, COVID-19, IoT System

 
 
Shaimaa Khalid Moufak1*, Rowshen Hani Al Nakeeb2, Tamara Sami Naji3
1 Medical Laboratory Techniques, Al-Ma'moon University College, Baghdad, Iraq. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5655-1042
2 Medical Laboratory Techniques, Al-Ma'moon University College, Baghdad, Iraq. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1536-3424
3 dical Laboratory Techniques, Al-Ma'moon University College, Baghdad, Iraq. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2404-8837
*Correspondence: [email protected] ;
 
Abstract: Obesity is a medical word that refers to a state in which a person's body fat levels are excessively high. Obesity is linked to a variety of health issues in humans, like the emergence of hypertension. The pur-pose of this study was to look at the blood glucose concentration, urea, creatinine, and lipid profile factors in obese and hypertension overweight men's sera. The study included 75 people who were evenly divided into three groups: healthy controls, normotensive obese people, and hypertension obese people. When comparing obese males to controls, there was a significant increase (P<0.01) in blood glucose, urea, creatinine, cholester-ol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) although only triglycerides (TGs) and VLDL-C were substantially different in hypertension obese versus normotensive obese. In comparison to controls, Obese men had significantly lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). High levels of triglycerides (TGs) and Very Low-density Lipo-protein cholesterol (VLDL) in hypertensive obese males show they play a role in hypertension problems.
Keywords: Obesity, Hypertension, Urea, Creatinine, lipid profile.


 
Baidaa Shaheed Tuama1, Abeer Fauzi Murad Al-Rubaye2,*, Amal Merza3
1,2Department, of Biology Science for Women, University of Babylon/Iraq; [email protected] . ORCID
3 Immunologist in Al- Sadiq Hospital /Babylon /Iraq
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The research was carried out in Babylon Governorate between 12/10/2021 and 27/12/2022 on 85 vaccinated individuals with or without prior infection as a test group, in comparison to 35 individuals recover-ing from Covid-19, which was mentioned as a positive (+ve) control, and with 30 individuals from a healthy population (non-infected with Covid-19), as a negative (-ve) control groups. Various parameters were studied to evaluate of immunological status. The research aimed to evaluate the immune aspects in people who vac-cinated with corona vaccine. The study revealed that there are statistically significant variations in the efficiency of the vaccine for the two investigated vaccinations between the time periods following vaccination. Besides the Pfizer vaccine induce more protection than Cinopharm at the cellular and humeral immune reactivity.
Keywords: Vaccine ; Cinopharm; Pfizer; Cytokines.

   
Hussein Ali Mohammed Zekri1,*, Alan Issa Saleem2, Abeer Basim Mahmood3, Dina Hamid Obaid4
"1,2,3,4 Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: there is a trend for using aesthetic orthodontic treatment by a lot of patients recently. The aim of this study was to evaluate brushing effect with three brands of toothpastes on the frictional resistance of two brands of aesthetic archwires (in wet condition). in this study, two brands of fully coated aesthetic archwires; Teflon coated and Epoxy coated archwires were utilized in the study. Forty segments from straight ends of each arch-wire were cut (total 80 wires), inserted into ceramic brackets and ligated with conventional figure “O” elasto-meric ligatures (bonded on CNC blocks). Each ten pieces for each type of aesthetic archwires were brushed for one minute daily in thirty days with three types of toothpastes (Ortho.Kin, GUMOrtho and LACALUT White & Repair) and distilled water (except ten pieces for each type of aesthetic archwire were brushed only with dis-tilled water and without toothpaste). These CNC blocks were tested using Instron Tinius Olsen machine with the presence of distilled water. The tests used for statistical analysis were Independent t-test and ANOVA test at a 0.05 level of significant. The study showed there was no significant difference for both static and kinetic frictional resistance between the two coated archwire and among the toothpastes. The orthodontists can use ei-ther Epoxy or Teflon coated archwires for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment (working stage) who are using either type of toothpastes (Ortho.Kin, GUMOrtho or LACALUT White & Repair) for maintenance of oral hygiene.
Keywords: Aesthetic archwires, Friction, Toothpastes

 
Raghad Nawaf Al-zaidy 1, *, Aryan Mohammed Hamed2, and Taghreed Nawaf Ahmed3
1,3 College of Education for Pure Science, Department of biology, University of Mosul, Iraq.
2 College of Education, Department of psychology, University of Al-Hamdaniya, Al-Hamdaniya, Nineveh, Iraq.
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The genetic diversity of 4 R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii and R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli that was extracted from root nodes of Trifolium spp and Phaseolus  vulgaris L  cultivars circulated  in Mosul soils were investigated. The bacteria strains under study show similar tolerance levels against some external factors. Conducting the current study via performing classical diagnoses methods, similarity and distance indices and DNA polymorphism were examined with the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. The isolates were dis-tributed through  genetic diversification into two main classes, includes two mainly branches, Rl2 and other sub group was divided into Rl3 and neighbouring group involves Rl1 and Rl4. It is noted that individual plants and abiotic aspects were less affected than the Genetic factor on bacterial diversity. On the other hand multi-plex-PCR reaction, Our outcomes  revealed specific amplified for  R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii with amplifi-cation products 419 bp and R. leguminosarum bv. Phaseoli with amplification products 362 bp.
Keywords: R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii  , nodules, multiplex-PCR, RAPD-PCR .


 
Aya Muneer Abdulsattar 1,*, Mustafa M. AL-Khatieeb2
1,2 Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Iraq
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Frictional resistance is come upon whenever sliding happens, which has a negative impact on treatment outcomes and duration. It is a clinical challenge and must be dealt with an efficient manner to achieve the best orthodontic results. Aims of this study: compare and evaluat of the static frictional forces under wet condition to mimic the oral environment produced by using polycrystalline ceramic bracket, monocrystalline ceramic bracket, 0.014 of an inch nickel titanium (Rhodium coated archwires, and ilusio aesthetic archwires), and 0.019 x 0.025 of an inch stainless steel (Rhodium coated archwires, and ilusio aes-thetic archwires). Ninety-six aesthetic brackets (48 monocrystalline and 48 polycrystalline brackets) were used that stored in different incubation media (distilled water and acid challenge); each 16 bracket-archwire combinations tested 6 times by Instron testing machine under wet condition. polycrystalline ceramic brackets combined with 0.014-inch NiTi rhodium coated archwires produced signif-icantly low mean static frictional force in an acidic environment, furthermore, no significant mean static fric-tional forces difference between monocrystalline and polycrystalline ceramic brackets if combined with 0.014 of an inch NiTi ilusio or 0.019 x 0.025 of an inch SS rhodium coated archwires. Conclusion: it is ad-visable to couple polycrystalline ceramic brackets with 0.014 of an inch NiTi rhodium coated rather than ilusio archwires in acidic environment, while in distilled water, it is wise to combine with polycrystalline ce-ramic brackets the 0.019 x 0.025 of an inch SS ilusio archwires rather than to combine with monocrystalline brackets.
Key word: friction, ceramic bracket, aesthetic archwire, wet condition, instron machine

 
 
Wisam Ahmed Khairi 1, * and Inas Mudhafar Al-aubadi 2
1,2, Dep. Food Sciences, Coll. Agric Engine. Sci., University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
*Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The study included the preparation of chitin from the wastes of Penaeus semisulcatus shrimp, represented the head shells and the shells of meaty part of shrimp, and the study of its chemical composition, such as moisture, ash and nitrogen content which reached to 3.2,2.5,4.66% respectively, while the yield was 34.39% based on the dry weight of the shells powder. Two types of chitosan symbols A and B, were prepared from chitin by chemical method and under different conditions. Chitosan A was prepared by alkali treatment the chitin by removing acetyl groups at temperature of 100°C for 3h, while for chitosan B for 9h. The percentage of the yield of Chitosan A was 25.56% and Chitosan B 20.15% based on the dry weight of the shells powder. Then ana-lyzed the chemical composition of chitosan A, such as moisture, ash and nitrogen content were reached to 4.3,0.66,2.1% respectively, while the moisture, ash and nitrogen content of chitosan B were 4,0.33,2.8% respectively. The physicochemical and functional properties of chitosan A and B were studied and the degree of deacetylation using FTIR technique for chitosan A,B and commer-cial chitosan was 49.9,81.8,70.2% respectively. Chitosan A gave high viscosity 480cP while chi-tosan B had low viscosity 380cP. The molecular weights of chitosan A and B were 678.715kDa and 527.732kDa respectively. Chitosan B showed the highest solubility in 1% glacial acetic acid solution which was 100% and it was lower for Chitosan A which was 88.6%. Chitosan B showed high water binding capacity 446.5% while it was lower for Chitosan A reached to 388.8%. Chi-tosan A gave high fat binding capacity 397.6% while it was lower for Chitosan B which reached to 385.2%. SEM scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the morphology of chitosan A,B and commercial chitosan.
Keywords: Chitin, Chitosan, Degree of deacetylation, Shrimp shells, Shrimp wastes, Penaeus semisulcatus

 
   
Mousa Abdul Hussein Taha1,*, and Da’ad Ali Hussain2
1 University of Baghdad, Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for Postgraduate, Iraq
2 University of Baghdad, Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for Postgraduate, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by synovial hyperplasia, cartilage damage, and bone erosions. Rheumatoid arthritis occurs in about 5 per 1000 people and can lead to severe joint damage and disability. The clinical manifestations of symmetrical joint involvement include arthral-gia, swelling, redness, and even limiting the range of motion. This study aimed to investigate the role of IL-17A rs2275913 G\A gene polymorphisms that are associated with susceptibility and severity to clinic patho-logical features of rheumatoid arthritis in a sample of Iraqi patients. The study includes one hundred subject of Iraqi patients the Rheumatology Unit of AL-Hindyia General Hospital in Karbala province. Samples were di-vided to two groups. The first group was including patients while second group was including apparently healthy. DNA was extracted, then the Genotyping polymorphism (rs2275913) of the gene Interleukin-17 was done by RT-PCR. The genotyping and allele frequencies of IL-17 rs2275913 G/A for the two groups appeared that there were no significant differences in genotype between patients and controls. Compared GA genotype between control and patients, heterozygous GA genotype was no significant different from controls (X²=0.614, OR=0.166); and the TT genotype were no significant differences for RA (X²=0.436, OR=1)
Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), genetic polymorphism, RF, CRP and IL-17 level

 
 

Haider J. Mathbob1 and Hussein A. Khamees2*
1,2 Department of surgery and Obstetrics. College of veterinary medicine-University of AL-Muthanna, Iraq.
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The study was conducted in Al-Muthanna Province-Iraq from January to June 2022, aimed at di-agnosing and treating cases of omphalitis in newborn calves. The study included 15 calves infected with um-bilical inflammation for 3-30 days after parturition. The animals were divided into three groups according to the severity of the infection and the clinical signs. The study showed that omphalitis in calves occurs in the first days after parturition due to infection of the navel with microorganisms that lead to inflammation and the emergence of clinical signs that include swelling and abscess collection, in addition to high temperature of the animal and lack of appetite. Some cases necessitated surgical intervention to open the swelling and drain the abscess with the placement of bacteria-killing solutions inside the wound to ensure that the place is sterilized and that the abscess does not collect again. The cases were also treated by giving antibiotics, antipyretics, and vitamins with repeated treatment for several days until the animal gained a full recovery.
Keywords:- surgical treatment, omphalitis, calves.

 
Suha AlJaber1, and Layla Alhasan2,*
1 Biology Department, Education Faculty for Pure Sciences, Thi-Qar University, Thi-Qar, Iraq
2 Biology Department, Education Faculty for Pure Sciences, Thi-Qar University, Thi-Qar, Iraq
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The current study was conducted on the Thi-Qar oil refinery workers to assess the effect of pol-ycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on some biomarkers including antioxidant activity and p21 gene polymor-phism. A total of 90 samples further categorized into three groups, first group was workers exposed directly and second group was indirectly exposure and third group was a control. Samples of blood were collected daily and subjected for molecular and antioxidant activity analysis. A significant increase in the concentra-tion of benzene and its byproducts in urine were found in the workers (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the control. A statistically significant increase in the percentages of antioxidants among workers directly and indirectly exposed (P=0.001) compared to the control. Frequency ratio of genotypic (CA vs CC) of p21 polymor-phism of exposed indirectly and control was 43.3% and 26.6% receptively with a high significant difference (0.002), and odd ratio which amounted to (OR = 5.77) and the genotype frequency ration (AA vs. CC) for the directly exposed and the control group was 40% and 23.3% receptively with high significant difference 0.001, with an estimated odd (OR = 6.0). There is also a high content of hydrocarbons in direct exposed workers urea. Therefore, more studies still need to be confirmed through investigation on a larger sample.
 
Keywords: Petroleum , antioxidants , P21 gene , ARMS-PCR

 
 

Zainab Ali Hussein*, Fadhil.A.AL-Abady and Hazar Shaker Saleh
Biology Department, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq
*Corresponding author: Email: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Entamoeba histolytica, which came in second among parasitic infections that result in death after malaria, is the parasite that causes the common disease described as amoebiasis and is responsible for the major human gastro-intestinal diseases In the present study, the antiparasitic activity of Allicin, which is one of the active principles of freshly crushed garlic (Allium sativum), on Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites were investigated in vitro. The type (Rattus norvegicum) was divided into five groups, (A, B, C, D, E), with eight rates in each group weighing around 260-230 gm, with an average age of (14-16) weeks. (A) the control group Four groups (B, C, D, and E) were infected with suspension E. histolytica. every rat gives cysts per mililiter through oral administration, and the group (C) was treated orally with metronidazole (20) mg/kg. Group (D) gives allicin after infection at a rate of 0.3 mg/kg. Group (E) gives allicin and metronidazole after infection. Results showed that allicin was effective in inhibiting growth and development E. histolytica and improvement in the growth of tissues treated with allicin and metronidazole together, compared to the rest of the groups. Our findings give more light on the unique mode of action of allicin one of the active chemicals in freshly ground garlic (Allium sativum) on E. histolytica as well as allicin's on the inhibition of Trophozoites. Allicin, according to this finding, can be used to treat amoebic dysentery and amoebic liver abscess.
Key words : Entamoeba  histolytica, Allicin , Efficacy, Protozoan .

 
35.  Evaluation differential effects of melatonin versus bromocriptine in protection fertility for rats with hyperprolactinemia
 
Nidaa Abudallah Mizban & Hazar Shaker Saleh*
Biology Department, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq
*Corresponding author: Email: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Hyperprolactinemia is a condition of elevated serum prolactin over the laboratory upper level of normal. It is considered a relatively common endocrine disorder. Melatonin is an indoleamine that is produced by various cells in the body. It organizes a variety of biological pathways, including circadian rhythms, hormone secretion, and reproduction. Our study aims to compare the effects of melatonin supplements versus bromocriptine on testicular protection in metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemic rats. A total of twenty-four male rats were divided into four groups: The first group(G1) was given only normal saline; the second group(G2) was given metoclopramide 5mg/Kg orally to induce hyperprolactinemic rats; the third group(G3), metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemic rats were given bromocriptine 2.5mg/Kg; and the fourth group (G4), metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemic rats were given melatonin 2.5 mg/Kg. After treatments, sperm parameters (sperm count, sperm viability, and sperm motility) were calculated, and the testis was isolated as well as routine paraffin-embedded section staining with hematoxylin and eosin. The results of our current study showed a significant increase (P≤0.01) in sperm parameters in the G3 and G4 compared with the G2. Histological changes showed tubular degeneration and shrinkage and an absence of germ cells in the G2. While there was mild hypo spermatogenesis in the third group, and in contrast to those in the fourth group, the spermatic tubes appeared with the germ cells in them gradually. The results of the current study concluded that melatonin has an effective and positive role in improving semen parameters and protecting testicular tissue from damage caused by hyperprolactinemia and returning it to its normal state.
Key words: hyperprolactinemia, testis, prolactin (PRL), melatonin (MT), bromocriptine (BRC)


36.  Influence of Corm Soaking in Epibrassinolide and Foliar Applica-tion of CPPU on Corms Production and Flowering of Gladiolus Plants
 
Safaa M. Salih
General of Directorate Vocational Education, Ministry of Education, Iraq
*Corresponding author: Safaamohammedsalih8@ gmail.com
 
Abstract: The study was carried out at Al-Zawraa park\Mayoralty of Baghdad on fall season 2016, to investigate the Influences of soaking gladiolus corms in Epibrassinolide (BRs) at three concentrations, and foliar application of CPPU at three concentrations, on flowering, corms, and cormels prodtion. The results could be summarized as fol-low: Soaking corms with 0.1 mg.l-1 of BRs was significantly increased the flowering characters; plants bloomed earlier, number of florets. flowering peduncle-1, length of flowering peduncle, diameter of flower-ing peduncle, diameter of basal floret, while 0.05 mg.l-1 of BRs, was  more effective on flowering period, vase life, number of corm.plant-1 , corm diameter, dry matter of corm, number of cormels.corm-1, diame-ter of cormel  and dry matter of cormel. Foliar application of gladiolus vegetative growth with CPPU at 20 mg.l-1, increased plants boomed earlier, number of florets, Flowering peduncle-1 , length of flowering peduncle, diameter of flowering peduncle, diameter of basal floret, flowering  period, and vase life, Number of corms.plant-1, corm diame-ter, dry matter of corm, number of cormels.corm-1, cormel diameter, and dry matter of cormel. The interactions between EP3 X CP3, was superior on improving all characters tasted except of flowering period and vase life which the treatment EP2 X CP3 was the most effective.
Key words: Gladiolus, Epibrassinolide, CPPU, Soaking, Foliar

 
37.  Role of IL-21 Gene Expiration Association with Breast Cancer in Iraqi Patents
 
Abdulrahman, A. Shareef and Mohammed, I. Nader
Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for Postgraduate studies, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Interleukin 21 (IL21) is a cytokine produced predominantly by cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4+) T-cells and natural killer T-cells. There exists evidence that IL21 is implicated in various immunological processes. However, the participation of IL21 in the pathogenesis of solid tumors is not fully conclusive. In the present study, we demonstrated that there was differential expression of IL21 in breast cancer samples using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Breast cancer occurs as a result of mutations, or abnormal changes in breast cells, in the genes responsible for regulating the growth of cells and keeping them healthy. The genes are in each cell’s nucleus, which acts as the “control room” of each cell. Normally, the cells in our bodies replace themselves through an orderly process of cell growth: healthy new cells take over as old ones die out. But over time, mutations can “turn on” certain genes and “turn off” others in a cell. That changed cell gains the ability to keep dividing without control or order, producing more cells just like it and forming a tumor. In this study we intended to detect the expiration of Interleukin 21 (IL-21) gene with breast cancer patents and it influence in breast cancer tumor size and metastasis status and tumor grade, by collecting fifty peripheral blood samples from breast cancer patient whom diagnosed by breast cancer and follow up in Al-Amal hospital and Al-Andalus privet hospital and the sample collection extended from /2022 to /2022 and twenty-Three healthy look volunteers as a control group. The blood samples that collected from patents and healthy volunteers was used to extract RNA and did the molecular methods RT-PCR by using specific primer for IL-21 gene were used and the result shows that there was an overexpression in the sample of patents when compared with healthy volunteers and we found overexpression in metastasis cases of patent than none metastasis and also we found that patents with T4 state have IL-21 overexpression than other patents tumor size
Keywords: Breast cancer, interleukin 21, Tumor size, Metastasis, Grade

 
38.  Effect of protein content on growth parameters of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella cultured in earthen ponds
 
Zaid F. Assal1, Majid M. Taher2 and Jassim M. Abed1
1Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Iraq
2Aquaculture Unit, Agriculture College, Basrah University, Iraq
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Abstract: The current experiment was conducted in Basra Governorate in the ponds of the Aquaculture Unit at the Agricultural Research Station-College of Agriculture- University of Basra, located in Al-Haritha District, for the period from 4/3/2020 to 6/12/2020. 3760 grass carp fingerlings with an average weight of 16 ± 2.75 g and an average total length of 12.1 ± 0.1 cm, were used in the study. These fingerlings were divided into four treatments, and each treatment with 2 replicates, and each replicate were placed in one earthen pond of 600 m². Four diets were manufactured with different protein ratios ( T1 20, T2 25, T3 30 and T4 35)%. The aim of current experiment was to find out the optimal proportion of protein in grass carp diet, which achieve the best growth and lowest cost. The results of current experiment was as follows: final average weights were (153.5, 167.4, 181.8 and 272.7) g, weights gain were (132.5, 147.6, 162.8 and 255.9) g, daily growth rates were (0.46, 0.52, 0.60 and 0.95) g/day, specific growth rates were (0.71, 0.78, 0.84 and 1.02) %/day and relative growth rates were (18.87, 20.46, 21.35 and 27.05) % for T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. T4 was significantly (P≤0.05) superior to the rest of the three treatments in all previous growth criteria, while none of these treatments showed any significant differences (P>0.05) between them for the same criteria. The best food conversion rate was for T4 and the worst rate for T1 and T2.
 
Keywords: growth parameters, grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella   

39.  Laboratory culture of Brachionus plicatilis rotifer with two different concentrations of dried cow dung
 
Saba Abbas Kadhim*, Naeem Shanad Hammadi and Adel Kassim Jassim
Department of Fisheries & Marine Resources, Collage of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq.
* corresponding author: [email protected], https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5668-104X,
 
Abstract: The current study aims to determine the optimum concentrations of organic matter (dried cow dung) used in the culture of Brachionus plicatilis rotifer and to calculate the total numerical density that can be obtained under laboratory conditions. B. plicatilis was cultured for ten days and under laboratory conditions at (21°C). They were fed organic matter (cow dung) at two different concentrations, (1 and 2g/ L). The highest density of rotifers was (29000 and 8000 individuals/L) at concentration of (2 and 1 g/L), respectively. The growth rate (K) was (1.02 and 0.89), and the doubling times (D) were (0.77 and 0.67/day), respectively. Completely randomized statistical analysis (CRD) was used, and significant differences were found between the treatments.
Keywords: culturing, organic matter, rotifer.

 
Zaman Hussein Hassan1, Likaa Hamied Mahdi2*, Ibtesam Ghadban Auda3
Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University (https://www.uomustansiriyah.edu.
Abstract: Human breast milk (HBM) may have beneficial effects on Lactobacillus reuteri a probiotic strain isolated from a mother's breast milk and been shown to inhibit pathogen growth, modulate the immune system, and has strong anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to isolate and screen Lactobacillus reuteri, for the production of L-asparagine. Lactobacillus reuteri were grown in submerged fermentation, and liquid media and used for secondary screening by the Nesslerization method. The isolates were identified based on morphological, cultural, and biochemical tests, and API 50 to identify Lactobacillus reuteri. According to the findings, L-asparaginase isolated from bacteria showed positive L-asparaginase activity on a modified medium using phenol red as an indicator dye. However, bacterial isolates showed the highest enzyme activity exhibiting a pink zone of hydrolysis of around 7.0 cm after 48h. and 4.92 IU/mg of specific activity These results illustrated the importance of these isolates to produce and control L-asparagine for biomedical production in the future.
 
Keywords: Lactobacillus reuteri, L-asparagin

 
Zaman Hussein Hassan1, Ibtesam Ghadban Auda 2*, Likaa Hamied Mahdi 3
1,2,3 Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University (https://www.uomustansiriyah.edu.iq), Baghdad, Iraq.
*Corresponding Author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: L-asparagine is an enzyme that is widely identified as one of the most potential anti-cancerous drugs. This enzyme is poorly bioavailable and hence its pharmaceutical uses are limited as anticancer. L-asparaginase is an important chemotherapeutic drug used to treat a variety of malignant tumors. Lactic acid bacteria may exhibit high L-asparaginase productivity and efficiency, as well as anticancer activity against breast cancer cell lines. The L-asparaginase was extracted and purified in multiple processes, including precipitation with (NH4)2SO4 (70%), DEAE-cellulose ion exchanger chromatography, and Sephadex  G 150 filtration. The specific activity was 40 U/mg, and the purification fold was 25.6 with a yield of 51%. The cytotoxic effect of the enzyme on treated cells was dose-dependent with an IC50 value of 4.305 IU/ml.
Keywords: Cytotoxic effects, L-asparagine, Lactobacillus reuteri, breast cancer cell line

 
42.  Effect of some antibiotics and nanoparticles antibiotics and nanoparticles on fungi associated with date palm tissue cultures, Phoenix dactylifera L.
 
Alaa Naser Ahmed and Mohammed Hamza Abass
Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq
*Corresponding author: [email protected]; [email protected]
 
Abstract: Tissue cultures faces significant challenges, the most important of which is the problem of microbial contamination. Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of some antibiotics (Amphotericin, Fluconazole, Nystatin) and nanoparticles (TiO2 and ZnS) in controlling fungal contamination of date palm tissue cultures. The study showed significant differences in the effect of antibiotics and nanoparticles on the radial growth of fungi associated with date palm tissue cultures with different concentrations. The results showed the effect of the antibiotic Nystatin and the TiO2 nanoparticles on the radial growth of the studied fungi. Nystatin and (TiO2) recorded the highest rate of inhibition of the radial growth of all the studied fungi, as they reached 30.025 and 17.951% at the concentration of 150 and 100 PPM, respectively, compared to the antibiotic (Amphotericin and Fluconazole) and the nanoparticles (Zns), the inhibition percentage was 5.258, 12.535 and 7.887% at concentrations of 40, 150 and 100 PPM, respectively. The results also showed the effect of the third concentration of all the studied antibiotics and nanoparticles, as (Nystatin at the concentration of 150 PPM and TiO2 at the concentration of 100 PPM) recorded the highest percentage of inhibition of radial growth for all studied fungi, which amounted to 72.811 and 55.957%, respectively. It appears from the results of this study; also, the fungus Alternaria alternata recorded the highest rate of radial growth inhibition, which amounted to 21.681% compared to the other studied fungi.
Keywords: Antibiotics; Nanoparticles; Contaminating fungi; Date palm tissue cultures.

 
   
Saja Ali Hussein 1*, Athraa Alwaheb 2
1 Master student, Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Baghdad University College, Baghdad, Iraq.
2 Assistant professor, Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Baghdad University College, Baghdad, Iraq.
 
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Pregnancy is a physiological state that causes changes in many parts of the body, including oral cavity. Gingivitis has been reported to be the most common oral manifestation during pregnancy, most likely due to an exaggerated inflammatory response to the dental plaque. The purpose of this study to investigate oral hygiene and salivary IgA in relation to gingival condition in pregnant women. In this study, the total sample included was 80 women. The study group consisted of 40 pregnant women: 20 females in first trimester and 20 females in third trimester, while the control group included 40 non-pregnant women. Between 9 and 11 a.m., unstimulated saliva was collected. The rate of salivary flow and concentration of salivary immunoglobulin A were measured. Dental plaque, calculus and gingivitis were assessed. Results demonstrated that plaque, cal-culus and gingival indices were higher in pregnant group with significant difference in plaque index only. While salivary flow rate was lower in pregnant women with no significant difference. Regarding salivary IgA, the highest level was seen in the pregnant group during the third trimester with no statistically difference.In conclusion, the pregnant women revealed a poor oral hygiene status along with alteration in salivary parameters which leads to increase prevalence of gingivitis in pregnant women.
Keywords: Gingivitis, salivary flow rate, Pregnant women, Salivary IgA.

 
44.  Serum level of Anti-Carp, IL-21 and IL-22 in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis
 
Mais B. Mohammed and Jinan MJ. Al-Saffar*
Department of Biotechnology, College of science, University of Baghdad, Iraq
*Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of synovial joints. Throughout the last decades several autoantibody systems have been discovered that are associated with RA, anti-CCP test (which measures antibodies directed to cyclic citrullinated peptides), anti-carp test(to determine the levels of anti-CarP antibodies in RA patients), IL-21 and IL-22 levels. The studied group include 60 patients with RA ( 19 males and 41 females), who diagnosed was according to the Revised diagnostic criteria established by the  American College of Rheumatology (ACR), 2010. Result of investigations were compared with 30 healthy apparently control individuals. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used for estimation the levels of IL-22, IL-21, Anti-CARP and ACPA in serum of studied group, the results then analyzed using IBM SPSS version 28.0. The present results revealed that a higher positivity of patients sera for ACPA, Anti-CARP, IL-21 and IL-22 (308.11 ± 27.13, 3896.89 ± 343.90, 118.69 ± 13.09 and 148.70 ± 6.07) respectively in comparison with control groups (3.75 ± 0.44, 39.37 ± 5.59, 27.89 ± 3.77 and 55.86 ± 4.73) correspondingly with highly significant differences (P < 0.001).  On the other hand, there is significant correlation was found between serum level of ACPA and anti-CarP antibodies were present (p<0.001), as well as between IL-21 and IL-22 (P < 0.001).
Keywords: Anti-Carp, IL-21, IL-22, Rheumatoid Arthritis


45.  The Role of some Treatments in the Indicators of IEAF Growth of Stevia (rebaudiana Bertoni) Plant and its Yield Under the Deficient Irrigation System
 
Zainab Adnan Ali and Bashir Abdullah Ibrahim
1 Field Crops Department, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
2 Field Crops Department, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq -mail: [email protected]
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract. A field experiment was carried out at Research Station (A)  of the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad (Al-Jadriya) in 2021 with a canopy covered with saran, With the aim of increasing the yield of the leafy plant and linking the water consumption with the presence or absence of leaf area (cutting the plant) using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), according to the  split – Plots Design and with three replicates , The results showed that the Deficient irrigation significantly reduced the number of vegetative branches, leaf area, relative water content, chlorophyll a and b in the second cutting , and the dry weight of leaves in the second cutting in the treatment (I3) than (I1) as  the reducing rate was 25.28% While it did not affect the number of leaves, their specific weight, chlorophyll a and b in the first cutting, and the dry weight in the first cutting . The percentage of leaves increased  in treatment (I3) a significant increase than treatment (I1) in contrast to all other characteristics. The treatment of kinetin was superior in all characteristics except for the specific weight of the leaves and their relative water content, as well as the treatment of cutting the growing top, with the addition of another exception, which is chlorophyll a and b. The licorice treatment superior the comparison treatment in the number of leaves, their area and percentage, and chlorophyll a. As for the cycocel treatment, it superior the comparison treatment in the number of branches, number of leaves and relative water content in the second cutting, it superior all treatments.
Keywords. Kinetin, Cycocel, licorice, Cutting the growing tops.


46.  The role of Indole-3-butyric acid, folic acid, yeast, and some extracted organic in stimulating the rooting of stevia cuttings
 
Zainab Adnan Ali and Bashir Abdullah Ibrahim
1 Field Crops Department, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
2 Field Crops Department, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq -mail: [email protected]
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract. To stimulate rooting of the cuttings of stevia plant, the experiment was conducted in pots on 1/3/2020, An apical cutting has been taken from the stems of one-year-old plants containing three nodes while keeping one pair of leaves on the cuttings and in a CRD design and in the arrangement of Split-Plots Design The first factor included two levels They are both wounding and non-wounding. As for the second factor, it included seven treatments: indolebutyric acid, folic acid, bread yeast, cinnamon, aloe vera gel, garlic extract and comparison. And five observations for each treatment and four recurrences. The results showed that the wounding treatment was significantly superior to all rooting traits. The percentage increase over the non-wounding  treatment was 72.12, 28.27, 31.09, 23.74 and 31.26% for rooting percentage, root length, number of roots, surface area of roots and dry weight, respectively. Indolebutyric acid and aloe vera gel were significantly superior to all other treatments in rooting percentage and without significant difference between them, with an increase of 213.00 and 170.88%, respectively than  comparison  treatment .In root length, treatments of aloe vera gel, garlic extract, yeast and indole butyric were superior,  The treatments of garlic extract, indole butyric, aloe vera and yeast were significantly superior in the number of roots, The treatments of yeast and aloe vera gel were significantly superior to the surface area of the roots, while in the dry weight of the roots, the treatments of indolebutyric and yeast were significantly superior to all other treatments. There was no significant interaction between the study factors in all traits. Accordingly, it can be said that wounding is a very important factor in increasing the indicators of root growth of the stevia cuttings, and that the treatment of this cuttings with indolebutyric acid, aloe vera, garlic extract and yeast has increased the indicators of root growth.
Keywords: aloe vera gel, cinnamon, garlic extract

 
47.  Determination of molecular genotype of human respiratory syncytial virus in respiratory patients in Thi-Qar Province
 
Sally Salih Jumaa
National University of Science and Technology, Thi-Qar, Iraq
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The current study has targeted for detection of one important pathogenic virus which responsible for respiratory tract illness (RTI) that involved Human Respiratory syncytial viruses (HRSV), association with demographic and some parameters including age, sex, and clinical symptoms. The clinical specimens which were preferred in this study was throat swab and blood specimens that were taken from 100 patients who experiencing from the respiratory tract illness, during the period from January to May 2019, in Thi-Qar Province south of Iraq. The techniques used in this study are Nested RT-PCR for RSV-A and RT-PCR for RSV-B.  The results that attained from this study are summarized in the following points: 1- Out of 100 patients suffering from respiratory tract infection, 38(38%) detected with Respiratory syncytial virus 24(24%) detected with RSV type A and 14(14%) detected with RSV type B. 2- The study found that 100 patients with respiratory illness. The percentage of females infected with RSV-A is equal to that of males. The patient group by RSV-A shows that (50%)of them are males and (50%) are females This result shows there is statistical significant differences between male and female (P<0.01). while, the   percentage of female infected with RSV-B is higher than male. The patients group by RSV-B show that (36%) of them are males and (64%) are females This result shows there is statistical significant differences between male and female (P<0.01).
Keywords: molecular genotype, human respiratory syncytial virus, acute respiratory infection

 
48.  48Evalation Of Antibacterial Activity Of Cobalt (Co) Nanoparticles Against Escherichia Coli
 
U. R. Hameed*and L. A . Yaaqoob
Dept. Biot., Coll. Scie., University of Baghdad, Iraq
*Correspondence: [email protected].
 
Abstract: It is the goal of this work to evaluate the utilization of Psedoumonas aeruginosa's pyocyanin pigment as a stabilizing and reducing agent for (Co) nanoparticles and their antibacterial effectiveness, multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli obtained from diverse clinical sources. Testing for antibiotic resistance revealed that E. coli isolates are resistant to Aztreonam, Nitrofuration, Ceftazidime, Amoxicillin\Clavulanic. acid, Trimethopim Sulphamethoxazole, Tobramycin, Piperacillin, Meropenem, Gentamicin, Cefotaxime, and Ertapenem. but susceptible to amikacin, Piperacillin\tazobactam, levofloxacin, and imipenem Cobaltous chlo-ride hexahydrate (5g) and pyocyanin (50 ml) are used to create cobalt nanoparticles (Co). Cobalt (Co) were characterized using a variety of techniques, including XRD, AFM, UV-VIS, and FTIR.
Keywords: antibacterial action, E. coli, cobalt nanoparticles (Co) NPS.


 
Esraa Muffic Obead1, and Rusul Mohamed Jasim2
1 Faculity of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq
2 Faculity of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The aims of this study isolation some contaminated fungi as (Aspergillus flavus, Arthroderma in-singular, Alternaria Alternata, Penicillium Chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Candida krusi, Candid fama-ta) and treatment by nanoparticles synthesis  from  synephrie, Characterization of the prepared nanoparticles by Ultraviolet-visible spectroscop, Atomic force microscopy (AFM),Scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The most effect of NPs in percent 1: 2 and the most fungus effected by NPs (Arthroderma) When the diameter in control (9.767) while in NPs was (5.233).
Keywords: Biosynthesis, Nanoparticles, contaminated fungi


 
Esraa Muffic Obead1 , and Rusul Mohamed Jasim2
1 Faculity of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq
2 Faculity of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The aims of this study to identify fungi (Apergillus flavus, Arthroderma insingular, Alternaria aiternata, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillum expansum, Candida krusei, Candida famata). Identified according to morphlogical and microscopic examination. The yeast identify by Vitek.Synephrine can be used as antifungal.It was extracted from the leaves of Citrus aurantium .The diameter of Aspergillus flavus (6.767), Arthroderma insingular (6.467), Alternaria aiternata (6.733), Penicillium expansum (6.700), Penicillium chrys-ogenum (6.900), Candida famata (1.133), Candida krusei (1.233).
Keywords: Synephrine, contaminated fungi, Exposure

 
Bushra ESAM1, and RASHA AL SAHLANEE2
1 Dept. Biotech. Coll Sci. University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
2 Dept. Biotech. Coll Sci. University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
* Correspondence: Email: [email protected]
 
ABSTRACT: This study focused on extraction the outer membrane nanovesicles (OMVs) from Escherichia coli BE2 (EC- OMVs) by ultracentrifugation and yield was of 2.3mg/ml. Followed by purification with gel fil-tration chromatography using Sephadex G-150 and it was 2mg/ml. The morphology and size of purified EC-OMVs   was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and it was at 40-200 nm. While the nature of functional groups in the vesicle was determined by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. The antitumor activity of EC-OMVs was conducted in vitro by MTT assay in human ovarian (OV33) cancer cell line at 24,48 and 96hrs. The cytotoxicity test showed high susceptibility to the vesicles in ovarian compared to normal cells with IC50 of 7.169 µg/ml at 96hrs of incubation. The current strategy is an effective and simple method to obtain EC-OMVs.
Keywords: ovarian cancer, lung cancer, antitumor, breast cancer, nanovesicle, MTT assay.

52.  Effect of nitrogen addition time on maize grain yield and its com-ponents (Zea mays L.)
 
Sarah Safaa Al-Din Naji Al-Diny1, and Hana Khudair Muhammad Ali Al-Haidari2
1 College of Agricultural Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq
2 College of Agricultural Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: A field experiment was carried out at Research Station A of the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences / University of Baghdad / Al-Jadriya, during the fall season of 2021. The experimental study aimed to identify the effect of time of nitrogen application on the growth and yield of maize, using the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates in the split-plot design arrangement. The experiment in-cluded two factors, the first factor included two cultivars of maize (Sarah and Fajr 1). On the other hand, the second factor is the time of nitrogen application, which is A0 represents recommended application with (50% at planting + 50% after 45 days), and A1 included (50% after a week of emergence + 50% at the 6-leaves stage). Moreover, A2 referred to (50% after a week of emergence + 50% at the 8- leaves stage), and A3 is (50% after a week of emergence + 50% at the tassel emergence),  while A4: denotes (50% after a week of planting + 25% of the recommended at the 6- leaves stage + 25% after the tassel emergence).   Finally, A5 corresponds to (25% after a week of emergence + 50% at the 6- leaves stage + 25% at the silk emergence), and A6: 25% after a week of emergence + 50% at the 8- leaves stage + 25% at the silk emergence). The results showed that the cul-tivar Sarah exceeded in the number of grains per ear, the weight of 300 grains, grain yield, and harvest index, as it gave the highest averages of 577.33 grain/ ear, 96.51 g, 7.93 ton.ha-1, 36.31% respectively. The times of adding nitrogen fertilizer differed in most of the studied traits, as the treatment A6 exceeded most of the applica-tion treatments by giving the highest averages in the number of grains per ear, the weight of 300 grains, grain yield, and harvest index, which amounted to 611.33 grain/ear 106.67 g, 8.68 ton.ha-1,  and 42.17%, respective-ly. The effect of the interaction between the dates of adding nitrogen and the cultivars was significant in most of the studied traits for the number of grains per ear and the percentage of protein in the grains. Accordingly, the cultivar Fajr 1 at the time of application A6 gave the highest average for the number of grains per ear reach-ing 650.00 grains/ear, 12.20%. Whereas the cultivar Sarah achieved the highest response to the treatment A6 in grain yield and harvest index 8.89 ton.ha-1, 42.44%.
Keywords: maize grain yield, Yellow corn, Zea mays L.

   
Firas Ibrahim Rahim1,*, Mohmmed K. Abdullah2, and Najlaa S. Madlul3
1 Department of Economics and Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, Tikrit University, Iraq
2 Department of Economics and Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, Tikrit University, Iraq
3 Department of Economics and Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, Tikrit University, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]  
 
Abstract: The importance of the cucumber crop is highlighted because it is important from a nutritional and health point of view for humans, because of its importance in the economy. A random sample was selected for this research estimated at.(75) farmers from the producers of the cucumber crop ,in Salah al-Din Governorate - Tikrit district, and the Data were taken from farmers using a questionnaire form, and information about The merchants were taken from the wholesale market in Tikrit district using (34) forms A questionnaire, as well as collecting (46) From the retailers’ forms, the results showed that the commission rate increased to (5%) of the product prices, and this is the reason for the high price of the product among retailers. The share of the product from consumer spending for the cucumber crop has reached (49.46%). As for the wholesaler's share of con-sumer spending for the crop under study (18.53%). As for the retailer's share of consumer spending for the crop under study (32%). As for the mediators’ share of the consumer’s dinar for the crop under study (50.53%). The results showed that the marketing margin between the wholesalers stage and the product was (27.25%) dinars/kg, while the relative margin for the wholesalers and retailers stage amounted to (32%) and the margin between the retailers stage and product (50(. The study showed a rise in the profits of the retailer from the margin, as it ranked first, as it reached as an average of the cucumber crop about (218.44 dinars - kg), while the profit for the wholesaler amounted to about (132.57 dinars/ kg The product profits amounted to about (98.655) dinars - kg. The researcher recommended working to provide production requirements and agricultur-al marketing requirements for the cucumber crop with good quality and appropriate prices, which have an ef-fective role in reducing production and marketing costs.
 
Key Words: The Economics, Marketing, Cucumber Crop.

   
Esraa Atea Ajeel1, and Rana Kadhim Mohammed2
"1 Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Bagdad, Iraq
2 Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Bagdad, Iraq
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The goal of this study was to detect antibiotic resistance and determine the ability of clinical isolates Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) to form biofilms and detect the relationship between biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance that depends on the specimen sources at the localized Baghdad Hospitals. This gram-negative rod bacterium is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a variety of illnesses in both people and animals, such as important respiratory tract infections. For these reasons, our study included 87 isolates of K. pneumoniae from different clinical cases. The number and percentage of obtained isolates according to the sources distributed as specimens: 26(29.9%) urine, 25(28.7%) blood, 8(9.2%) stool, and 4(4.6%) sputum, as well as swabs:11(12.6%) burn, 9(10.3%) vagina and 4(4.6%) wound. The antibiotic susceptibility test results showed colistin, imipenem, and meropenem were more effective against the isolates. The tissue culture plate and Congo red methods were used to evaluate biofilm formation. Finally, polymerase chain reaction was used to identify two genes linked with biofilm formation: MrkD and FimH.  The isolates showed different abilities to produce biofilms based on clinical sources. The result appeared (97.7%) of isolates as biofilm producers from the following: 41(47.13%) strongly, 33 (37.93%) moderately, and 11 (12.64%) weakly. While only two isolates 2 (2.3 %) represented non-biofilm producers. 100 and 91% of the isolates, respectively, had the MrkD and FimH biofilm formation genes, according to molecular analysis. A recent study showed that biofilm for-mation by K. pneumoniae strains isolated from blood specimens could form stronger biofilms. On the other hand, stool specimens formed weaker biofilm compared to them. According to this study, multi-drug resistant (MDR) K. pneumoniae strains' capacity to form biofilms and their antibiotic resistance profile are positively correlated. These could aid in developing therapeutic therapies for infections brought on by K. pneumoniae re-sistant to carbapenems, considered the "final line of defense" antibiotics. We can infer from this work that K. pneumoniae could be isolated from many sources and was MDR, as well as having the different capacity to build biofilm in various ways, especially in hospital cases of highly antibiotic resistance.
Keywords: K. pneumoniae, Biofilm formation, MDR, PDR, XDR, Congo red

   
Ali Mohammed Hussein1, and Neran Salem Aljarah2
1 College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences ,university of  Baghdad, Iraq
2 College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences ,university of  Baghdad, Iraq, [email protected]
*  Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The study was conducted in the fields of the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences for the 2022 season, University of Baghdad / Al-Jadriya. The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of soaking the okra seeds of the Hissainawya and Batra varieties with 0.05% of Humic acid for 12 hours in controlling the disease of rot, damping off, and root rot caused by the fungus Fusarium solani. The results showed the effec-tiveness of soaking treatment with Humic acid in reducing the disease incidence with damping off and root rot of okra seeds of the Hissainawya variety when planted in soil contaminated with the pathogen. In comparison, it reached 25% compared to the pathogen treatment only, which amounted to 75% in field conditions after 30 days of sowing. The average infection ratio and severity in okra plants after 70 days of sowing Hissainawya variety in the treatment of soaking with Humic acid. Besides, the soil spraying after 40 days of sowing in soil contaminated with the pathogen was 26.67 and 41.67%, respectively with a significant difference from the treatment of the pathogen F. solani which amounted to 55.67 and 58.33%, respectively. Finally, treating okra seeds of Hissainawya and Batra varieties with Humic acid had a significant effect on increasing plant height and dry weight, in general. Moreover, the Hissainawya variety responded more to the treatment of soaking with Humic acid compared to the treatment of soaking seeds for the Batra variety in field conditions.
Key words: Fusarium solani, Humic acid, Soaking seeds, Okra.


 
Israa Yahia AL-Qadhi1 and Basima Qasim Hasan AL-Saadi2
1 Biology Department College of Science, University of Diyala, Iraq
2 Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Baghdad, Iraq
*Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is an immune-regulatory cytokine, primarily secreted by activated T Helper-Type (Th) 2 cells, which inhibits inflammatory cytokine production in allergic asthma. Single nucleotide poly-morphism SNP (1295685A˃G) of the IL-13 gene and its serum level was included in a case-control study conducted on 60 Iraqi asthmatics and 60 controls. ELISSA-linked immune-sorbent assay was used to estimate blood serum level.  While, real time high resolution melting polymerase-chain-reaction (Real-time PCR-HRM) method was used to determine these variant. The results showed that mean level of the IL-13 was high in asthmatic patients as compared to the control group (22.90 pg/ml vs.13.99 pg/ml) respectively, and significant differences was (p=0.0001). ROC curve analysis of IL-13 described an AUC of 0.882. Regarding the allele and genotype of (A˃G 1295685) SNP, there were clear differences between patients and the control group, as the frequency of the GG +AG genotype was significantly higher (p=0.001) in patients compared to the control group (81.7%vs.23.3%) respectively, and the G allele frequency was higher in patients compared to the control group (48.8% vs. 16.6%) respectively, with significant difference (p=0.001). In conclusions, increased level of IL-13 in serum and the presence of the G allele, GG + AG genotype in IL13 gene were may be associated with   pathogenesis of allergic asthma in Iraqi adult patients.
Keywords: Allergic Asthma, IL-13, SNP, RT-HRM-PCR


 
Rand Manaf Abd Al-Rhman1,*, Rasha Al-sahlanee2, Jinan Mohammed Jawad Al-SAffar3, and Aida Hussain Ibrahim4
1 Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, IRAQ
2 Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, IRAQ
3 Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, IRAQ
4 Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, IRAQ
*  Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused enormous issues worldwide and the most infectious pandemic disease. 50 subjects (evenly distributed between sexes) were in-cluded in this study, as well as their rang of ages starting 2 to 67 year. According to the study's result, ages and gender of subject include susceptibility to COVID-19, males were found to be more infected than females and the ages among of 36 to 67 were more common than other ages range. Also, BMI calculations were revealed male patients with COVID- 19 that highest percentage obesity. The clinical parameter results have been found serum C‐reactive protein (CRP) as an essential indicator that changes significantly in infection with COVID‐19 and inflammation. The concentration of CRP is that higher levels for positive COVID‐19 patients (male and female) with mild symptoms COVID-19 than negative COVID‐19 infection, and CRP levels was found at higher in the male than female patients. The results D-dimer levels were determined a non-significant different of D-dimer levels in COVID-19 patients and non COVID-19 patients than normal concentration (N: Less than 500mg/dl.). The results hemoglobin blood levels demonstrated significant variations between COVID-19 pa-tients and non COVID-19 patients also demonstrated that a decrease Hb concentration compared to normal concentration (N: 11-16 g/dl.); thus a link between anemia and inflammation. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels increase in positive COVID-19 patients male were (178.79 ± 56.08) mg/dl and positive COVID-19 patients female were (141.57 ± 46.90) mg/dl than normal (N: Less than100mg/dl.), and significant variation was observed between positive and negative COVID-19 patients.
 
Keywords: COVID-19; C‐reactive protein; hemoglobin; lactate dehydrogenase.

 
 
Shams Ali Abd AL-Hussein 1,2 and Hamssa Ahmed Jasim2
1Department of Medical Laboratory Technique’s, Al-Esraa University Collage, Bagdad, Iraq,
2Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for Postgraduate, University of Baghdad, Iraq
 
Abstract: Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune human leukocyte antigen HLA– linked enteropathy that de-velop upon ingestion of gluten containing diet, with diarrhea, malabsorption and weight loss as a major presen-tation. The disease is closely linked to a number of extra intestinal disorder especially endocrine diseases. This study aimed to find Relationship between IL-6 gene polymorphism rs1800796 and IL-6 serum level with thy-roid Hormones in a sample of Iraqi celiac disease patients. The study includes one hundred subjects of Iraqi people in Baghdad (20-60 years), were divided in to two groups, The first group was included patients and second group control, DNA was extracted, then the Genotyping polymorphism (rs1800796) of the IL-6 gene was done by RT-PCR. The CC genotype showed a higher frequency in the control while the GG genotype showed a higher frequency in the patients.
Keywords: celiac disease (CD), genetic polymorphism IL-6gene, thyroid stimulation hormone.

59.  Effect of irrigation methods and potassium spray on the growth, yieldand water use efficiency of sorghum grown in degraded soil
 
Baraa Mohammed Al-Kargoli1 , Ayad Hussein Al-Maaini2, and Hadi Mohamed Karim3
1 University of Baghdad, College of Agriculture
2 University of Baghdad, College of Agriculture
3 University of Baghdad, College of Agriculture
 
Abstract: A factorial field experiment was implemented using a randomized complete block design (RCBD)1 with three replicates To study the effect of the interaction between different irrigation methods and potassium spraying on the productivity of sorghum bicolor L in silty loam at the experiment station of the Agricultural Research Department, Ministry of Agriculture located in the Abu Ghraib area for the autumn season 2021. The experiment included five treatments for different irrigation methods: Cultivation of seeds in the underside of furrow and drip irrigation l1,  Cultivation of seeds in tops of furrow and drip irrigation l2, Cultivation on the surface and irrigation inside the plot with drip irrigation l3, Cultivation of seeds in the underside of furrow and surface irrigation l4,  Cultivation of seeds in tops of furrow and surface irrigation l5. As for the sub plot, it included three treatments: one spray of potassium in the eight-leaved stage (K1), two sprays, the first at the eight-leaved stage and the second at the eight-leaved stage, and the spraying was repeated at the ten-leaved stage (K2), as well as a control treatment without spraying (K0) that was sprayed With distilled water only. it use potassium sulfate fertilizer (K2SO4) as a source of potassium. The results indicate the excelled of the irri-gation treatment of Cultivation of seeds in the underside of furrow and surface irrigation l4, and two sprays of potassium (K2) to give it the highest average plant height (147.17) cm. The number of grains per plant (3100), the weight of 500 grains (15.27) g, the grain yield (3.31) tons ha-1 and the biological yield (18.80) tons ha-1. The treatment of cultivation of seeds in tops of furrow and drip irrigation l2had the highest mean leaf area (665.8) cm2 and harvest index (17.84)% and that the treatment of cultivation on the surface and irrigation inside the drip plots(l3)) recorded the highest efficiency of water use amounted to (0.689) kg m-3.
Keywords: irrigation methods, potassium, growth, yieldand water, sorghum grown, degraded soil

 
Emad Khalaf Khedher Al-qassi1,*, Mohammed Ibrahim Mohammed2
1 Field Crops Department, College of Agriculture, University of Tikrit; [email protected]
2 Department of Medicinal and Industrial Plants, College of Agriculture – Hawija, Kirkuk University ; [email protected]
* Correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study five hybrids, four of them introduced (Zwin, Zp, Syngenta, and Kws) and the local hybrid Baghdad in the spring lug and with three planting dates (5/3, 15/3, and 25/3) and in the two seasons 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 in the design of randomized complete sectors to study the performance of the Genotype stability in three planting dates and two seasons. Thus, we have six environ-ments, Where the highest genetic variation coefficient in the first and second environment was in the number of grains per ear, which amounted to 11.84 and 12.37 respectively, and in the third environment the weight of the ear reached 25.08, and the fourth, fifth and sixth environment in the number of grains per ear reached 15.14, 24.93 and 13.39, respectively. The results were different. Genotype and genetic parameters in their perfor-mance in different environments. The two genotypes (Zwin and Kws) showed significance in the highest number of traits, in contrast to the rest of the genotypes. The superiority of the Syngenta genotype was shown in leaf area, leaf area index, plant height, ear diameter, number of rows per ear, the weight of 300 grains, grain yield, and protein percentage, which were 4027, 3.29, 162.8, 51.03, 17.16, 60.09, 3.99, and 11.22 on the re-spectively, then the Zp genotype in tasselling and silking, ear length and number of grains per ear, as their av-erage values were 54.12, 59.09, 17.92 and 466.8, respectively.
 
Keywords: Maize; Stability; Environmental; Genetic Parameter; Stability Triangle.

   
Falah Hassan Ali Alsaady1,*, Amer Hussein Hamdan Alzobaay1
1 college of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Al-Jadriya, Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected]
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Bacterial starter Lactobacillus plantarum at concentration of 5% was added to Salami which was manufactured by using buffalo meat and belly fat, both separately and the same kind, in rate of 75% pure meat, 15% fat, 2% salt, 1% glucose, 2% spices or  C.citratus. The fermentation process was done at 37°C and rela-tive humidity of 80-85% for a period of 48 hours for all treatments, the salami was stuffed in natural casing, ripening at a temperature ranging between 18-20 °C and a humidity of 75-80% for 8 weeks, The salami prod-uct was divided into five groups, depending on the proportion of lemongrass, which was Lg1 Spices 2%,  Lg2 C.citratus   2%,  Lg3 Spices 1% + C.citratus  1%,  Lg4 Spices 0.5% + C.citratus  1.5 %  Lg5 Spices 1.5 % + C.citratus    0.5 %. Buffalo salami were recorded for Thiobarbituric acid ( TBA) trials Lg2 recorded the lowest value for TBA during 2 and 60 days, where it recorded 0.30, 0.65, mg malonaldehyde kg-1 respectively. While the treatment Lg1 recorded the highest value during a period of 2 days, 60 days of fermentation and ripening ,which recorded 0.36 and 0.98, mg malonaldehyde kg-1 respectively. And recorded for non- protein nitrogen( NPN) trials Lg1 recorded the lowest value for NPN during  60 days, where it rec-orded 3.10 %, . While the trials Lg2 recorded the highest value during a period of 60 days of fermentation and ripening ,which recorded 3.15.  Sensory evaluation  for flavor , Tenderness, Juicy,  Degree of general ac-ceptance , and Texture, whereas trial Lg2 was the highest recorded 8.0 ,6.6, 7.7, 8.0 (scale point 8.0) and 3.0 (scale point 5.0) respectively.
Keywords: Lemongrass, fermented Buffalo meat Salami, Lb. plantarum,TBA,  NPN, sensory properties.


 
Farah Alkaebi1, Parisa Tahmasebi2,* and Amjed Alsultan3
1 Department of biology,faculty of science,Ilam university,Ilam,Iran; [email protected].
2 Department of biology,faculty of science,Ilam university,Ilam,Iran; [email protected].
3  Department of Internal and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Al-Dewaniyah, Iraq; [email protected].
* Correspondence : [email protected]
 
Abstract: Effective, accurate and rapid diagnostic tools for detection SARS-covid2 infection are urgently needed to prevent and control the pandemic. While RT-qPCR is a gold standard test for diagnosis of SARS-Covid2 infections, this method limited by the requirement for expensive equipment, experienced staff and specialized molecular laboratory. Recently, CRISPR cas13 platform was used for the detection of COVID-19. This study conducted to evaluate the clinical performance of CRISPR based cas13a diagnostic assay for SARS-Covid2. In the current study, the diagnostic performance of Cas13-based SHERLOCK (Spe-cific High Sensitivity Enzymatic Reporter Unlocking) assay was compared with RT-qPCR in terms of Sensi-tivity, specificity and time consuming.
Keywords: Crispr-Cas13; Covid-19; Sherlock.  

 
Hayder Abdelabbas Hadi1,* and Radhi Fadhil Al-Jassany2
1Department of plant protection, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad; [email protected]
2Department of plant protection, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad; [email protected]
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Nosema ceranae is one of the most serious diseases affecting adult honey bees worldwide. It is referred to as a silent killer because there are no distinguishing symptoms So Polymerase chain reaction( multiplex PCR) was used to identify the rRNA marker for Nosema ceranae in 2700 Apis mellifera samples collected from three Governorates (AL-Najaf ، Wasit ، Diyala) in Iraq over a six-month period at 2021-2022. DNA sequencing analysis of the N. ceranae samples revealed no intra specific variation in the 219 bp of the 16s SSU of N. ceranae from Iraq and the strain was recorded in NCBI with number OM985045.1 ، OM985047.1 and OM9790821.1 respectively . Before using PCR the samples were examined using an optical microscope It was discovered that the high percentage of infection in a colonies in Autumn 2021 was 70.3 % in Diyala in October and the low percentage is 47.5% in Wasit in December ، The high percentage in workers is 92.7 % in October in Diyala and the low percentage is 52.0% in Wasit in December .The highest number of spores per bee was recorded in Diyala in November it was 86.9x10^5 spores ، the lowest number was 49.5x10^5 spores recorded in Wasit in October . While in Spring 2022 the high percentage in colonies was 54.4% in April in Al-Najaf in May and the low percentage was 32.3% ، the high percentage in workers was 84.0% in March in Diyala and the low percentage was 38.7% in May in AL-Najaf ، The high number of spores was recorded in November in Diyala was 86.9x10^5spores and lowest number was 48x10^4spores in May in Al-Najaf.
Keywords: Nosema ceranae, colonies infection, Honey bees


 
Hmsa Ahmed Sbhie1,* and Baidiaa Hafidh Mahommed2
1Department of Food Science, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected].
2Department of Food Science, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected].
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The aim of the research was to study the effect of the germination process on the chemical composi-tion and content of phenolic compounds, phytic acid, mineral elements and amino acids of locally grown maize.The results of the chemical composition of the non- germinated maize showed that the content of protein, fat, ash, moisture, fiber, and carbohydrates were (7.75 - 10.271 - 1.46 - 6.79 -3.173 -70.886) respectively, while the results of germinated maize were from protein, fat, Ash, fiber, carbohydrates (9.13- 9.167 -1.27- 5.93- 4.822- 69.861) respectively. As for the amount of phenolic compounds, it increased after germination, as it reached for germinated yellow maize compared to non- germinated maize (159 mg/gm-145 mg/gm) respec-tively, in addition to germination, it reduced the amount of phytic acid in germinated maize compared to non- germinated maize, which amounted to (2.8 mg/100gm). -48.9 mg/100 g) respectively. As for the percentage of mineral elements, which are iron, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, zinc, calcium for germinated maize, it reached (0.2883-3.87 -0.139-0.078 - 7.76-23.4), respectively. As for non- germinated maize, the percentage of iron, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, Zinc, calcium (0.2811-3.43 -0.142-0.086-17.5-21.4) respectively. The effect of germination on the proportion of amino acids, the results showed that germination led to an im-provement in the proportion of some essential and non-essential amino acids.
Keywords: yellow corn, germination, amino acids, phytic acid.

 
Hussein Wael Mahmood ,* and Zakariya Bader Al Hamdani2
1 Field Crops Department, College of Agricultural and Forestry, University of Mosul, Iraq; [email protected]
2 Field Crops Department, College of Agricultural and Forestry, University of Mosul, Iraq; [email protected]
* Correspondence: [email protected] ; Tel.: 009647719815655
 
Abstract: The study was conducted in one of the fields of Al-Yamja area, south of Mosul, which is (5) km from the city Centre for the season (2020-2021). Where five genotypes of soft wheat were used, which were obtained from the Organization (C.I.M.M.Y.T), adding an approved local cultivar (Abu Ghraib). The cultiva-tion was carried out on lines with a length of (2) m and the distance between one line and another (30) cm us-ing a randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D) with three replications and in the manner explained by 1 The study included the following traits: number of days to flowering at (50%), plant height (cm), spike length (cm), number of grains/spike, number of spikes/plant, vital yield (g/plant) and grain yield (g /plant), The weight of 100 grains and the harvest index %, where the analysis of variance table shows that all the genotypes showed significance at the probability level of 1% except for the trait number of spikes/plant, which was sig-nificant at the probability level of 5% and trait of the harvest index % .The statistical significance was not reached, and the studied phenotypic, genetic and environmental variance values showed that they were more significant than zero for all studied traits except for the genetic variance for the characteristic of harvest index % Where it did not differ significantly from zero, it was noted that the values of heritability in the broad sense were high and for all the studied traits except for the trait number of spikes/plant was medium and the recipe of harvest index % was low, the values of the expected genetic improvement were as an average percentage for the traits of plant height, spike length and the number of grains/spike. The vital yield, grain yield and weight of 100 grains were low for the characteristics of the number of days to flowering at (50%) , the number of spikes/plant and harvest index %, we note that the values of the genetic variation coefficient were the highest for a trait of spike length, number of grains/spike and biological yield, and the values of the phenotypic varia-tion coefficient were the highest for the traits of spike length, number of grains/spike and biological yield.
Keywords: genetic parameters, bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L.



Marwa hussein Abd1,* and Rasha H. Jehad2
1 Department of Restorative and Aesthetic Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad; [email protected]
2 Department of Restorative and Aesthetic Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad; [email protected] . ORCID
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The aim of this study is evaluate the advantages of employing nano-hydroxyapatite in dentistry, par-ticularly for preventive, treatment applications. Only electronic published papers were searched within this re-view. Sources: “PubMed” website was the only source used to search for data. 92 most relevant papers to the topic were selected, especially the original articles and review papers, from 1990 till the 1st of april 2022. The morphology of nano-hydroxyapatite, as well as the structure of its crystals, are close to that of dental enamel. As a result, hydroxyapatite can biomimetically replace the natural enamel mineral element.
Keywords: remineralization of enamel, nanotechnology, nanohydroxyapatite, hypersensitivity.

 
 
Mohamed Mahmoud Shiaa1,* and Firas Ibrahim Arhim2
1 Department of The agricultural economy, College of Agriculture, Tikrit University, Tikrit , Iraq; [email protected]
2 Department of The agricultural economy, College of Agriculture, Tikrit University, Tikrit , Iraq;
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The aim of the research is to estimate the technical and specialized efficiency and the economic effi-ciency of wheat crop varieties according to the data envelope analysis method (DEA) and according to the va-rieties in the research sample, which are (Bura, Adana, Iba 99), and the data was obtained by designing a ques-tionnaire using the random sampling method for farms in the field. Determining the size of the samples for the studied items according to their percentage in the community for (150) farms by (50) farms for each item in the research sample. The results of the efficiency analysis were obtained according to the data envelope for pro-duction functions and costs with stability and change in capacity returns. The results of the analysis showed, depending on the variables of the production function, The results showed that the farms that achieved full ef-ficiency (100%) were (11) farms, which were divided into (3) farms for the (Bura) variety, (6) farms for the (Adena) variety, and (2) farms for the (Ibaa 99) variety. These farms can be counted References to the sample farms that did not reach full efficiency, and the number of farms that achieved 100% efficiency in light of the change in yield was (18) farms, divided (6) farms for the (Bura) variety, (8) farms for the (Adena) and (4) farms for the variety (Ibaa 99), respectively, while the number of farms that did not reach 100% efficiency in light of the change in the field Lead (44, 42, 46) farms for varieties (Bura, Adana, Ibaa 99), respectively. De-pending on the variables of the cost function, it turns out that the total of the farms that achieved 100% alloca-tive efficiency (6) farms with one farm for the Pura variety and (4) farms for the variety below and one farm for the Ibaa 99 variety. In this case, these farms do not have any surplus inputs because of their consumption of all inputs The optimum size to reach the optimum production, and the results of estimating the economic ef-ficiency of the wheat crop and the studied varieties were also shown, as the average economic efficiency was (0.51, 0.44, 0.41) for varieties (Bura, Aden, Iba 99), respectively, and this level is low, which is the result of the product of each From technical efficiency and allocative efficiency, which shows that these farms can re-duce costs by (49%, 56%, 59%) and achieve the same production level, or that these farms can get the current production using (51%, 44%, 41%) of resources to become economically efficient, and in light of the results that have been reached, the research recommended encouraging farmers to use the seeds of modern varieties with high production to make the best use of agricultural areas in order to give the best production. In addition to benefiting from the efficiency indicators obtained through the data envelope model, and the need to activate the role of the agricultural extension system in alerting farmers to the use of modern agricultural methods in line with the technical progress in this field, especially in the countries of the world.
Keyword: Wheat; Cultivars; Data Envelope.

 

Mustafa sami saeed Al obaidi1 and Hisham Ahmed Saleh Al-mashhadani2,*
1 Assistant Chief Agricultural Engineers at the Ministry of Agriculture - General Company for Agricultural Supplies. Iraq – Baghdad;
2 College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad; [email protected]
 
Abstract: The experiment was conducted in the poultry field of the Department of Animal Production - Col-lege of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad / Abu Ghraib for the period from 20/9/20/2021 to 10/31/2021 (42 days). To study the effect of adding a blend of herbal powders (Turmeric powder, anise, coriander, cumin, Cinnamomum) to broiler diets on some physiological traits and some indica-tors of oxidation in meat. In the field experiment, 240 broiler chicks, 308 Ross, obtained from Al-Shukr Broil-er Production Company, located in Baghdad / Abu Ghraib province, with an average initial weight of 40.28 g, were used. Each treatment included four replicates of 10 chicks/duplicate, and the experimental treatments were as follows: T1 control (free of adding herbs), and T2 control treatment containing antibiotic (oxytetracycline 0.05%) and T5, T4, T3 and T a mixture of herbs in proportions (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1%)As this mixture includes five types of aromatic plants (Turmeric powder, anise, coriander, cumin, Cinnamomum), The results showed that there were no significant differences in the percentage of dressing, the treatment T4 (0.50%) achieved the highest weight of the chest and neck piece, while T5 and T6 achieved a significant decrease in the weight of the neck, and there were no significant differences in the relative weight of the edible internal viscera, abdominal fat and Vibricia gland, As for the physiological traits, the two treatments T5 and T6 achieved a significant de-crease in the urea concentration, and there was no significant difference between the treatments in creatine. Sig-nificant decrease in cholesterol concentration for all addition treatments, where for oxidation indicators, T5 treatment achieved a decrease in the value of peroxide with significantly excelled in the value of glutathione before storage and 30 days after storage.
Keywords: herbal powders, turmeric, cumin, anise, Cinnamon, coriander, broiler diets, oxidation of meat


 
Saif Abdulameer Salman1,* and Ziena M.Abdul-Qader2
1 Department of Horticulture and Landscaping Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Uni-versity of Baghdad - Al-Jadriya; [email protected] .
2 Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Unit, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Al-Jadriya.; [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1803-2735
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The experiment was carried out in one of the fields of Research Station B in the College of Agri-cultural Engineering Sciences / University of Baghdad - Al-Jadiriya on the fragrant plant for the spring season 2021 in order to study the effect of harvest date, mycorrhiza, bio-stimulants and the interaction among them on some characteristics of vegetative growth and the essential oil yield of Sweet scented geranium plants. The ex-periment was carried out according to a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with a split plot design, with three replications. The experiment included three factors, as the factor of harvest dates represents the main panels with two harvest dates, which are 60 and 90 after planting and symbolized by H1 and H2, while the secondary panels include the treatment of the mycorrhizal fungal vaccine by two treatments, namely, not adding the mycorrhizal fungal vaccine to the root system and adding it with symbols M1 and M2 As for the sub-secondary panels, the treatments include four stimulating factors: the measurement treatment and the spraying of the vegetative mass with the amino acid phenylalanine at a concentration of 300 mg l̄¹. And the treatment of spraying the foliage with moringa leaves extract at a concentration of 10 gm L ̄ ¹ and the treatment of spraying the foliage with licorice root powder extract at a concentration of 10gm L ̄¹symbolized by B1, B2, B3, and B4 respectively. The results that were reached showed: the superiority of the H2 treatment in most in-dicators of vegetative growth as well as the increase in the percentages of each of the nutrients and volatile oil in the dried leaves and the volatile oil yield in the dried leaves. Treatment M2 significantly increased all vegeta-tive growth characteristics as well as the percentages of nutrients and volatile oil in dried leaves and volatile oil yield in dried leaves, while treatment B3 showed an increase in the number of main branches, total number of leaves, total leaf area, fresh and dry weight of leaf yield in the plant and the content of The dried leaves of total chlorophyll as well as the percentages of nutrients and volatile oil in the dried leaves of the plant and the yield of volatile oil in the dried leaves, while treatment B2 had a significant effect in increasing the plant height rate, the number of main branches and the fresh weight of the leaves. One of the most prominent triple interaction treatments recorded The largest increase in all the traits studied in the above is the triple interaction H2M2B3 treatment, which was characterized by an increase in most vegetative growth characteristics, especially: the wet and dry weight of leaves and the percentages of nutrients as well as the percentage of volatile oil and volatile oil yield in the leaves. The triple interaction treatment H2M2B4 was also characterized by its recording Remarka-ble superiority in both plant height and leaf content of Total chlorophyll and percentage of potassium.
Keywords: Sweet scented geranium plant, Harvest date, Mycorrhizae, Bio stimulants, vegetative growth, volatile oil.

 
 
Sarah Raad Shaker1, Ibtehaj Mustfa Hakeem2,* and Hasan Moamin Lilo3
"1 College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad;
2 College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad ; [email protected]
3  College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad; [email protected]
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The study included evaluating the effectiveness of aqueous extract of Thyme leaf powder on the in-hibition of the alpha-amylase enzyme produced by insect larvae (Trogoderma granarium), as well as studying the most important active compounds to know their biological effect on the enzyme by using H.P.L.C technol-ogy. Optimum conditions of temperature and pH were determined to measure the inhibitor activity and stability toward the enzyme. The results of HPLC cleared that the thyme aqueous extract had a high level of tannin 9 micrograms/ml. The chemical tests for this study indicated that thyme leaves contain saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, resins and alkaloids. The results showed that the aqueous lyophilization process gave the best ex-traction rate of 68% and also preserved the active compounds without heat. It was noted out of the study re-sults that the best inhibition of the enzyme was when using a concentration of 10%, which means that the higher the concentration of the inhibitor is, the higher will be its effectiveness. Through the study of the various factors, we find that the best temperature for inhibition is 30 °C. As for PH, it was at pH = 7. It has been con-cluded in this study that the possibility of using the extract of thyme to inhibit the alpha-amylase enzyme is produced by Insect larvae (Trogoderma granarium) as a paradigm.
Keywords: a-amylase, Trogoderma granarium, thyme, lyophilization, HPLC.

 
Wedyan Yousif Al-tikrity1,* and Thaer Mohamed Al-Mashhadani2
"1 Department of Biology, College of Science, Mosul University, Iraq; [email protected].
2 Department of Biology, College of Science, Mosul University, Iraq; [email protected].
* Correspondence: [email protected].
 
Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) on some physiological and biochemical parameters of rats subjected to stress by starvation, and 56 mature males were divided into eight groups.(Control, Olive Oil, Starvation, BHT Concentration (100 mg/kg), BHT Concentra-tion (50 mg/kg), Starvation + BHT concentration (100 mg/kg), starvation + BHT concentration (50 mg/kg), starvation + olive oil. The results showed that the olive oil group and BHT groups at concentration (50, 100 mg/kg) There was no significant difference in most of the treatments within the studied variables, while the starvation group showed a significant decrease in the concentration of (Total protein, Albumin, Lipase Enzyme, Lactate Dehydrogenase Enzyme (LDH), Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC)) compared with. The control group, while the starvation + BHT group did not show a concentration ((100,50 mg/kg)) Significant difference compared with the control group in all the above-mentioned variables, which shows And clearly the protective effect of BHT against the negative effect of starvation by maintaining its concentrations within its normal level..
Keywords: BHT; Starvation; Total Protein; Albumin; Lipase Enzyme; LDH; TAC.

   
Kurdistan A. AlSalam A. AlKarem1, and Suzan.Kamran. Hasan2
"1 Department of Food Science, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of     
Baghdad, Iraq, [email protected]
* Correspondence: [email protected],  
 
Abstract: Bacteriocins were produced from Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophiles and MIX (Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophiles) by two methods: Shaker Fermentation and Static Fer-mentation (aerobic and anaerobic) through bacterial growth in MRS liquid medium. For each of them and the detection of the inhibitory activity on some types of pathogenic bacteria through the growth of the test bacteria on a solid nutrient medium Agar Nutrient. It was found that the three isolates have the ability to produce bacte-riocin and there are significant differences between each of the bacteriocins towards the pathogenic bacteria. It shows that the bacteriocin produced from Lactobacillus bulgaricus It has a higher inhibitory activity and can inhibit different types of bacteria from gram-positive and gram-negativeKeywords: Doxazosin, Chloroquine, Synergism, MCF-7, Autophagy
Keywords: Shaker Fermentation. Static Fermentation. bacteriocins. Lactic acid bacteria.


 
Farah Alaa Abdulkareem 1, Athraa Alwaheb 2, *
1 Master student. Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
2 Professor, Department of Pedodontic and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
*Correspondence: [email protected] ; Tel(009647705857992)
 
Abstract: Background: the most prevalent chronic condition in the world is caries, The revolution in minimum in-vasive dentistry clarified the necessity for clinical effective methods to allow remineralization of newly formed enamel caries and Nanotechnology provides new approaches for it. nano-sized ZnO In addition to the individualized antifungal and antibacterial properties,it has been used in fluoride precipitation from aqueous solutions, it acts as an adsorbent to remove F ions .Aims of the study: were to test the effect of application of Zinc Oxide NP with Sodium Fluoride solution on the microhardness of artificially induced dental caries on enamel surface, in comparison to So-dium Fluoride alone. materials amd methods: thirteen upper first premolars extracted for orthodontic treatment were used.results: the nano particles increase the surface reminerlization more than sodium floride alone and have greater microhardness scores. Conclusion: using Zinc Oxide nanoparticles with sodium fluoride is better than using sodium fluoride alone.
Keywords: Dental caries, Noninvasive dentistry, Nanoparticles, Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles, Reminerlization.


 
Zainab Mahdi Abdul-Jabbar 1, *, Nibal Mohammed Hoobi 2
1 Master student, Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad.
2 Assist. Prof., Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad.
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The study was conducted among college students in Al-Najaf city/Iraq, where it included evalu-ating dental caries experience, salivary flow rate, salivary pH and salivary total protein concentration in re-lation to electronic cigarette smoking. A cross-sectional method used to compare dental caries experience, salivary flow rate, salivary pH and salivary total protein concentration of 40 electronic cigarette smokers and 40 non-smokers considered as a control group. SPSS version 22 was used to analyze the data, and sta-tistical significance was determined at p>0.05. The results showed no significant difference in the dental caries experience between the two groups except DMFT the result was significant, while there was signif-icant difference in the salivary flow rate and salivary pH between the groups. Moreover, no statistically significant difference in the salivary total protein concentration of the groups. This study concluded that electronic cigarettes had potentially detrimental effects on oral health and selected physicochemical proper-ties of saliva.
Keywords: Electronic Cigarette, Dental Caries Experience, Salivary Flow Rate, Salivary pH, Total Protein.


 
Husam Samir Nema 1 ,  Huda qasim Alhimdany 2
1 Ministry of Agriculture
2 Department of Animal Production , College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad.
* Correspondence: [email protected].
 
Abstract: This study was conducted at the University of Baghdad / College of Agricultural Engineering Sci-ences, with the aim of showing the effect of adding lemongrass leaf powder (Cymbopogon citratus) and vita-min C to broiler diets at different levels on the productive traits of broilers. This experiment was conducted in the poultry field (Abu Ghraib) / Department of Animal Production / Agricultural Engineering Sciences/ for a period from 10/15/2021 to 11/26/2021 for a period of (42 days). In the study, 240 unsexed commercial hybrid (Ross 308) chicks of one day age were used, they were randomly assigned to 6 treatments and 4 replicates for each treatment (10 chicks/duplicate). The experimental treatments were as follows:Control treatment T1 (feed without supplement), treatment T2 (add lemongrass 2 g/kg feed), T3 (add lemongrass 4g/kg feed), T4 (add lemongrass 6g/kg feed), treatment T5 (add lemongrass lemongrass 8g/kg feed),Treatment T6 (add vitamin C 0.5 g/kg feed). If we note that there are no differences between the addition treatments compared to the control treatment during the experiment period in the productive traits, then we note that there are no significant differ-ences between all the addition treatments compared to the control treatment despite the presence of arithmetic differences between them.
Keywords: lemongrass, broiler, productive traits


 
Wasan Abed Aljabar Dohan1,* and Sawsan Mohammed Kareem2
1 Biology department, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected] . OR-CID
2 Biology department, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected]
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract:  Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacteria, adaptation in different types of environments make them very aggressive and life-threating pathogens for human especially patients who suffer from weak immunity. This study aimed to evaluate genes expression of each mexA and mexB genes in Pseudomonas ae-ruginosa isolates, which isolated from clinical samples, Screening of efflux pumps in multidrug P. aeruginosa phenotypically was done by Cather wheel method. Study genes expression of efflux pump genes under ciprofloxacin antibiotic stress and Et.Br were done in different concentrations of cip and EtBr. One hundred and ten (110) isolates of Pseudomonas spp. were collected from different hospitals in Baghdad city, (50) iso-lates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa identified and confirmed were done. The results appeared according to the type of clinical sources the fifty-isolate distributed as 35 (70 %) burns swab samples, 10 (20 %) from wounds swab, 5 (10 %) from ear discharge. Results of mexA Ct values were ranged from 32.1 to 36.79 with average 34.337 and results of mexB Ct values were ranged from 14.74 to 19.96 with average 16.791 compare to rpsL (Ct = 11.14) reference gene. The results showed that mean of Ct of gene expression was noticed when put them under stress of Et.Br. + CIP and CIP in mexA was 37.195 and 34.702, respectively, compare to control 34.337, on the other hand the gene expression between both treatments was over expressed in treatment of CIP 32 compare to CIP+Et.Br. The results of Cather wheel method expression was noticed when put them under stress Et.Br. + CIP and CIP in mexB gene expression was 19.626 and 18.872, respectively compare to control 16.791. In conclusion the both treatments compare to control not induce the expression of mexB genes, on the other hand the gene expression between both treatments was expressed in treatment of CIP 32 compare to CIP+Et.Br.
Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, mexA, mexB, Cather Wheel.

 
Walaa Muhammad Abdullah1,*, Wafaa Ismail Ibrahim2 and Ali Najm Abdullah3
1 College of Agricultural Engineering, University of Baghdad;
2 College of Agricultural Engineering, University of Baghdad;
3 Agricultural research office.
*Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The experiment was conducted at the Ruminant Research Station of the General Authority for Ag-ricultural Research / Ministry of Agriculture on a sample of 53 goats of two breeds (26 Shami goats and 27 local goats), as well as the Scientific Progress Laboratory specialized in biotechnology and genetic material analysis. In order to determine the genotypes and allelic repeats of the CYP17 gene in goats to determine its relationship to milk production and its components, after the completion of the PCR polymerase chain reaction, the results were sent to the Humainzing Genomics Macrogen Company in South Korea for the purpose of de-tecting the genotypes of the studied area using the sequencing technology,Two genotypes TT and TA were obtained at the site (T2231A), and the percentage of TT genotype was 26.92% for Shami goats, and the per-centage of TA genotype was 73.08, and the relationship between them was significant (P≥0.05), and the allelic frequency of the T allele was And A 0.63 and 0.37, respectively, where the results showed a significant rela-tionship (P≥0.05) between the genotypes and the amount of total milk production, As well as the percentage of solids that are not fatty. Whereas, the animals carrying the TT genotype recorded the highest amount of pro-duction than the animals carrying the TA genotype and it was 571.08 ± 48.69 and 432.24 ± 50.56, respective-ly. Also, the animals carrying the TT genotype outperformed the animals carrying the TA genotype in the per-centage of solid non-fat components, which scored 12.79 ± 1.66, and they scored 9.89 ± 1.63. The percentage of TT genotype for domestic goats was 40.74%, and the percentage of genotype TA was 59.26, and the rela-tionship between them was significant (P≥0.05), and the allelic frequency of the T and A allele was 0.70 and 0.30, respectively, The results also showed a significant relationship (P≥0.05) between the genotypes and the amount of total milk production of the local goats, where the animals carrying the TT genotype recorded the highest amount of production than the animals carrying the TA genotype, and it scored 548.15 ± 72.06 and 350.10 ± 47.94, respectively. Thus, the CYP17 gene can be used in genetic improvement programmes.
Keywords: Goats; CYP17 Gene; Genotype; Milk Production.

 
Alaa Raja Ali Al-Ta'iy1 and Waleed Khalid Shahatha Al-Juheishy2,*
1 Department of Field Crops, College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul, Iraq;
2 Department of Field Crops, College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul, Iraq;[email protected].
* Correspondence:[email protected]
 
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted winter agricultural season for the year (2020-2021) in two loca-tions: the first location in the Nineveh Forest Nursery/Desertification Department (Mosul city center) at longi-tude 43̊ 15′ east and latitude 35̊ 36′ north, and the second location in Abu Maria village ( Tal Afar District) is one of the suburbs of Tal Afar District, which is approximately 50 km west of the city of Mosul at longitude 42̊ 35′ east and latitude 36̊ 25′ north. To study the effect of planting dates (11/30, 12/20, 1/10) and zinc con-centrations (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 mg/L) on the growth, yield and quality of flax (Sharda) cultivar, the experiment was conducted according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) system with split plots and with three replicates, where the planting dates occupied the main plots, While zinc concentrations occupied the sub plots. The planting dates showed significant differences in all growth and yield traits for both locations of Ni-neveh Forest Nursery and Abu Maria village.It was found from the average values of these traits that the early planting date (30/11) excelled in plant height, number of branches/plant, number of capsules/plant, number of seeds/capsule, seed yield and biological yield.While the second date (20/12) outperformed the harvest index in both locations, and the late date (10/1) excelled in the 1000-seed weight trait for both locations of the experi-ment. Zinc concentrations showed significant differences in all studied traits and for both experimental loca-tions. The zinc concentration (60 mg/L) excelled in plant height, number of branches/plant, number of cap-sules/plant, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index in both locations, while the concentration (45 mg/L) was excelled in number of seeds/capsule. There was a significant interaction between sowing dates and zinc concentrations in most of the studied traits. The interaction between planting date (30/11) and zinc concentra-tion (60 mg/L) was excelled to seed yield for both locations , number of plant branches in Nineveh Forest Nursery location, and biological yield at Abu Maria village location. The interaction between planting date (20/12) and zinc concentration (30 mg/L) was excelled on the harvest index in the Nineveh forest nursery loca-tion, while the interaction between planting date (20/12) was excelled to zinc concentration (60 mg/L) in Har-vest index at the location of the village of Abu Maria.
Keywords: flax; planting dates; zinc.


 
Baraa Salam Hamad Hamza Al Sultani1, * and Abbas Ghanem Hamza2
1 Al-Mussaib Technical College, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University;
2 Al-Mussaib Technical College, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University;
* Correspondence : [email protected]
 
Abstract: A laboratory study was conducted to determine the effect of the filtrate of the fungus Beauveria bassiana and the alcoholic extract of the wormwood plant Artemisia herba - alba on the destruction of the larval stages of the waxworm major, the results of the study showed that the filter of the fungus B. bassiana had an effect on the destruction of the larval stages of the waxworm. The highest mortality rate was 76.7% for the second larval stage after 24 hours of treatment with 30% concentration, while it reached 86.7% after 168 hours of treatment with the same concentration. As for the lowest mortality rate, it was 13.3% for the last larval stage after 24 hours of treatment with a concentration of 10%. While the death rate was 30.0% after 168 hours of treatment with a concentration of 10%. The results also showed that the alcoholic extract of the wormwood plant had an effect on the destruction of the larval stages of the insect.
Keywords: Fungal; Alcoholic Extract; Wormwood.

 
Mona Najm Khalaf1,* and Alaa Ayed Obaid2
"1 College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad; [email protected]
2 College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad; [email protected].
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The current study aimed to use three cultivars of Iraqi dates in the date stage, which are (Al-Zuhdi hard, Sayer semi-hard and soft Paraben), and fumigating these dates with ethyl formate in order to preserve them and studying the physical traits of the dates under study in three periods (the pre-storage period, the three-month post-storage period and the six-month storage period).The physical traits included (total soluble solids, pH, viscosity, relative viscosity, surface tension, density, refractive index, electrical conductivity.
Keywords: Dates Dusting; Ethyl Formate; Al-Zuhdi; Paraben; Sayer.


 
Al-Hassan Jamal Abdul Razzaq1,*, Shaker and Iman Qassem Mohammed Al-Bahrani2
1 Department of Soil Sciences and Water Resources, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad;
2 Department of Soil Sciences and Water Resources, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad;
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: To know the effect of bio-enhancer (zeolite), biohealth, mineral fertilizers and their interactions, and the possibility of replacing mineral fertilizers with bio-enhancers and bio-enhancers, and their effect on some potato yield measurements. A field experiment was conducted at one of the field stations of the College of Ag-ricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, near the electronic calculator center, research station (F) in Al- Jadriya region in the loam mixture soil during autumn season 2021-2022 AD, It was designed using a completely randomized block design (RCBD) with three replicates. The factors of the study experiment in-cluded three levels of zeolite (0, 6 tons ha-1, and 12 tons ha-1), which were symbolized by (Z0), (Z1) and (Z2), respectively .As for the bio-enhancer (Biohealth), it was adding at two levels (0 and 5) to kg ha-1, which was symbolized by the symbols (B0) and (B1), respectively. As for the mineral fertilizer treatments, they were adding at three levels (0, 50%, and 75%) of the fertilizer recommendation, which were (300 kg ha-1 N, 100 kg ha-1 P, and 300 kg ha-1 potassium), which symbolized by (F0). and (F1) and (F2), respectively. Potato seed, Rivera cultivar, was planted in the shape of furrow on 1/23/2022. The area of the experimental unit was 6 m 2 (3 m 2 x 2 m2), 18 treatments were distributed randomly on the sectors (replicates), so the number of units be-came 54 experimental units.
Keywords: Potato; Biohealth; Zeolite ; Mineral Fertilizer.


 
84.  The inhibition of selected pathogens by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophiles bacteriocins.
 
Kurdistan A. AlSalam A. AlKarem1, and Suzan.Kamran. Hasan2
 
1 Department of Food Science, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of     
 
Baghdad, Iraq
 
2 Department of Food Science, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of     
 
Baghdad, Iraq, [email protected]
 
* Correspondence: [email protected].    
 
Abstract:Bacteriocins were produced from Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophiles and MIX (Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophiles) by two methods: Shaker Fermentation and Static Fer-mentation (aerobic and anaerobic) through bacterial growth in MRS liquid medium. For each of them and the detection of the inhibitory activity on some types of pathogenic bacteria through the growth of the test bacteria on a solid nutrient medium Agar Nutrient. It was found that the three isolates have the ability to produce bacte-riocin and there are significant differences between each of the bacteriocins towards the pathogenic bacteria. It shows that the bacteriocin produced from Lactobacillus bulgaricus It has a higher inhibitory activity and can inhibit different types of bacteria from gram-positive and gram-negativeKeywords: Doxazosin, Chloroquine, Synergism, MCF-7, Autophagy
 
Keywords: Shaker Fermentation. Static Fermentation. bacteriocins. Lactic acid bacteria.

 
 
85.  Effect Of Paracetamol(Acetaminophen) Toxicity On Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Enzymes In Albino Rats
 
Abdulazeez Mohammed Hussein1,*, Siham Wadee2 and Dakheel Hussein Hadree3.  
 
1Department of Pharmacology, Collage of Veterinary Medicine, Tikrit University; [email protected].
 
2 Department of Pharmacology, Collage of Veterinary Medicine, Tikrit University; [email protected].
 
3 Department of Pharmacology, Collage of Veterinary Medicine, Tikrit University; [email protected].
 
* Correspondence: [email protected].
 
Abstract: This study aimed at investigating the impact of paracetamol on oxidative stress and som antioxidant markers in male rabitts.Methods:A total of 30 growing rats reared under high ambient temperature were divid-ed into three equal groups, 10 rats each. The first group control dministered with normal saline and the second and third group paracetamol-treated rats (1000, & 2000 mg/kg b.w. orally) for 30. Blood samples were with-drawn to measure serum Glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), activities were assayed.Results:In paracetamol-treated group, significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and significant decreases in catalase (CAT), glutathione, SOD, and GSH lev-els compared to the control group.Conclusion: paracetamol administration produces noticeable biochemical changes in a dosedependent manner associated with increased oxidative stress markers and decreased antioxi-dative activity.
 
Keywords: Paracetamol; Malondialdehyde; Toxicity; GSH.

 
   
Najwa Imad Sulaiman Saleh1,*, Siham Agmee Wadee2, and Entedhar R. Sarhat3
 
1Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry Dep-College of Veterinary medicine -Tikrit University; [email protected].
 
2Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry Dep-College of Veterinary medicine -Tikrit University; [email protected].
 
3 Department of Biochemistry, College of Dentistry University of Tikrit, Tikrit, Iraq, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4625-9053, [email protected].
 
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly effective drug for chemotherapy. However, hepatotoxicity reduces its clinical utility in humans. Thus, this study was designed to examine Date Palm extract on serum an-ti-inflammatory markers (interleukin(IL) IL-1B, IL-6 and IL-10). Forty adult rats were divided into 4 groups (G1 control, G2 receiving 2mg\kg of DPE orally, G3 treated with 2mg\kg of DOX IP and G4 received 2mg\kg of DOX via IP and 2mg\kg of DPE by oral gavage daily for 30 days).  At the end of the study, animals were sacrificed liver were analyzed histologically. The Dox group showed significantly higher levels of serum IL-1B, IL-6, and IL-10 compared with the control group with inflammation and necrosis in hepatic histo-pathology. In the DPE+ DOX group, it was detected that DOX treatment caused a significant decrease in the levels of serum IL-1B, IL-6, and IL-10. Collectively, pre-coadministration of DPE partially mitigated DOX-induced hepatic injuries via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, and anti-apoptotic potential.
 
Keywords: Doxorubicin, Hepatotoxicity, alcoholic extract, Date Palm

 
   
Mazin Hamid Ayyash1,* and Sura Saad Abdlkadir2
 
1 Department of Dermatology,College of Medicine, Tikrit University; [email protected].
 
2 Diploma. Student, Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, University of Tikrit, Tikrit, Iraq; [email protected].
 
* Correspondence: [email protected].
 
Abstract: Cutaneous warts are a common skin problem seen in routine dermatological practice. There are many clinical modalities, but in all, there is failure and recurrence. The current study aimed to evaluate the effi-cacy and safety of intralesional acyclovir in the treatment of cutaneous warts. An analytic clinical trial study was conducted in Iraq/Baghdad/Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital during the period from November 2021 to May 2022. A convenient sampling method was adopted to enrol 30 patients who were presented with cutane-ous warts in the current study. The patients had intralesional acyclovir (70 mg/ml) injected into warts. The treatment was repeated at two-week intervals until complete clearance or for a maximum of 5 sessions. Ac-cording to the results of the current study, a total of 30 patients were enrolled in the current study. The mean age was 23.7 (±12.7) years. Most of the patients had an age of more than 14 years. Females constituted more than half of the sample. Regarding the outcome of the treatment, 19 (63.3%) of the patients were cured, and 10 (33.3%) failed to cure. While one patient had recurrence after being cured in three sessions. Regarding the pa-tients who were cured, 8 (42.1%) patients were cured in two sessions, 6 (31.6%) were cured in three sessions, 2 (10.5%) were occurred in one session, and 2 (10.5%) patients were cured in four  sessions. While 1 (5.3%) patient was cured in  five sessions. Severe pain during injection was the commonest side effect (66.6%), fol-lowed by bullous reaction (30%0), bleeding at the site of injection (20.0), and pain for a few days (16.7%). In conclusion, the intralesional acyclovir was found to be effective and safe with few and transient side effects.
 
Keyword: Cutaneous; Patients; Bleeding.

 
   
Ali Sami Ahmed Alhayali1,*, Waseem Ali Hasan2, Firas Subhi Salah3
 
1 Department of Pharmacology, physiology and biochemistry, College of veterinary medicine, University of Tikrit, Tikrit, Iraq; [email protected].
 
2 Department of Basic Science, College of Dentistry, University of Tikrit, Tikrit, Iraq;
 
3 Department of cancer research, Iraqi center for cancer and medical genetics research, University of Mus-tansiriyah, Baghdad, Iraq;
 
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The combination of anti-cancer drugs improves effectiveness compared to the mono-therapy sce-nario through targeting key pathways in a synergistic or an additive way. Doxazosin (DOX) and Resveratrol (RES) are reported to have an anti-cancer impact against different cancer cells. Aim: To evaluate the anti-cancer property of Doxazosin and Resveratrol each alone or in combination manner in inhibition of breast cancer cells proliferation. Methods: MCF-7 cancer cells were seeded to a confluent monolayer and treated with 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, and 3.12 µM of each drug alone and as a combination. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using dimethyl thiazolyl diphenyl tetrazolium salt (MTT) assay and colony formation assay. The immunocytochemistry tech-nique was conducted to evaluate caspase-3 and GABARAP expression. Results: All the drugs have a signifi-cant effect on cancer cell proliferation. The combination treatment of Doxazosin-Resveratrol has a more cyto-toxic effect than each drug alone, as well as in colony formation of MCF-7 cancer cells. In combination treat-ment, caspase-3 had a higher expression pattern than any other treatments. Resveratrol treatment elevated GABARAP expression in cancer cells indicating the induction of autophagy process. Conclusion: Although each drug has its own characteristic result of a cytotoxic effect, the combination of Doxazosin and Resveratrol has a synergistic effect on the inhibition of MCF-7 cancer cells proliferation.
 
Keywords: Resveratrol; Doxazosin; combination; MCF-7; Autophagy.

 
   
Yasameen N. Tawfeeq1,*, Nihad N. Hilal2 and Zaidan J. Zaidan3
 
1 Collage of Pharmacy, Tikrit University, Iraq;
 
2 Professor of chemical pathology, Collage of Medicine, Tikrit University, Iraq;
 
3 Professor of internal medicine, Collage of Medicine, Tikrit University, Iraq;
 
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Background: Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin and its lack causes the methylation process to be disrupted, further results in the formation of abnormal fatty acids, which results in neurological manifesta-tions. The water-soluble vitamin folate, often known as folic acid or vitamin B9 is especially vital during peri-ods of high cell division and growth. Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate serum vitamin B12 and fo-late levels in type 2 diabetic patients with and without metformin therapy and to correlate their levels with other parameters in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional controlled study that included 90 participants, 60 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with metformin therapy designated as (metformin group) and 30 type 2 diabetes mellitus without metformin therapy considered as (control group). The study was carried out during the period from December 2021 to the end of March 2021 at private internal medicine clinics in Tikrit city, Iraq. Blood samples were assessed for serum vitamin B12 and folate using Cl-900i Chemiluminescence Immunoassay Analyzer and glycated hemoglobin HbA1c using AFIAS Analyzer in all metformin and control group. Result: The study showed that there were significant differences in vitamin B12 of (p < 0.01) and folate of (p < 0.05) between metformin group and control group. Highly significant negative correlations were found between vitamin B12 and diabetes mellitus (DM) duration and HbA1c. Folate was negatively correlated highly significant with DM duration and HbA1c (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The results showed low vitamin B12 and folate levels in T2DM patients. Vitamin B12 and folate was found to be nega-tively correlated with DM duration and HbA1c. Taken together, the results suggest a higher risk of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency with metformin use and emphasize the concern of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency in T2DM patients.
 
Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM); Vitamin B12; Folate; DM duration; HbA1c.

 
   
Layla A.Benyan1, Jinan M. Kalaf2,* and Dawood S. Hamid3
 
1 Department of plant protection ,College of Agriculture, University of Basrah Basrah,Iraq;
 
2 Department of plant protection ,College of Agriculture, University of Basrah Basrah,Iraq; [email protected].
 
3 Department of plant protection ,College of Agriculture, University of Basrah Basrah,Iraq;
 
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of some vegetable oils such as watercress oil, aloe vera oil and eucalyptus oil in the percentage of nymphs of black broad bean Aphis fabae Scopoli on the chard plant Beta vulgaris subbsp.cicla. The mortality rate was 83.88, 90.56, and 93.89 % for oils used in the laboratory, while the percentage of loss in the field was 82.91. 88.19 and 89.86%, respectively, the results showed that vegetable oils had an effect on the destruction of whole black broad bean insects, and the increase of this effect with the increase of the time and concentration factor.
 
Keywords: Aphis fabae; Plant oils; Biological fungi.

 
   
Talib M. Talib1 and Taghreed Fadhil Zaidan2
 
"1College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Iraq
 
2Department of Dentistry, AL-Turath  University College, Iraq
 
* Correspondence: taghreed.fadhil @gmail.com
 
ABSTRACT: The nutritional status of patients with inflammatory bowel disease is thought to be less than ideal. The purpose of this study was to compare the salivary levels of some trace elements (Zinc, copper, and magnesium) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) on two different therapeutic modalities to control subjects. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2021-2022, on 53 diagnosed UC patients (27 UC patients on oral immunosuppressant therapy and 26 UC patients on the combination therapy). All sub-jects were selected from gastroenterology and Hepatology teaching hospital in Baghdad city through random sampling; twenty five subjects were also recruited as controls. Demographic data were recorded through a checklist. Salivary levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and magnesium (Mg) were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Data were analyzed using SPSS-28 at significance level of 0.05. The results: Salivary Zn mean was significantly lower in monotherapy and combination therapy patients than in controls (p<0.001). Mean salivary Cu levels were significantly higher in monotherapy and combination therapy patients than in controls (p<0.001). Similarly, the salivary Mg mean was significantly lower in both groups of ulcerative colitis patients than in controls (p<0.001). The mean of salivary Cu was higher in UC patients, while the men of Zn and Mg was lower in UC patients compared to controls. Conclusions: The results showed that UC patients have sig-nificantly lower Zn and Mg levels compared to healthy individuals and was lower inpatient on mono therapy than in combination. While, salivary Cu in UC patients was higher than control individuals and was higher in UC patients on monotherapy.
 
Keywords: Inflammatory bowel diseases, Ulcerative colitis, Trace elements

 
   
Noor Chasib Habeeb Al-Fatlawy1, and Sienaa AL- Zurfi2,*
 
"1 Plant Protection Department, University of Kerbala, Karbala, Iraq.
 
2 Plant Protection Department, University of Kerbala, Karbala, Iraq.
 
*  Correspondence: [email protected] , https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8332-1472
 
Abstract: In recent years, Nanotechnology has become the greatest promising new method for insect’s con-trol. In this study, laboratory experiments were applied to assess the efficacy of three commercially, Alumini-um oxide (ANPs), Zinc oxide (ZNPs) and Nanoparticles Silicon oxide (SNPs) on second- fifth- instar larvae and adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herb.), as well as the effect of Nanoparticles Silicon oxide (SNPs) on the fecundity of T. castaneum adult females. Beetles were fed on a diet of flour treated with nanoparticles SNPs, ANPs, and ZNPs at different concentrations (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) for each Nanocomposite. The results showed that SNPs and ANPs were significantly more effective than ZNPs at all tested concentrations after 15 days post-treatment. The results also confirmed that Nanoparticle SNPs have significant effects on the number of eggs lying, where the mean number of eggs produced by female adults exposed to dose-respond treated with Nanoparticle at the rate of 50 mg/kg was 0.0, compared with 98.1/ eggs in the control treatment. Howev-er, susceptibility showed significant differences in the mortality rate at the end of the experiments between sec-ond, and fifth instar larvae and adults treated by all three Nanocomposite. Second and fifth instar larvae were most susceptible while adults were least susceptible to nanoparticles. All Nanoparticles SNPs, ANPs, and ZNPs were significant, and more effective on insect life at a higher concentration of 200 mg/kg, where the mortality proportion was 100%, 92.5% for 2nd, 5th instar larvae respectively, and 77.5% for an adult after 15 days post-treatment. Moreover, the result showed that all Nanoparticles SNPs, ANPs, and ZNPs can be ap-plied as an alternative tool in the pest management programs of T. castaneum.
 
Key words: Tribolium castaneum, Nanozinc, Nanoaluminium, Nanosilica, storage pest

 
 
93.  Population density and diversity of Coccinilidae community in two areas within Al-Najaf Governorate
 
Aseel K Abdul Hussein1, and Thaer M Taha2,*
 
1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Education for Girls, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq
 
2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Education for Girls, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq
 
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: This study was conducted in two areas within the Al-Najaf governorate, namely Abbasiya district, north of Najaf, and Al-Hira district, south of Najaf, in the year 2020-2021, to assess the population density and diversity in the Coccinelidae community in these areas. The highest population density for the ladybirds com-munity in the Abbasiya area in the spring, especially in April, was 235 people / 10 plants per month, while the lowest population density was in the rest of the seasons, and you were the least 9 people / 10 plants per month in July and August. The 7-spotted and 11-spotted ladybirds were the most abundant and found in the Abbasiya and Al-Hira districts compared to the other species. Shannon's Diversity Index recorded the highest value of 0.9 in the Abbasiya in October and December, while the highest value for diversity according to Shannon's in-dex was 0.9 in December in Al-Hira.
 
Keywords: bio-agents, biodiversity, Coccinella spp., insects

 
   
Suha Mohammed Naser1, and Muslim A A Abdulhussein2
 
"1 Department of Horticulture and Landscape, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq
 
2 Department of Horticulture and Landscape, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq
 
*  Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The study was carried out in the tissue culture laboratories at the College of Agriculture / University of Kufa during the period from April 2020 to October 2021 where the aim was to assess the efficiency of mi-cropropagation of strawberries by adding different concentrations of sucrose (30, 40 and 50 g.L-1) to the nutri-ent medium in combination with different cultivation systems: Semi-solid media system and temporary immer-sion system using the Plantform bioreactor. The results showed that both, the highest concentration of sucrose and the culture system under the medium immersion, individually, or combined, were the highest and signifi-cantly effective in increasing the rate of number of shoots (runners), leaf content of macro and minor elements, total soluble sugars, plant pigments and fresh weight of biomass. Generally, the highest values were recorded in the shoots grown in liquid media supplied with 50 g.L-1 sucrose under temporary immersion in the Plant-Form bioreactor compared with those grown in semi-solid media.
 
Keywords: Fragaria × ananassa, micro-propagation, plant nutrition, tissue culture, PlantForm bioreactor

 
   
Hayder Azeez Ali Al-Shebly1, Ameer Sahib. Abd-Ali. Al-Haddad2 and Mohammed Gaddoa Mahdi2
 
1Visual examination techniques Department, Najaf Technical Institute, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Najaf, Iraq
 
2Najaf Agriculture Directorate, Najaf, Iraq directory . [email protected]
 
*Correspondence: [email protected] \
 
Abstract: This study was conducted to identify the genetic polymorphisms of one wild grass species of sam-ple and to assess the phylogenetic distribution these isolates occupy based on their internal transcribed (ITS) ribosomal sequences. One genetic locus covering a portion of the ITS rRNA sequences was amplified in this study. A direct sequencing strategy was performed for the observed PCR amplicons in the amplified genetic locus. Subsequently, a comprehensive phylogenetic tree was constructed in the observed variants for these se-quences to reveal the accurate phylogenetic distances alongside other relative sequences. Our results indicated the identity of the investigated wild grass samples (assigned S1 and S2). Sequencing reactions indicated that our investigated samples belonged to Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli (panicum grass), a common type of wild grass-dominated in tropical Asia. Two ribosomal variations were identified in the investigated wild grass samples, 61C>T that was observed in the S2 sample and 408C>A that was observed in both S1 and S2 samples. According to the identified results, the investigated samples were positioned within one distinct phy-logenetic clade of these identified wild grass sequences in the currently generated comprehensive tree. These positionings were observed within the main clade of Echinochloa crus-galli. Based on the identified ribosomal sequences, it was found that the currently investigated samples may exhibit variable extents of diversities origi-nating from several Asian and South American ancestors. As well, the currently constructed tree revealed that the investigated wild grass sequences belonged to one distinct clade of Echinochloa crus-galli having many sequences of close phylogenetic connections. This clade was occupied far away phylogenetic positions from the other comparable grasses within the same tree.
 
Keywords: rRNA amplicons, Echinochloa crus-galli, Rice

 
   
Hisham A Amran1*, Ahmed Sh Al-Duhami2 and Hasan M Mohammed3
 
1Department of Horticulture and Landscape, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kerbala, Iraq
 
2Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Wasit, Iraq
 
3Karbala Agriculture Directorate, Kerbala Governorate, Iraq   
 
*  Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Effect of Brassinosteroid and Super Micro Plus Nano-particle on growth and yield component were evaluated in potato for the growing season of 2020. In the Karbala Governorate, a Randomized Complete Block Design RCBD factorial field experiment of two factors (Brassinosteroid and super micro plus) was conducted with three replications. The Brassinosteroid was used at 0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mg.L-1 where the super micro plus was also used with four levels of  0, 1, 3 and 5 g.L-1 . Interaction treatment of both factor at the highest concentrations (B3F3) resulted in the highest mean values of all the measured parameters including plant height (64.39cm), number of stem/plant (2.593), shoot dry weight (173.3 g.plant-1), leave area (51.05dc2.plant-1), tuber weight (165.4g), plant yield (1948.41)g, tuber dry matter (14.88 %) and tuber content of starch (9.18%).
 
Keywords: Brassinosteroid, super micro plus Nanoparticle, potato, Yield quality

 
   
Mohammed H. Aldarraji1, Dhia S. Alwaily1 and Ramin Heydari2
 
1Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq; [email protected]
 
2Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Ka-raj, Iran; [email protected]
 
Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: This is the first morphological investigation of the wheat gall nematodes Anguina tritici found on wheat in southern and midland areas of Iraq. A survey was conducted and samples were collected from wheat fields in eight governorates (Diyala, Baghdad, Qadisiyah, Najaf, Wasit, Maysan, Dhi Qar and Basra, 3 regions each and three fields for each region during the 2020-2021 growing season. Wheat -gall nematodes were ex-tracted and observed under a stereomicroscope. Nematodes of interest were hand -picked, identified and pho-to-micro-graphed using microscope equipped with a digital camera. Two species of anguinid nematodes (An-guinidae: Tylenchida) were found and characterized. This species is characterized by its 810-905 mm long body, body slightly curved to almost straight, with 9-10 μm small stylet with delicate lip region very slightly offset, pharyngeal lobe long, wider than adjacent body part and 16-17µm broad,  distance of dorsal gland ori-fice to the style 2-4,  position of dorsal gland orifice to the style base expressed as a percentage of the total style length20-40 µm. Anterior end to the valve of median bulb 67 -72µm; anterior end to excretory. Tail long, tapering very gradually to an acute tip without mucro 61 -70 µm. As for the molecular identification and com-paring with the GenBank, sequencing of Dhi Qar samples showed having three transitions at sites 59,125,168 G\T, G\T, and G\A respectively, one transversion at 140 G\C site. It was found the ITS gene has compatibility of 98% with the original sequence conserved in the Genbank with ID KC818619. As for the Anguina tritici isolated from Basra, it contains two transitions at locations 247 and 253 C\T, four transversions  238,245,249, 251 G\T, G\C, A\C, and T\A, respectively, with similarity of 97%. Maysan samples found to be compatible 98% and having one transition at 168 G\A site and three transversions at the  locations, 125,128.25 G\T. ITS gene from  Diyala showed  98% compatibility with the sequence in GenBank having one transition at locus G\A 93 and  three transversion at 83,78,59 G\T,  G\C, and G\T, respectively. Two  transversions in locations 59,117 nucleotide G\T, A\C in Al-Kut samples, and at 125,142 G\T, G\C in Bagh-dad ones, while Najaf samples had one transversion, and one transition in sites 213, 234 G\C, C\T respective-ly, as all of them showed 99% similarity with the original sequence in GenBank.
 
Keywords: Field crop, PCR, PPN, wheat.

 
 
98.  Evaluation of some qualitative properties of lycopene extracted from grapefruit
 
Ahmed A-R J Alikhan1 and Adnan WH Al-Mudhafar2
 
1Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq  
 
Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The study was conducted to extract and quantify the amount of lycopene pigment in grapefruit, and to evaluate the efficiency of different concentrations of the pigment as an antioxidant factor in inhibiting free radicals. The study also included evaluating the effect of pH and different temperatures on the effectiveness of the dye, and evaluating the efficiency of the extracted lycopene in inhibiting pathogenic bacteria. The results showed that the percentage of lycopene was 231.02 mg / 100 g, which was extracted with alcoholic solvents from the fruits of the grapefruit plant. Lycopene dye extracted using H.P.L.C was diagnosed with a concentra-tion of 76.24%. The results of the D.P.P.H test using Elisa showed the possibility of inhibiting free radicals with lycopene, and the highest percentage of inhibition was 65.74% using 1 mg, with a significant difference from the percentage of inhibition 63.21% and 58.54% resulting from the dye at concentrations of 0.5 mg and 0.25 mg, respectively. As for the pH (3-8) of the buffer solutions, they had no clear effect on the concentration of the dye.
 
Keywords: plant pigments, food spoilage, pathogenic bacteria, citrus.

 
   
Maysaa A.M. Alhar1
 
1 Horticulture Department/Faculty of Agriculture/University of Kufa;. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6378-6651.
 
Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Chalcone reagents are used in a wide range of fields because of their biological, medical, and medicinal properties. Therefore, this study was aimed to prepared new reagent of Chalcone – Azo and study their chemical and physical properties by using different tech-niques. In this recent work four reagents were created and tested by using thermal behaviour in stability curves, solubility in various solvents, spectral characterization like Uv-Visible, FT-IR. In addition, biological study was conducted to estimate the effect of these reagent on two types of fungi. Results showed that spectral characterization methods (Uv-visible and FT-IR) showed that new groups of compounds were formed, and starter reactants were dis-appeared. This is good prove of forming new reagents.  These results were emphasis by out-come of thermal behaviour in stability curves, solubility in various solvents. The study of us-ing the new reagents as antifungal substances showed that reagent {3} had highest effect on inhibition of study fungi growth followed by reagent {4}.
 
Keywords: Reagent, analytical, thermal, fungi, bioassay

 
   
Muslim Hamza Essa 1 and Khudheyer A.A. Alnomani 2
 
"Plant Department-Faculty of Agriculture-University of Kufa, Iraq, [email protected]
 
Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The harmful effects of wax scale insect C.rusci L. on fig trees which cultivated widely in Al-Kifl dis-trict / southern Babylon governorate in last two years was main reason to design this study. The study involved to experiments; first experiment was field survey to have scientific evidence about the widespread of C.rusci and estimated the infection rate on plants, then trying to find a relationship between environmental factors in this area and studied insect. The second experiment deals with efficacy of some factors (egg locations, temper-ature and time) on egg hatching of C.rusci. The results provided a good information about the temperature and infection rates of fig plant with C. rusci. The range of temperature degrees which showed a high level of infec-tion was 26.5-33.4 ºC. Meanwhile, the highest infection rate was recorded in October followed by June. The second experiment results showed that temperature was limiting factor for egg hatching, therefore no any hatching of C.rusci eggs when temperature was below 15 ºC. When temperature being above this level (15 ºC), a new limitation factor appeared which is the location of the egg. This experiment proved that existence of egg under was fold which cover the insect is necessary for egg hatching.
 
Keywords: Ceratoplastes rusci, Temperature, Field survey, Egg hatching .

 
   
Adnan WH Al-Mudhafar1 and Ahmed A-R J Alikhan2
 
"1Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq
 
2Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq
 
*  Correspondence:  [email protected]
 
Abstract:   The results showed that lycopene dye was highly effective in reducing the peroxide number value, as adding 1 mg of the dye to fresh milk led to the lowest peroxide number (0.497 - 2.483) compared to (0.543 - 4.943) of milk with artificial antioxidant B.H.T and milk without addition, which scored (0.567 - 11.997) for eleven days of storage at 4 °C. Lycopene dye reduced the values of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) in milk stored at 4°C for seven days compared to normal milk without addition. The results also proved that the dry lycopene dye extracted from the fruits of the tomato plant when dissolved in buffer solutions with different pH ranging from (3-8) pH did not have a significant effect on the dyes, as the pH factor on the measured wavelengths ranged from 370.0-370.5 As for the effect of the number of days factor, it ranged from 369.7-370.6 nanometers. It was found that low temperatures did not affect the lycopene pigment extracted from tomato fruits. The results of sensory evaluation indicate that the total sum of sensory evaluation scores (taste, texture and appearance) was higher (23.8) in the treatment of lycopene free milk compared to the milk fortified with lycopene tomato, which scored 22.6.
 
Keywords: plant pigments, Lycopene, fresh milk
 
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