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1             Comparative Chemical Study For Species Of The Eryngium genus             
              Huda Adnan1*, Aboothar Ha. Al-Edhari2             
               Department of Ecology ,Faculty of Science ,University of  Kufa ,Iraq . ORCID       
               Department of Ecology ,Faculty of Science ,University of  Kufa ,Iraq. 0000-0003-4880-6444      
              Correspondence: [email protected];: Tel.: 07836071062
              Abstract: Five species of Eryngium L. (Apiaceae) native to Iraq-Eryngium glomeratumLam,Eryngium creticum Lam, Eryngium thyrosoideum Boiss, Eryngium billardieri Lam., and L. Eryngium campestre—are the focus of this comparative chemical taxonomy.Chemical analysis revealed that the five species within the genus could be distinguished by their unique chemical signatures thanks to the application of the GC Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) technique to their secondary metabolic components. Species shared certain molecules but had distinct chemical make-ups in others.The chemical properties of the species in the genus were used to calculate Euclidean genetic distance values; the highest value was found to be 5.1962 between E.creticum and E.billardieri and the pair with the smallest value of Euclidean distance (3.70) was E. campestre and E. billardieri. The clustering analysis was displayed in the phylogenetic tree. The species can be classified into three broad categories along a single Euclidean axis, as indicated by chemical evidence that corroborated the result of Principal Component Analysis (4.9). (PCA). The studies also demonstrated the ability to differentiate and identify evolutionary links across species by showing the independence of species in specific isolated chemicals.  
              Keywords: The Eryngium; genus; Chemical taxonomic; Lam Eryngium,   
                             
2             The performance of moringa leaf extract application and bagging the bunches to improve fruits quality of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Al-Khadrawi and Al-Buraim               
              MohammedAbdulrahman1, ManarAlwan2,KadumAbdullah1*     
               Horticulture and landscape Department, College of Agriculture, University of Kerbala, Karbala, Iraq ; [email protected] . https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6675-8189 1               
               2Department Horticulture and landscape, College of Agriculture Al-Qasim Green University;e [email protected]. ORCID        
               Horticulture and landscape Department, College of Agriculture, University of Kerbala, Karbala, Iraq ; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9619-5899   
              Correspondence: [email protected].; Tel.: 0771 723 8167       
              Abstract: The study was conducted at Fadak farm of the Husseiniya shrine/ Karbala governorate during growth season 2021 with the aim of testing the role of application with Moringa leaf extract and the paperbagging of the bunches in improving some qualitative characteristics of the fruits of two palm cultivars, Al-Khadrawi and Al-Buraim. The bunches were sprayed with three concentrations of moringa leaf extract (0, 100, 200 ml. L-1) for three times after 7, 10, 13 weeks of pollination and then bagging the bunches after each application process according to the schedule and plan of the experiment. The obtained results indicated that application with moringa extract and bagging increased the proportion of total dissolved solids (TSS), total sugars and reducing sugars, and decreased the total acidity neutralizing, sucrose, and tannins. Al-Khadrawi cultivar was superior in most of the studied traits.     
              The study's findings suggest that natural plant extracts (such as Moringa leaf extract) can be utilized as organic amendments or fertilizer additives in conjunction with particular farming practices to enhance the quality of the fruits of some varieties of date palm.     
              KeywordsTSS, natural extract, Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae, Moringaoleifera               
                             
3             The effect of the source of the plant partand plant growth regulator,s on the establishment and multiplicationof vegetative branches of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in vitro.               
              Al-Hasan Nasseralla 1*, Sarab Almukhtar 2          
               college of Agriculture, department ofHorticulture and landscape, Universit of Kerbala – Iraq, ORCID0000-0003-1996-7759        
              Affiliation 2; college of Agriculture, department ofHorticulture and landscape, Universit of Kerbala - Iraq .,[email protected] //orcid.org/0000-0003-0470-7057               
              Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: 009647706054733             
              Abstract: This search was carried out in laboratory of plant tissue culture- College of Agriculture - University of Kerbala for the period from 2021 to 2022. The study included the use of in vitro technology in the use of plant parts and different combinations in the emergence and multiplication of farms vegetative branches of rosemary, the study was carried out in two stages after performing the sterilization process: the first included the emergence of vegetative farms by planting the growing tops and side nodes on the MS nutrient medium with different concentrations (0 , 1, 2, 3 mg.L-1) BA, and the second stage was carried out by cultivating the growths resulting from the nodes grown in the previous stage on the (MS) media, that was prepared with various concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3 mg.L-1) BA and ( 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4mg.L-)1 NAA, The results of the study showed the superiority of the apical, as it achieved a response rate of 57.5% compared to the lateral shoots, which recorded a response rate of 37.5%, and the con. of 1 mg.l-1 BA was superior and achieved a response rate of 80% comparison with the neutral treat that achieve a response rate It reached 15%, and the results showed that the same concentration of benzyl adenine at a concentration of 2 mg.l-1 achieved of higheraverage in the number and length of branches (4.74 branches.plantlet-1, 4.12 cm), while the concentration achieved 3 mg.l- 1 of it had the higherrate of leaves number and the Fresh and Dry weight of the branches (15.24 leaves.plantlet-1, 2986 mg and 1823 mg), respectively, comparison with the neutral treat that achieved the lowera average, and the concentration 0.2 mg.L1 NAA exceeded in achieving The highest average number of branches, leaves, fresh &dry weight of branches was (4.16 branches.plantlet-1 and 14.21 leaves.plantlet-1, 2606 mg and 1594 mg) respectively, while the concentration exceeded 0.4 mg.L-1 NAA in achieving the highest rate The length of the branches reached 3.74 cm.All experiments were carried out using CRD (completely randomized design).       
              Keywords: explants type; plant growth regulators; micropropagation;rosemary;tissue culture.
                             
4             Effect of humic and fulvic acid treatment on the anatomical traits of the leaves of two genera of seedlings of ornamental palm Washingtonia filifera and Phoenix canariensis   
              Wasen Fawzi Alpresem1,*, Mohammad AbdulameerAlnajjar2 and Rasul Ibrahim Ahmed3               
              Unit of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4981-6716        
              Department of Horticulture and Landscape Design, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, [email protected].                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6600-451X
              3Department of Horticulture and Landscape Design, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq   
              *Correspondence: [email protected],Tel. 009647833272744             
              Abstract: This study was conducted in the growing season of 2021 at the Agricultural Research FacilityStation, University of Basrah. Start with seedlings of two genera of ornamental palm trees: Washingtonia filifera and Phoenix canariensis. were given dosages of humic acid as treatment (0, 10, and 15 ml.L-1). and fulvic acid by ground addition at concentrations of (0, 5, and 10 g.L-1). The findings revealed that humic acids significantly impacted the anatomical traits and caused the improvement of those traits, the Humic acid content of (15 ml.L-1) caused an increase in the thickness of epidermal cells, the length of columnar cells, the diameter of large and small vascular bundles, and the diameter of the fibrous bundles, which amounted to (11.74, 17.47, 149.4, 110,and 49.6)µm respectively. Additionally, a level of fulvic acid (10 g.L-1)caused a similar increase in those anatomical traits. The qualities under study were significantly impacted by the triple interaction. The interaction between the Washington type, the (15 ml.L-1) of humic acid, and the (10 g.L-1) of fulvic acidprovided the highest values. for the anatomical traits, the thickness of epidermal cells, length of Columnar epithelial cells, the diameter of large and small vascular bundles, and diameter of large and small vascular bundles. and the diameter of the fibrous bundlesreached (13.34, 21.32, 238.5, 18.31, and 71.6) µm sequentially. Washingtonia palm was significantly higher than the canary palm, and the highest values for epidermal cell thickness, columnar cell length, large and small vascular bundle diameter, and fibrous bundle diameter were (11.20, 16.46, 133.5, 94.8, and 44.8) µm, respectively.    
              Keywords: ornamental trees; humic substances;leaves; anatomical; fulvic acid; seedling              
                             
5             The effect of spraying with amino acids and iron on some characteristics of vegetative and flowering growth of petunia              
              Mushtaq T. AL-Zurfi 1 , Karim M. Bhiah 2,  Jamal A. Abbass 3 , Ahmed I. Mohammed 4,  and Amani G. Abboud 5.        
              Faculty of Agriculture, Horticulture and land scape department, University of Kufa- Iraq        
               Faculty of Agriculture, Soil and water department, University of Kufa- Iraq         
              1//orcid.org/0000-0001-5721-125           
              [email protected]:07804496022              
              Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted during 2019-2020 season at the temporary place of Faculty of Agriculture / University of Kufa/Najaf city/ Iraq, to estimate the response growth and flowering of petunia hybrid to Spraying amino acids and Iron. The concentration of aminoacid was 0, 3, and 6 ml.l-1and three concentrations of iron were 0, 15 and 30 mg.l-1.It is  clearly that the interaction between amino acid {6 ml.l-1}and iron {15mg.l-1}produce an increase in ,vegetative and flowering characters,  number of leaves and branches,  length of flowering branches, Number of flowers, Flower diameter, The age of the flower in the plant & the flower content of carotene pigment increased   remarkably, while amino acid {6 ml.l-1} and iron  {30 mg.l-1} have significant effect on leaf chlorophyll content, and total soluble carbohydrates.  
              Keywords: Petunia plant; amino acids; Iron; Auxins; growth; flowering   
                             
6             The Effect of Organic Fertilization and Jasmonic Acid on the Morphological, Quantitative, and Chemical Parameters of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) variety Hussainawiya     
              Hayder S. Jaafar1, Nazar A. Al-Ibraheemi2,* and Aseel A .Ghali3
               Horticulture Department/ Agriculture Collage/ University of Kufa,[email protected]              
               Al-Najaf Agriculture Directorate/ Ministry of Agriculture              
               Horticulture Department/ Agriculture Collage/ University of Kufa,[email protected]   
              Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: (009647815062035)        
              Abstract: A study was conducted in a field belonging to the Najaf Agriculture directorate/Najaf/Iraq during the spring growing season of 2021. The study aimed to analyze the response of okra variety Hussainiya for two factors. The first studied factor was three levels of DPW (decomposed palm waste) including 0, 16, and 32 tonha-1, while the second factor was three levels of a foliar application of Jasmonic acid including 0, 15, and 30 mgL-1.Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used modeling the factorial experiment with three replications, and the Least Significant Differences (LSD) was selected to compare the means at the probability level of 0.05. The results showed the significant superiority of organic fertilization treatment of DPW at the level of 32 ton ha-1 compared with control treatments in the studied parameters recording the highest value of the plant height, total number of leaves, total leaf area, dry weight of the vegetative system, number of fruits per plant, the yield of one plant, total yield, the percentage of nitrogen in leaves, the total chlorophyll percentage, and the total soluble carbohydrates in fruits. The foliar application of 30 mg.L-1 Jasmonic acid gave significantly the highest value of the above indicators compared with control treatments. The interaction between the application of 32 tons.ha-1 DPW and 30 mg L-1 Jasmonic acids showed significant superiority over other treatments in all studied indicators. These indicators were plant height 131.66 cm, total number of leaves 42.55 leaves plant-1, total leaf area 1.66 m2plant-1, dry weight of the vegetative system 95.48 g plant-1, fruits number 77.15 fruit plant-1, yield of one plant 884.75 g plant-1, total yield 56.17 tons.ha-1, nitrogen in leaves 2.262%, total chlorophyll in leaves 80.91 mg.100 g-1FW, and carbohydrates in fruits 20.33%. While the interaction between non-fertilized plants sprayed with water only recorded significantly the lowest value of these indicators, which scored 77.10 cm, 20.36 leaf plant-1, 0.59 m2plant-1, 54.11 g plant-1, 47.23 fruit plant-1, 237.42 g plant-1, 15.07 ton ha-1, 1.351%, 47.45 mg.100 g-1 fresh weight, and 6.77% respectively.              
              Keywords: Abelmoschus plant, decomposed palm waste, Jasmonic acid, okra, Organic fertilizer, yield indicators             
                             
7             Effect of foliar application with PRO-SOL and humic acid on some growth and chemical characteristics of sour orange (Citrus aurantium)seedlings.          
              Farqad Al Dabbagh1*, Loai Hamzah2      
              Ministry of Agriculture, plant protection office.ORCID. 0000-0002-5625-1322.   
               Agriculture College/ AL- Qasim Green University;  [email protected]. ORCID.0000-0001-6381-3306.    
              *Correspondence: [email protected];Tel.:009647723809066         
              Abstract: This study was carried out on six months old sour orange (Citrus aurantium) seedlings in the lath house/ Agriculture College/AL-Qasim Green University in Babylon province, Iraq from March 2020 to October 2020 with aim of investigating the impact of spraying PRO-SOL fertilizer (0.0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5) gm.L-1 and Humic acid (HA) (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0) gm.L-1 independently or in combination on the vegetative and chemical characteristics of sour orange seedlings. In 2021, a factorial experiment with three replications was conducted on local sour orange seedlings. The findings indicated that spraying with PRO-SOL fertilizer at a concentration of (4.5 gm. L-1) and HA (3 gm.L-1) promoted the seedling growth indices(the height of the plant, diameter of stem, number of leaves, and area of leaf), chemical parameters (chlorophyll and carbohydrate percent) also the leaf mineral content of N, P, and K.        
              Keywords: PRO-SOL; HA; Foliar spray; Citrus aurantiums eedling; lathhouse; Organic fertilizer              
                             
8             Effect of Foliar Application of Alhagi maurorum Extract on Foeniculum vulgare Growth               
              Wurood Hantoosh Neamah1* and Fatima Ali Hasan1     
              Agriculture College / University of Basrah.ORCID0000-0002-6147-8927  
              Agriculture College / University of Basrah:[email protected]    
              Correspondence:[email protected],Tel.:(+96)407829865272;                       
              Abstract: Among medicinal plants used by human, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is highly important due to its flavor and health benefits. A clean and healthy environment requires applying sustainable methods to reduce soil, water, and air pollution.  Camel thorn (Alhagi maurorum) is a desert plant, distributed widely in Iraq. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of A. maurorumextract spraying on vegetative, floral, and seeds number of F. vulgare. 0, 1.5 and 3 g L-1 concentrations of shoot & root extracts of A. maurorumwere utilized as a foliar application on F. vulgare.A significant increase in studied characteristics of F. vulgarewas obtained under extract treatments. Spray with 3 and 1.5 g L-1 of shoot & root extracts respectively obtained the highest number of seeds per plant. The results of present study exhibited a potential to use A. maurorum as a natural fertilizer.               
              Keywords: Foeniculum vulgare, Alhagi maurorum, foliar application, natural fertilizer, flavonoids, essential oil
                             
9             Effect of foliar spraying with Nano-NPK fertilizer in some growth characteristics and chemical content of some citrus rootstocks        
              Harith Al-Tamimi1,* Sabreen Lateef 2,  and Ola Mahmood          
              Department of Horticulture & Landscape, faculty of Agriculture / University of Kerbala / Iraq. 1-7265-9988         
               Department of Horticulture & Landscape, faculty of Agriculture / University of Kerbala / Iraq.3-0163-2758          
               Department of Horticulture & Landscape, faculty of Agriculture / University of Kerbala / Iraq.1-6879-233x          
              *Correspondence; [email protected]. Tel. 07731872017.
              Abstract: This study was conducted in a lath house, Department of Horticulture and Landscape, College of Agriculture, Kerbala University, during 2021 growing season to investigate the influence of foliar spraying with Nno-NPK to improve the vegetative & root growth & nutritional content of seedlings of citrus rootstocks, Rangpur and Cleopatra mandarin. A factorial experiment was carried out according to a randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D), where the first factor was a citrus rootstock (Rangpur and Cleopatra mandarin). while the second factor was spraying with Nano NPK grafting with four concentrations (0- 0.5- 1 & 1.5 ml. l-1).  
              Results can be summed up as follows:   
              The citrus root Rangpur was significantly superior to Cleopatra's mandarin in most growth traits (plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, dry weight of shoot, root length, leaf content of chlorophyll, percentage of carbohydrates, N and K), while the rootstock Cleopatra mandarin recorded a significant increase For the average leaf area and the percentage of(P) in the leaves.  
              The superiority of Nano NPK Fertilizer with a Concentration of {1.5 mg. l-1} by recording a significant Increase in plant height & Stem diameter&Number of leaves&Leaf area&Dry weight of Shoot and root, root length, leaf content of chlorophyll, percentage of carbohydrates, N, and P), while the concentration1 mg.l-1 gavethe highest proportionof (K) in the leaves           
              The dual interaction treatment (Rangipur root + 1.5 ml. L-1Nano NPK fertilizer) was superior by giving the highest rate in most of the vegetative and root characteristics and the chemical content of the leaves. While the dual interaction treatment (Cleopatra mandarin + 1.5 ml. L-1nano NPK fertilizer) was superior by giving the highest rate in the characteristics of Leaf area; dry weight of the root system & the percentage of (P) in leaves compared to other treatments.        
              Keywords: Foliar spraying; Nano NPK; Rootstocks; root system; Leaf area; Fertilizer.               
                             
10          Evaluation of the Drinking water in some Hospitals in Baghdad  
              Yaaroub Faleh Khalef Al Fatlawy1, Faiza Kadhim2 and Beadaa Abdalqader Mahdii 3, *               
               [email protected]              
              [email protected] ORCID          
              Correspondence: [email protected] .Tel.07810800062(.College of Science, University of Baghdad, Department of Biological. Iraq)
              Abstract: Due to the significance of hospital drinking water, a study was done to assess the water in three hospitals in Baghdad (Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, Ibn Sina Hospital, and Ibn-Al-Nafis Hospital) for its nature and quality, compare it to other hospitals in terms of its physical, chemical, and bacterial specifications, and compare it to international standards. According to Iraqi standards from 2009 and WHO standards from 2011, Chemical factors were measured which included, pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), and Calcium Ion (Ca+2) reported readings are all within acceptable ranges for drinking water. In contrast, turbidity, total hardness (T.H), chlorides (Cl-), magnesium (Mg+2), the number of aerobic plates (APC), total coliform (T.C), faecal coliform (F.C), and faecal streptococcus (F.S) which maximum values were (8.7 NTU, 690 mgl-1, 510 mgl-1, 231.1 mg/l, 38 cfu/ml, 20 cfu /100ml, 16 cfu /100ml, and 16 cfu /100ml) respectively. These values were higher than the permissible level recommended by the Iraqi standard (2009) and WHO standard (2011) for drinking water for all months and some months.    
              Keywords: Drinking, Water, Hospitals, Baghdad
                             
11          Evaluation of the quality of potable water in Al-Rusafa side, Baghdad, Iraq          
              Ahmed Aldhamin*           
              College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq. E- mail: [email protected] 0000-0002-1025-2266    
              [email protected]; Tel.: (07729368989)   
              Abstract: 1)Background: Safe drinking water is essential for the present and future generations' health. This study aims to assess drinking water quality in Baghdad's Al-Rusafa neighbourhood. 2)Method: Water samples were taken from 32 different neighbourhoods on this side. The quality of the examined potable water samples differed depending on the water source. The pH, chlorine, EC, TDS, TSS, Cd, and Pb levels in this investigation were all below acceptable ranges. 3)Results: TDS levels in Al-Mada'in are more significant than acceptable (>600ppm) water levels. Bacteria have polluted six communities (Shigella, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella). 4)Conclusion: Bacterial quality of drinking water and gram-negative bacteria resistant to chlorine in Baghdad's municipal water supply. In terms of pH, the water quality, EC, TDS, TSS, Pb, and Cd of Al-Rusafa neighbourhoods were within the recommended limits of WHO and the Iraqi drinking water standards.     
              Keywords: Safe drinking water; contaminated bacteria; Baghdad city; healthcare; pH ; Temperature    
                             
12          Evaluation of the growth efficiency of some citrus rootstocks for spraying melatonin growth regulator under salt stress conditions     
              Muntadher Al-Mousawi 1,*and Harith Al-Tamimi1          
              Division of Horticulture and Land scape /College of Agriculture/University of Karbala1-7265-9989          
               Department of Horticulture and Land scape/College of Agriculture/University of Karbala1-7265-9988       
              Correspondence [email protected]; Tel.: +964771490387            
              Abstract: : This research was conducted determine the impact of spraying the increase regulator melatonin on the tolerance of some citrus roots to salt stress. The results showed that Sour Orange root was significantly superior to the rest of the citrus rootstocks, and recorded the highest increase in the rate (Height, diameter, quantity, and area of leaves for the plant), while the root Volkamer lemon was significantly the best by recording the highest rate of arid mass of the root system and plant life. Furthermore, irrigation with electrical connection water (1.7 dsec.m-1) led to obtaining the highest values for vegetative plant girth growth characteristics (plant girth, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, dry weight of the vegetative and root system and root length). Moreover, treatment with the growth regulator melatonin at a concentration of (100 mg.L-1) showed greatest percentage in the trait (plant height, diameter of the stem, number of leaves, size of the leaves, and dry weight of the vegetative both root system and root length). As well as, the binary and triple interactions between these study factors led to a clear significant superiority in the studied traits compared to the comparison treatment, as the triple interaction treatment (Sour Orange root + melatonin at 100 mg.l-1 as the concentration+ salinity of irrigation water at a concentration of 1.7 decimens.m-1) was the most significant treatment by giving the highest increase in the rate of vegetative characteristics. Finally, the treatment (rootstocks Volkamer lemon + melatonin at 100 mg.l-1 as the concentration + salinity of irrigation water at a concentration of 1.7 dm. m-1) recorded the highest rate of length and weight of the root when it is dry system.
              Keywords melatonin; rootstocks; salinity; soils; irrigation; agricultural production.                                              
                             
13          Laboratory determination of spray characteristics using a full hollow cone nozzle at different heights and operating pressures            
              Athraa K. Hussain1  and Majid H. Alheidary1,*    
              Department of Agricultural Machines and Equipment, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq; [email protected].          
              Department of Agricultural Machines and Equipment, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq; [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1446-1564              
              Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +9647733873816             
              Abstract: Reducing pesticide costs and losses during the spraying to the environment is considered an essential issue for obtaining the effectiveness of pest control. The objective of this study was to determine the spray characteristics using a full hollow cone nozzle at different spray conditions. Three spray heights 25, 50, and 75cm and three pressures, 2, 3, and 5 bar, were used. Nozzle flow rate, application rate, spray width, angle, and accumulated volume was measured. The results showed affecting on spray characteristics due to the change in spray conditions. The nozzle flow rate increased with the increase in pressure, where the average flow rate ranges between (0.34 to 0.58 l/min) for between 2 and 5 bars, respectively. Results also illustrated an increase in height from 25 to 75 cm, and pressure from 2 to 5bar led to an increase in volume rate, spray width, angle, and accumulated volume (285.6 to 474.92), (50 to 100cm), (41 to 90º), and (37.75 to 198ml) respectively.              
              Keywords: Operating Conditions, Patternator, Nozzle, Spray Indicators  
                             
14          First report of Alternaria alternata associated with spot blotch of barley (Hordeum vulgare) in Iraq  
              Itlal AlMasoodi 1, Zainab Hameed1 and Adnan Lahuf 2,*              
              Department of Field Crops, Agriculture College, University of Kerbala, Al-Hussainiya, Karbala, Iraq; [email protected]. [email protected] 0000-0003-4891-8331                
              Department of Plant Protection, Agriculture College, University of Kerbala, Al-Hussainiya, Karbala, Iraq; [email protected]. 0000-0001-7218-2905              
              Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: (008647810541064)         
              Abstract: A field survey was carried out during barley growing season of 2019 in Karbala Province of Iraq. Barley plants that showed severe leaf spot symptoms were collected from several barley fields. The associated fungus was isolated and purified from those symptomatic leaves. The fungus colonies were aeriform mycelia in grey to black colour. Conidia observed were light to dark brown in colour and formed different length chains. The causal agent was confirmed as Altenaria alternata via the PCR amplification and sequencing of the rDNA-ITS region, actA, and tef1 genes. Pathogenicity test showed that A. alternata isolated was pathogenic by producing light to dark brown spots on barley foliage. Best of the knowledge, this is the first record of this pathogen causing Alternaria spot blotch on barley crops in Iraq.     
              Keywords: Alternaria alternata; leaf spot; Hordeum vulgare; Pathogenicity assessment; Phylogeny analysis.              
                             
15          Efficiency and Economic Feasibility of using neonicotinoids against Flat-headed borer Chrysobothris affinis (Fabricius, 1794) (Buprestidae: Coleoptera) infesting Jujube orchards in Basra Province, Iraq       
              Mohammed M. Alderawii 1, and Aqeel Alyousuf 1,*       
              1 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq 1; [email protected] .   
              Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq 2; [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7352-0168   
              Correspondence: [email protected];                
              Abstract: A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency and economic feasibility of using three Neonicotinoids to control Flat-headed borers infesting Jujube orchards in Basra Province during 2020 and 2021. The insecticides tested were Acetamiprid, Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam, with recommended field application rates. This study showed that Acetamiprid, Imidacloprid provided the best protection to jujube trees, which was reflected in the high average efficiency (88.70 and 93.40%, respectively). Acetamiprid and Thiamethoxam enhanced the production, with an average of 60.10 and 60.00 kg/tree, respectively, compared to 39.50 kg of the check trees. Thus, the study showed the highest economic return resulting from controlling the flat-headed borers using Acetamiprid and Thiamethoxam (5714900 and 5676500 dinars/ dunum, respectively). In contrast, the economic returns of Imidacloprid were 5082900 Iraqi dinars/ dunum. These results confirmed that the high economic feasibility was related to the efficacy of the low-cost insecticides in reducing the fruits infestation rate and increasing the yield.       
              Keywords: Buprestidae, Insecticides, flat-headed borers, Economic visibility, Neonicotinoids  
                             
16          Efficacy of different concentrations of flax seed oil Linum usitatissimum in controlling green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)          
              Haidar H. Al-Kallabe 1, Akram A. Mohammed* 2 and Ali A. Kareem3       
              2 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0054-2737     
              3 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kerbela, Kerbela,    https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0096-8575                       
              Correspondence  [email protected]     
              Abstract: The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, is a major insect pest worldwide. The potential for using Linum usitatissimum flax seed oil to control insects has been reported. However, no study has been conducted on the efficacy of flax seed oil against M. persicae. This study, therefore, aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of Linum usitatissimum flax seed oil at four concentrations (1.00, 3.00, 5.00, and 10.0 ml / 100 ml water). The highest mortality of adults (100%) was caused 4 days post-treatment with all tested concentrations.Similarly, the results demonstrate that foliar application of flax seed oil against all nymphal stages caused 100% mortality rates at all concentrations four days after the treatment. The rate of nymph production of aphids significantly decreased and reached 0.0 nymph per adult after 4 days. The results suggest that flax seed oil has the potential as a biological control agent of M. persicae.             
              Keywords: botanicals, essential oil, insects, biological control     
                             
17          Efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisoplae against Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium (Coleoptera: Der-mestidae) under laboratory conditions
              Battol Qasem Kteo¹; Akram Ali Mohammed1 and Hanaa H. Al-Saffar2     
              Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq                
              Iraq Natural History Research Center and Museum, University of  Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq       
              Correspondence:  [email protected]     
              Abstract: The khapra beetle, Trogoderma  granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is an important pest of stored wheat worldwide. In this study, the efficacy of two isolates of M. anisoplae (commercial and local isolates) were assessed. Different conidial concentrations  (1×108, 1×106, 1×104) conidia/ml-1 and fungal filtrate (100, 75, 50) %  of M. anisoplae were evaluated. In both fungal isolates, corrected mortality of T. granarium after ex-posure varied according to fungal concentrations were conidial concentration of conidia/ml-1, and the fungal filtrate at a concentration of 75% caused a highest mortality rates. In addition, morality rates were significantly varied according to the beetle’s developmental stage. Both isolates of M. anisoplae caused between 41 and 67.6 % reduction in total fecundity of the female adults. The results demonstrate that there was no significant differences between local isolate of M. anisoplae and commercial formulation (Met 52 EC). Further studies under commercial storage conditions are required.         
              Keywords: Insects storage pests, Biological control, Entomopathogenic fungi      
                             
18          Biological, serological and molecular characterization of Potato virus Y strains isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)     
              Dena Zuheer1, Hameed Ali 2,*  
              [email protected] . ORCID     
              [email protected]; Tel.: +9647740871120       
              Abstract: Viral diseases are among the most important determinants of potato production in many parts of the world, and this is reflected in the importance of developing early diagnosis methods to detect these diseases in the fields. The study showed that potato fields in Nineveh Province are infected with several strains of Potato Y virus , depending on the symptoms of potato or indicator plants and serological tests. For the first time locally in Nineveh Province and at the level of Iraq, using a single molecular test and one step, it was possible to distinguish between the ancient parental strains (PVYº and PVYN), as well as between the PVYNTNT hybrid strain resulting from recombination between the genome of the parental strains when using the pairs of primers N-868-7-F + N -9236-R, which yielded a genome segment of DNA with a length of 441 bp. The emergence of such a new strain in the tested samples in the potato fields in Nineveh province infected with PVY may have arisen from mixed infections.  
              Keywords: PVY strains; PVYN; Potato;  RT-PCR; Nineveh-IRAQ    
                             
19          New Records  in Iraq and Arab Nations for some Fungi Isolated from Al-Barakia wastewater treatment  plant  in Al-Najaf Province           
              Nihad Mutlag 1, Douaa Hussain 2 and Douaa Hussain 2,*             
               [email protected]  . ORCID       
               [email protected]. ORCID      
              Correspondence: [email protected]   
              Abstract: This study was conducted in the year 2020 in the wastewater treatment plant in Al-Barakia Najaf, where samples were taken in November from the Bioshft unit and the compact unit from the plant for the purpose of knowing the efficiency of the plant in treatment. Where the process of isolation and purification was Microbiology Laboratory_ Ecology and Pollution Department - College of Science - University of Kufa. As for its diagnosis, it was carried out at the Plant Virus Laboratory - College of Agriculture - the University of Karbala, and (19) fungal isolates isolated from wastewater treatment plants were diagnosed.. These isolates were diagnosed using the PCR technique and determination of the nucleotide sequences of the polymerase chain reaction products that were amplified from those isolates using ITS4 and ITS1 primers. It belonged to the fungus A.caespitosus. and isolated A flavus (7,8), T.asperellum (9-11) A.tubingensis (12), A.terrus(13), A.niger (14,15), A. alternata (16), C.sphaerospermum (17), A.oryzae (18), Acremonium sp (19), similarity rate of 100% with isolates registered with the NCBI. The results show that all the isolated fungi diagnosed in this study are recorded globally, but they are not recorded in Iraq .and (5) isolates are not recorded in the Arab nation and Iraq, including A.tubingensis, C.sphaerospermum, A. alternate, A.oryzae while the isolate Acremonium sp. It is registered only in Germany under the number (AJ557731), and the similarity rate is 100% with the isolate diagnosed in this study, according to the National Center for Biotechnology Information NCBI.                                                                       
              Keywords: wastewater, Molecular Identification, fungi, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequence analysis    
                             
20          Diversity of Butterflies associated with Brassicaceae crops in Basra, Iraq               
              Faisal Nasser Jaber 1, Aqeel Alyousuf 1*, and H. H. Al-Saffar2     
              Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq 1;                
              [email protected] , https://orcid.org/ 0000-0002-3141-0614            
              Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq 1; [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7352-0168   
              3 Iraq Natural History Research center and Museum, University of Baghdad, Iraq 2;               
              [email protected]              
              Correspondence: [email protected];                
              Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the seasonal presence and characterization of the group of butterflies (abundance, richness and Biodiversity) in the agroecosystem of Brassicaceae plants in the province Basra. Two different ecosystem sites (Karmat Ali at the sedimentary habitat and Al-Zubair region at the desert habitat) were sampled during the growing season of 2020/2021. A total of 823 and 507 individuals at Karmat Ali and Al-Zubair sites, respectively; the specimens consist of 9 species of butterflies belonging to four families; The most abundant family was Nymphalidae (60%), followed by Lycainidae (28%), and Pieridae (9%); while Hesperiidae recorded the lowest relative abundance of 3%. The highest butterfly population was recorded for Vanessa carudi, while Pieris rapae had the least density. The results showed differences in abundance, species richness, and Diversity of butterflies at the sites, the highest values of Diversity and richness were at Karmat Ali, compared to Al-Zubair region. The study of butterflies abundance and biodiversity indices indicated that environmental factors and the polyculture plantations support the butterfly's population in agricultural habitats.      
              Keywords: Basra, Biodiversity, Brassicaceae, Butterflies, Shannon index, Richness               
                             
21          First record of Fusarium brachygibbosum as causal agent of seeds decay and damping-off disease on cotton in Iraq and control it using some bioagents             
              Aymen Jasim Mahi 1, Yasir Naser Alhamiri 2,*    
              [email protected] . ORCID     
              Correspondence [email protected].                
              Abstract: The results of the isolation and identification of pathogens accompanying the symptomatic seeds and seedlings of cotton showed that the most common fungus was Fusarium brachygibbosum. Molecular identification of the studied fungus was performed using the universal primers: the results of the genetic analysis revealed the identities of fungus as follows: a 100% of identity for Fusarium brachygibbosum that was deposited at the GenBank under accession number ON738702.1. This fungus has shown high pathogenicity against cotton seeds and seedlings by reducing their Germination and growth severely. Treated cotton seeds with the biological factors of Trichoderma spp. revealed a high efficiency in reducing disease incidence and increasing cotton germination percentage. Trichoderma viride showed the highest ability in increasing seed germination up to 94.44%, while the lowest ability reached 77.77 % in  Trichoderma pseudokoningii and Trichoderma reesei. The results of extracting toxins from the filters of Trichoderma spp. used in the study showed the presence of Trichodermin and Gliotoxin in large quantities. The percentage of toxin inhibition was great against the growth of pathogenic fungi. The highest percentage of inhibition was 86.1% for isolate Trichoderma koningiopsis, and the lowest percentage was 66.65% for isolate Trichoderma reesei. As for the effect of isolates of resistant fungus on the Pathogen in the field, the highest germination rate was 100%, and the inhibition rate was 0.00% when using the biological preparation prepared from the isolates (Trichoderma  viride, Trichoderma .pseudokoningii, Trichoderma koningiopsis and Trichoderma reesei).      
               Keywords Fusarium brachygibbosum; Trichoderma spp.; Trichodermin; gliotoxin; Biological control.           
                             
22          Evaluation of the Efficacy of Trichoderma species and their Fungal Toxins in the Eradication of Alternaria alternata Causing Seeds Decay and Damping-off Disease on Cotton in Iraq   
              Aymen Mahi 1, Yasir Hussein Alhamiri 2,*           
               [email protected] . ORCID    
              Correspondence [email protected].                
              Abstract: The object of this study was to isolate and identify the pathogens accompanying the cotton seeds and seedlings rotting and death. As well as, some Trichoderma spp. were assessed against the fungal Pathogen associated with the disease. The results  showed  that one of the most important isolated fungi Alternaria alternata that has shown high virulence in attacking cotton seeds and seedlings and reducing germination and growth. This fungus was identified rely on its morphological and molecular characteristics. The Trichoderma species applied have shown high efficiency in reducing infection rates and increasing cotton germination percentage. Every isolate of Trichoderma showed a high efficiency against the fungus A. alternata by providing the highest antagonistic ability reached 93.75%. The highest percentage of inhibition growth of Pathogen was (86.11%) achieved by Trichoderma koningiopsis while the lowest percentage of inhibition growth of Pathogen was 66.65 % for Trichoderma reesei . However, the biological formula prepared from species Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma pseudokoningii , Trichoderma koningiopsis and Trichoderma reesei displayed the highest percentage of inhibition of 100% against the fungus A. alternata .              
              Keywords Alternaria alternata; Trichoderma spp.; Trichodermin; gliotoxin; Biological control.
                             
23          Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Apis mellifera L. Honey, Propolis, Royal jelly in Iraqi Kurdistan Region              
              Banaz Abdulla1, Rukhosh Rashed2, Rebwar Hamasalih1, Tishk Shekh Faraj2, Nashmil Rashid2, Hozan Hamamurad1    
              Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: (optional; include country code; if there are multiple corresponding authors, add author initials)    
                             
                             
              Abstract: This study was conducted at a laboratory in the department of Biology, College of Education, University of Salahaddin, from February to May 2022 in order to investigate chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of propolis, honey and royal jelly. The honeybee production extract showed Gram (+) bacteria were more resistant to the antibacterial compounds of honey and propolis than Gram (-) bacteria and fungi. E. coli was found to be a more sensitive isolate than all the other bacteria examined against the honey types tested, while it revealed more resistance against all types of propolis. Royal jelly with honey was found to display greater antimicrobial activity than other bee products and exhibited superior activity; the minimum inhibitory concentration of honey and propolis samples ranged from 32 to 512 mg/ml, The MIC value of the most effective honey (Honey 1, Honey 2 and Royal jelly) were 32 mg/ml, The lowest concentration of Qaladze propolis was (32 mg/ml) for E. coli ATCC 25922, followed by 128 mg/ml in some other propolis types.    
              Keywords: Apis mellifera; antimicrobial activities; honey; propolis; royal jelly      
                             
24          The effect of phosphorus fertilizer and nano-magnesium spray on the vegetative and reproductive of Datura stramonium L.   
              Shrooq Khalifa Al-Tamimi 1 and Ali Nadhim Farhood 2  
              [email protected]   
              ;[email protected]      
              Abstract: In 2021, a field trial was conducted out at the College of Agriculture, University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq, to study the effect of phosphate fertilization1 and nano-magnesium spraying on the vegetative and reproductive traits of Datura plants. Experiment treatments was distributed three replications according to randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two factors. First factor included four levels of Phosphorus fertilizer: 0, 25, 50, and 75 kg P ha-1. The second factor included spraying of nano-magnesium in four concentrations: 0 (distilled water only) and 60, 120, and 180 mg Mg L-1. The results showed that phosphorous caused a significant increase in the studied traits, as the treatment 50 kg P ha-1 gave the highest mean in plant height, number of branches, leaf area, leaf yield, seed yield, alkaloids percentage in leaves and seeds, number of fruits and number of seeds, which amounted to 66.99 cm and 27.62 plant-1, 1989.12 cm2   940.76kg ha-1, 501.49 kg ha-1, 13.16%, 13.18%, 26.02 fruit plant-1 and 228.14 seed plant-1, respectively. The treatment 180 kg Mg ha-1 gave the highest average, number of leaves, leaf area, yield of leaves, yield of seeds, percentage of alkaloids in leaves and seeds, number of fruits and number of seeds reaching, 122.94 leaves Plant-1, 1996.62 cm2, 886.59 kg ha-1, 486.17 kg h-1, 14.86%, 15.10%, 26.56 fruits plant-1, 243.63 seeds plant-1 . We can conclude that adding phosphorus and spraying Nano-magnesium causes improvement of vegetative and reproductive traits of Datura plant.     
              Keywords: Fertilization; Nano; Nutrients; Medicinal Plant; Yield; alkaloids            
                             
25          Effect of mixing ratios and spraying with microelements on the growth and yield of forage for a mixture of oats and clover  
              Israa. S. mohammed1 and lamiaa .M.S. Al-Freeh*2          
              1College of Agriculture, Basrah University, Basrah, Iraq  
              *Correspondence ; [email protected]   
              Abstract A field experiment was carried out in the fields of the Agricultural Research Station  - College of Agriculture, University of Basra during the winter season 2021-2022. To study the effect of seeding rates of both oats and Egyptian clover with mixing percentages of 100% oats, 75% oats + 25% clover, 50% oats + 50% clover, 75% clover + 25% oats, 100% clover as the first factor and microelements at a concentration of 1500, 3000 and 4500 ppm as a second factor. The time for spraying with micro-elements was in the branching stage, 7-10 days after the first spray, and 7-10 days after the second spray. The experiment was carried out in a factorial experiment, according to a randomized complete block design, R.C.B.D. with three replications. Three cuttings were taken during the growth period of the crop. The height of the oats and clover plants, the number of oat tillers, the number of clover branches, the weight ratio of leaves to tillers and stems, as well as the amount of green and dry forage were measured. The results of the study showed that the different ratios of mixing oats and clover crops contributed to the production of the studied traits, 50% of oats + 50% of clover in the second cutting recorded the highest yield of green fodder (66.84 tons ha-1) and dry fodder yield (22.37 tons ha-1). As for the effect of concentrations of microelements, the level of 4500 ppm achieved superiority in all growth characteristics of all cutting, and the highest yield was recorded in green fodder (65.57 tons ha-1) and dry forage (22.44 tons ha-1) at the second cutting. 50% oats + 50% clover at the level of 4500 ppm and gave the highest yield for green fodder (69.66 tons ha-1) and dry (24.81 tons ha-1).         
              Keywords: Mixture, Spraying, micro-nutrients, green fodder, Avena sativa, Clover.                
                             
26          Role of irrigation scheduling and potassium levels on the growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) Anbar 33 cultivar            
              Ahmed Al-Mashhadani1, Saad Hassan2, Muntadher Al_Budeiri 3* and Ali Matar4               
               [email protected] . Agriculture Research Office / Ministry of Agriculture / Iraq     
               [email protected] . Agriculture Research Office / Ministry of Agriculture / Iraq        
              Correspondence: [email protected].         
              Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in Agricultural Research Office fields / Al Diwaniyah Research Station of 2019, to study of the role of irrigation scheduling and potassium levels in growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) Anbar 33 cultivar. A Factorial experiment Design in order of split plot with three replicates was used, the main plots occupied with irrigation factor (I) with four levels I1, I2, I3 and I4 representing irrigation every (1,2,3 and 4 days respectively), while the sub plots occupied with potassium fertilizer factor (K) with four levels K1, K2, K3 and K4 representing (0, 60, 120 and 180 Kg k ha-1 respectively). The Results indicated that the Irrigation scheduling affected growth and yield traits where I2 treatment was significantly superior on plant height, panicle length, panicles number, weight of 1000 grain, grain yield and biological yield which gave 97.3cm, 23.42cm, 100.8m2, 17.77gm, 2.86Meg ha-1 and 10.00 Meg ha-1 respectively, Which didn’t different significantly of I1 treatment on plant height, panicle length, panicles number, grain yield and biological yield. the addition of potassium fertilizer affected significantly in studied traits, as K2 significantly superior on panicles number, grain number/panicle, grain yield and biological yield which gave 101.9m2, 60.58, 2.94 Mgh-1 and 9.69 Mgh-1 re-spectively, Which didn’t different significantly than K4 treatment on panicles number, grain number/panicle and grain yield. The intraction indicated that there were significant differences among treatments, as I2K2 significantly superior on panicles number, grain number/panicle, grain yield and biological yield which gave 160.0m2, 55.00, 4.20Meg ha-1 and 13.63Meg ha-1 respectively.              
              Keywords: Potassium fertilizer; Irrigation role; Drought tolerance Rice.  
                             
27          Effect of Some Chemical Herbicides on the Weeds Accompanying the Field's Peanut Crop      
              B.A.A. AL-YASARI and  M.N.H. AL-YASARI*           
              1 Department of Field Crops, College of Agriculture, University of Kerbala, Iraq  
              ; [email protected] .    
              Department of Field Crops, College of Agriculture, University of Kerbala, Iraq     
              2; [email protected] 0000-0002-3873-0215               
              Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in one of the fields of preparative Ibn Al-Bitar occupational / Al-Hussainiya region in Holy Kerbala for the spring season 2021 by planting Peanut plant) Arachis hypogaea L.) a local variety, in soil with a clay loam texture, with a view to knowing the best chemical herbicides to control the growing weed with Peanut crop, the experiment was applied in a randomized complete block design (RCBD)with three replications,the experiment included six treatments: Weedy and Weed Free, which were controlled manually throughout the growing season, and treatments of the chemical herbicides used before planting, Trifluralin and Pendimethalin, which were sprayed 10 days before planting, and and post planting herbicides Oxyfluorfen and Clethodim, which were sprayed during the vegetative growth of the plant and the beginning of the flowering stage, sprayed herbicides at the recommended rates:
               The results showed that there were significant differences in the control process with chemical herbicides for the date (30) days of spraying the herbicides, as the two herbicides Oxyfluorfen and Pendimethalin, gave the lowest density of broad leaf weeds reached (4.6 and 7.6) plants m-2 respectively. The results also showed for the date (60) days From spraying herbicides to the presence of significant differences, as the two herbicides Pendimethalin and Oxyfluorfen, gave the lowest density to broad leaf weeds, reaching (4.6 and 6.0) m-2 plants, respectively,As for the narrow-leaf weed for the time (30 and 60) days of spraying the herbicides, there was no significant difference between the averages of the herbicides, and the two herbicides Oxyfluorfen and Pendimethalin, gave the lowest density of broad leaf weeds for the time (90) days of spraying the herbicides, which amounted to (6.0) and 6.3) plant m-2 respectively, as for the narrow-leaf weed for the same date, the herbicides Trifluralin, Clethodim and Oxyfluorfen, were superior in giving the lowest density to the narrow leaf weed of (5.0, 5.3 and 5.6) plants m-2 respectively, and no There was no significant difference between these herbicides,The results indicated the superiority of the two herbicides Oxyfluorfen and Pendimethalin, in giving the highest percentage of broad leaf weed control for the date (30, 60 and 90) days of spraying the herbicides. As for the narrow leaf weeds for the same dates, the herbicides Oxyfluorfen, Clethodim, and Trifluralin, were superior in giving The highest rate of control of narrow leaf weed. The herbicides Oxyfluorfen, recorded the lowest average dry weight and the highest percentage of inhibition on broad and narrow leaf weeds compared to other herbicide treatments.             
              Keywords :Herbicides; Pendimethalin ; Oxyfluorfen ;Trifluralin ; Clethodim ; Broad leaf ; Narrow leaf; Weeds.    
                             
28          Response of maize grain yield and components to foliar iron nano-particle application               
              Naeem A. Mutlag1*, Adawiya S. M. Al-Rawi2 Mohammed D.Y. El-Jubouri3, and Saddam H. Cheyed2        
              University of Fallujah 1; [email protected] . 0000-0002-6776-0675               
              2College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad. Iraq: [email protected]        
              Al-Karkh University of Science 2;              
              Correspondence: [email protected].             
              Abstract: During the spring season of 2021, a field experiment was conducted at the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad (Abi Ghraib location). To investigate the impact of nano iron concentrations and the dates of their application on the yield and its components of maize. A factorial experiment was carried in a split plot arrangement. The main plots occupied the spraying dates (beginning of the male flowering stage, 50% female flowering and completion of female flowering) and symbolized in sequence. Whereas the iron concentrations (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg. L-1) occupied to sub-plots according to RCBD with three replicates. The results revealed that the dates of spraying nano iron had a substantial influence on the majority of the features tested. The early date (beginning of the male flowering stage) gave the highest average length of the ear (16.374 cm), the number of rows per ear (16.3 row ear-1), and the number grains per ear (563.4 grain ear-1) and the total grain yield of 6.096 tons ha.-1. The results also showed that the concentrations of nano iron 300 mg L-1were superior in all the characteristics of the yield components and the grain yield, as it produced the greatest average for ear length, number of rows, number of grains per row, number of grains in the ear, weight of 500 grains, and total grain yield. It is concluded from this study that spraying at the beginning of flowering stage is the most responsive to spraying the nano iron element, especially at the concentration of 300 mg L-1.
              Keywords: Nano iron; flowering stage; ear length; grain yield      
                             
29          Isolation and Molecular Diagnosis of Enterobacter cloacae and Kineococcus radiotolerans from Red Clover nodules and Evaluate the prepared inoculum from them as a stimulator for plant growth        
              Shaimaa A. M. Ali 1,*           Abdulkareem E. S. Alkurtany2           Muqdad Salih Jasim3       Abdullah Abdulkareem Hassan3               
              1 Department of Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, Tikrit University, Iraq;    
              2Department of Soil and Water Resources Sciences, College of Agriculture, Tikrit University, Iraq.               
              3 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Tikrit University, Iraq.                
              Correspondence: [email protected] ; 096407729283329            
              Abstract: To obtain biological inoculum that promotes plant growth and contributes to a clean environment and sustainable agriculture, 21 samples were collected from the root nodes of the red clover plant(Trifolium paratens) grown in gypsiferous soils at Research Station of the Department of Soil Sciences and Water Resources - Faculty of Agriculture - University of Tikrit, samples were cultured in the medium of YEMA and two isolates belonging to the genera Enterobacter cloacae and Kineococcus radiotolerans were diagnosed with phenotypically and molecularly, the diagnosis was confirmed using the analysis of nitrogen bases sequence of the DNA of the 16S rRNA gene. It was recorded in the National Center Biotechnology Information(NCBI) with the numbers MN310027.1 and KT216573.1 respectively, these isolates were activated and tested their efficiency as a bio-stimulant by testing their ability to dissolve insoluble phosphate compounds and produce indole acetic acid and chelating compounds, the results showed the ability of all isolates to produce indole acetic acid (IAA), chelating compounds, and solubility of phosphates, E. cloacae isolate outperformed K. radiotolerans isolates in these parameters, as it gave E. coloaca solubilization of phosphate and IAA production of 40.3 mg p L-1 and 11.2 µg ml-1 respectively, and it gave a high production of the chelating compounds compared to the treatment inoculated with K. radiotolerans, which gave 27.20 mg p L-1 and 7.21 µg ml-1, and medium production of iron chelating compounds, the results also showed the superiority of the inoculated treatments over the uninoculated treatments in the percentage of germination, the speed of germination, the length of tomato seedlings, the dry weight of the Shoot and root parts and the number of leaves, and the results showed the superiority of the inoculated treatment with E. cloacae significantly on K. radiotolerans isolate.
              Keywords: Enterobacter cloacae, Kineococcus radiotolerans, Molecular Diagnosis, Bacterial inoculation, Eggplant seedlings.             
                             
30          Effect of spraying with silicon, humic acid, and proline on the safflower tolerance (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to salt stress   
              Qadesia Alabdulwahed*1  Kadhim Huthily2         
              Field Crops Dept. College of Agriculture, Al- Basrah University. 0000-0003-2509-0180               
              ; [email protected] . ORCID     
              Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: (optional; include country code; if there are multiple corresponding authors, add author initials)               
                             
              Keywords: Foliar Spraying, Salinity, Silicon, Humic acid, proline.
                             
31          Study the difference in a carcass and the relative weight of the parts of the carcass of Molar, White Pekin and Brown Iraqi local duck.
              Salah Gatea 1, Salam Altaie 2 , Nihad Nafel 3,* , Thamer  ALjanabi 4 and Sura Khafaji 5             
              Department of Animal  production, Agriculture College, Kerbala University, Iraq; Email: [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9794-0984   
              Department of Animal  production, Agriculture College, Kerbala University, Iraq ;Email: [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1061-0446            
               Department of Animal  production, Agriculture College, Kerbala University, Iraq; Email: [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1004-7016       
              Department of Animal  production, Agriculture College, Kerbala University, Iraq; Email: [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4617-2049      
              Department of Animal  production, Veterinary  .Medicine College, AL-Qasim Green University, Iraq; Email: [email protected].   https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2062-7970                
              Correspondence: : [email protected].  
              Abstract: The existing experiment was intended to of the explore in differences among three breeds of duck of Molar, White Pekin and Brown Iraqi local duck in carcass traits and some organs. Thirty ducks (n= 10 of each breed) at age 2th month were reared at open scheme for 8 weeks. At end of this period before and after slaughter the weight of all ducks had taken. Weigh the of  the carcass, thighs, back and neck, wings, and breast were estimated by balance. Then some slaughter organs, heart, liver, and gizzard were weighted. The statistical analysis of current data showed a significant (P≤0.05) raising in live body weight (LBW) in molar ducks compared with other breed ducks. On other hand, the results of carcass traits recorded a significant (P<0.05) increment in wings percentage in molar ducks compared with White Pekin and Brown Iraqi local ducks. Also, the statistical examination verified a significant (P<0.05) increment in heart and gizzard percentages in molar ducks in comparison with other breeds. As well as, the regression equations verified for determining live body weight by slaughter traits in three breed ducks. Concluded, that there are differences among Molar, Pekin and Brown Iraqi local ducks in live body weight, and carcass weight, as well as, weights of some organs, also it improved significant in Molar duck in compared with White Pekin and Brown Iraqi local  ducks.             
              Keywords: Ducks; slaughter; breed; organs.        
                             
32          Effect of applying hydrostatic pressure on some of quality properties in Iraqi rams and calves’ meats.    
              Rabeea Mahmood 1*, Anwer Mhannawee 2 and Esraa Mohsen 3            
              [email protected]  Animal Production, Agriculture College, University of Kerbala,    . https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8760-4381    
               [email protected] Animal Production, Agriculture College, University of Kerbala,     https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9161-4881   
               [email protected] General Directorate of Vocational Education, Ministry of Education, Iraq.
               https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6618-8980             
              * Correspondence; ; [email protected]   Animal Production, Agriculture College, University of Kerbala,           
              Abstract: Two experiments has been conducted in this research, both were to know the effects of hydrostatic pressure on Iraqi rams and calves meats. (One experiment to each kind of meat), Four treatments were designed for each experiment: control with no hydrostatic pressure, T1 with 100 bar exposed pressure, T2 with 200 bar and T3 with 300 bar. The pressures were generated and handled via device designed and manufactured to this goal. The studied properties were Water holding capacity WHC, thaw loss, fragmentation index FI, myofibril fragmentation index MFI, protein solubility and finally shear force. All these properties are related so strongly with meat tenderness. All studied properties affected significantly with applying hydrostatic pressure on meat samples to the both rams and calves’ meat samples. Therefore, it could be concluded that exposing meat to hydrostatic pressure enhance its tenderness related properties.         
              Keywords: hydrostatic pressure; tenderness; WHC; FI; MFI; Protein solubility; Shear force    
                             
33          Comparison of chemical and Sensory Characteristics of meat betties produced from three types ducks, Muscovy, Peking and Molar  
              Haifa Awahd1, Zeinab  Al-tememe 2 and Manal Alsirrag3,*          
               college of Agriculture, department of animal production, University of Kerbala - Iraq;hayfaa.a@uo kerbala.edu.iq. ORCID.org/0000-0003-2466-2554        
               college of Agriculture, department of animal production, University of Kerbala - Iraq; [email protected] . ORCID.org/0000-0001-7917-0798           
              Affiliation 3; college of Agriculture, department of animal production, University of Kerbala – Iraq. ORCID org/0000-0001-5721-125
              Correspondence [email protected]; Tel.:07727522832.      
              Abstract: This study was conducted in the Animal Production department, the Agriculture  College  University of Karbala, For the purpose of comparing three types of ducks meat bred in the animal fields of the College (Muscovy - Mollar - Pekini). The slaughter was carried out in the fields of the college, and only the breasts were taken for each sample of the three species, and they were minced in a home mincing machine and kept in polyethylene bags until physical and sensory tests were performed on duck meat and compared between them, The moisture content of molar ducks, Muscovy ducks, and Peking ducks was 74%, 73% and 56%, respectively. Results showed that higher fat content in peking maet  36% than other two kinds of duck meat Muscovy and molar meat were 23% and 24% respectively, While peking meat had loweprotein content was 14.8% than Muscovy and mular were 18% and 17% respectively.       
              It was a positive direct correlation between the properties of protein and fat, which indicates that both the content of protein and fat are present at a very close level for muscovy and molar meat, This indicates the superiority of these two types and the possibility of using them in the manufacture of meat and meat products. Despite the few differences between the studied samples, the burger manufacturing results of the three models showed the possibility of using these meats in the manufacture of meat and meat products.              
              Keywords: Sensory and  chemical composition , Muscovy duck 1; Molar 2; Piking duck.               
                             
34          Lycopene modulates testicular injury, oxidative stress, and caspases upregulation induced by fenvalerate in male rats        
              Ali Jebur,1*Raghda El-Sayed2, Fatma El-Demerdash3      
              Department of Animal  production, Agriculture College, Kerbala University, Iraq; Email: [email protected]    
              Department of Environmental Studies, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. Email: [email protected]   https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4733-8434              
               Department of Environmental Studies, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. Email: [email protected], [email protected] orcid.org/0000-0001-5624-9145  
              Correspondence: Email: [email protected]. [email protected]        
              Abstract: Fenvalerate (FEN), is one of the widely utilized synthetic pyrethroids may have a negative impact on male fertility in both animals and people, while the potential mechanism is still unknown. This study's objective was to assess lycopene's potential therapeutic value in protecting male rats from the testicular damage and oxidative stress caused by FEN. In our investigation, 28 male rats were randomized into four groups at random: lycopene (10 mg/kg BW), FEN (20 mg/kg BW), and lycopene plus FEN. The rats got their doses orally by gavage each day for four weeks. Animals that had consumed FEN showed high levels of hydrogen peroxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances as well as phosphatases, and aminotransferases activities. However, there was a considerable drop in antioxidant enzymes activity, glutathione, and protein content. Significant changes in testosterone, luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones, and sperm quality were also found. In addition, the expression of caspases 3 and 8 in rat testes was significantly upregulated. Biochemical, molecular, spermatological, and histological alterations have all been brought back to normal by lycopene. These findings imply that lycopene may have antioxidant and preventive properties against testicular damage brought on by FEN.    
              Keywords: Fenvalerate; Lycopene; Apoptosis; Semen quality; Oxidative stress    
                             
35          Some histological effects of Bisphenol-A on some reproductive organs in male adult rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)  
              Manar Al-Murshidi 1, Walaa Hassan 2, Wurood muttaleb 3,*      
               College of Science for Women / University of Babylon. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6682-0122          
              College of Science / University of Babylon. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2178-2358               
              College of Science for Women / University of Babylon. https://orcid.org/ 0000-0003-2646-9598          
              Correspondence: College of Science for Women/University of Babylon; [email protected]
              Abstract:  Bisphenol-A (BPA), was a broadly used substances in our environment. Current study was established to investigate the potential toxic effects of BPA in the histology of adult male albino rabbits reproductive organs. 45 adult male rabbits were subdivided into  three groups. Group 1,were orally received normal saline solution daily (proposed as a negative control); Group 2 were received (0.5 ml/day) of olive oil orally daily (proposed as a positive control); and the third  Group;3 rabbits were treated orally with a dose of 25mg\Kg B.W. of the  BP-A which dissolved in olive oil for 30 days. Tissue pecimens from epididymis ,testis, seminal vesicles and prostate were collected for histological examination. For serum hormones level evaluation; blood samples were collected. Results were showed that BPA caused a significant decrease in testosterone, Lutenizing hormone, Follicle stimulating hormone and significant increase in estradiol and prolactin, along with some histopathological alterations in the epithelial and connective tissues of all the organs of studied animals. In conclusion, BPA induced a hormonal disturbances in some hormones of reproductive pituitary axis and histologic and  toxic effects on the histology of  all reproductive organs.             
              Keywords: Bis-Phenol A, reproductive hormones, testis, epididymis, accessory sex glands, histology             
                             
36          Influence of adding sage leaves on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation in Awassi lambs     
              Murtadha Al-Bakhati1, and Anmar Al-Wazeer 2,*            
              Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq; [email protected], https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4197-4306    
              Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq; [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3396-8811   
              Correspondence: [email protected]            
              Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the effect of adding different levels of sage leaves powder (SLP) in the diet of local Awassi lambs on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation. Sixteen Awassi male lambs 4-5 months of age were randomly distributed into four treatment groups: no feed additive (SLP0), 5g (SLP5), 10g (SLP10) and 15 g (SLP15) of sage leaves powder/kg of dry matter (DM) were added to diet. Results revealed that adding of SLP did not affect feed intake. However, growth performance, dry matter and organic matter digestion were recorded higher significances (P≤0.05) in lambs fed SLP5 and SLP10 than lambs fed SLP15 and SLP0. Total volatile fatty acids concentrations were significantly increased (P≤0.05) in lambs fed SLP5 than other lambs. In conclusion, the addition of SLP at 5g/kg DM in the diet of Awassi lambs improved growth performance and nutrient digestibility with a positive effect on ruminal fermentation.       
              Keywords: Salvia officinalis; Awassi lambs; Growth performance; Nutrient digestibility; Rumen fermentation           
                             
37          Growth performance of broiler chickens of turmeric (Curcuma longa) turmeric aqueous extract.             
              Baqer, H. 1* ; Salah Gatea 2 ; Salam Altaie 3 and Thamer  ALjanabi 4.     
               Department of Animal Production, Agriculture College, Kerbala University, Iraq; Email: [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8673-3760       
              2Department of Animal Production, Agriculture College, Kerbala University, Iraq; Email: [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9794-0984   
              3 Department of Animal Production, Agriculture College, Kerbala University, Iraq; Email: [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1061-0446             
              4 Department of Animal  Production, Agriculture College, Kerbala University, Iraq; Email:  [email protected].  https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4617-2049       
              Correspondence: [email protected]      
              Abstract:      The effects of Turmeric Powder extract (TPE) on the growth performance of broiler chicken were evaluated in the 5-week study. On 240-day-old chicks weighing 40.9g. were levels supplemented with turmeric powder Extracts (TPE) in the water of broiler chicken. In inclusion, there was an increase in final live weight and weight gain and better feed conversion ratio (FRC) and body and feed intake with the highest TPE on water. The serum metabolites were not affected by the level of TP in the diets. It was concluded that levels supplemented with turmeric powder Extracts (TPE) in the water of broiler chicken appear to act as a growth promoter with no adverse effect on health status.           
              Keywords:: turmeric, broiler, growth performance          
                             
38          Production and characterization of  flavored goat milk gels using zinc and calcium salts Producing functional foods         
              Qausar ALKaisy 1,2*, Ali Alrikabi1 and Jasim Al-Saadi2    
              ;1 Department of Food Science, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq ORCID0000-0002-0363-6886       
               2; Department of Dairy Science and technology, College of Food Science, AL-Qasim Green University, Iraq. ORCID 0000-0002-0344-3566       
              Correspondence: [email protected]. edu.iq; Tel.: 009647715967596               
              Abstract: Goat milk gels were prepared using calcium and zinc salts. The Viscosity of gel prepared by adding zinc chloride and flavored with banana, and orange, was higher than the viscosity of gel prepared using calcium chloride. WHC of gels prepared using zinc chloride and calcium chloride was high on the first day and then gradually decreased during the progress of storage time at 7 °C.              
              The hardness of the sweetened, flavored goat milk gel prepared with calcium chloride was lower than the hardness of the gel prepared with zinc chloride.       
              The Sensory evaluation study showed that in general, flavoring gels prepared from goat milk using zinc and calcium salts had a high degree of acceptability.              
              Keywords: flavored gel; Zinc chloride; Goat milk; Rheological properties                                                                                                                      
                             
39          The Effect of Partial Replacement of yellow corn by Iraqi Rice Bran Treated with multi-enzymes on the Broiler performance      
               Tariq S. Almrsomi1,*, Ali J. Hammod2, Ammar H. Areaaer3         
              1 Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture,        
              2 Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture,        
              3 Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture,        
              *Corresponding author: [email protected]               
              Abstract: Until recently, the central objective of poultry feed formulation was to supply common feed stuff such as corn. Today, the search for sustainable alternatives for the traditional feed elements is a major goal in order to reduce the feed cost.  This study was carried out to explore the production performance of the Rice bran in the feeding of broiler Ross 308 chicken. 180 chicks were fed with Rice bran diets treated with multi-enzyme as a partial replacement (10%) of Yellow Corn. Chicks were distributed into four treatment groups as follows: (L0) control (45% yellow corn), L1, L2 and L3 (10% Rice bran and 35% yellow corn). Rice bran was treated with different amounts of multi-enzymes; 500, 750, 1000mg of Labazyme\kg diet respectively. The results showed a significant (P≤0.05) decreases in the marketing live body weight and total body weight gain for broilers fed with 10% Rice bran and 35% yellow corn. The accumulative feed consumption and accumulative feed conversion ratio were not affected (no significance difference at P≤0.05) when the Rice bran was treated with 1000 mg of Lab-azyme\kg diet. The conclusion of this present study is that, diet with 10% Rice bran and 35% yellow corn has a negative effect on the growth performance of broiler chicken. However, the breeding cost of broiler Ross 308 chicken was reduced when the Rice bran was treated with 1000 mg/kg multi-enzymes (L3 group). There were no effects on the mortality rate of all experimental groups.
              Keyword: Broiler, Labazyme, Performance, Rice bran, Ross 308.
                             
40          Contamination of poultry feed with Candida species in Duhok city using CHROMAgar               
              Lina F. Hussein1*, Asia A. M. Saadullah2               
              1 Biology Department, College of Sciences, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. [email protected]           
              2 Biology Department, College of Sciences, University of Duhok, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. [email protected]       
              Correspondence: . [email protected].             
              Abstract: This study aimed to isolate and identify Candida species that contaminate poultry feeds in Duhok province. Using differential media and CHROMO agar as selective media, a total of sixty samples of poultry feeds were collected and analysed to isolate and classify Candida species. In this analysis, a total of 189 Candida isolates were found from sixty samples. Germ tube tests, inoculation on commercially available CHROMagar, and chlamydospore formation were performed on these isolates. The most common Candida identified was Candida krusei (44.95%), followed by Candida tropicalis (21.72%), Candida glabrata. (17.68%), and Candida albicans (15.66%).Particularly useful for quickly identifying common yeast species is CHROM agar. Its ability, together with the capacity to track mixed Candida spp. cultures lead to enhanced and in the mycology and clinical mi-crobiology laboratories, streamline the workflow, also in low-resource conditions.
              Keywords: CHROMO agar, Candida species, Duhok, identification, poultry feed  
                             
41          Assessment of fish meat consumption awareness of the residents of Dhiqar governorate- AL- Refaie district
              Ban salman kadhim AL-Mafragi1,*          
              College of Agriculture University of Sumer, Iraq.; [email protected]    
              Correspondence: [email protected].  
              Abstract: the study samples group included a group of students, a lecturer, and other staff members in the Sumer university college of agriculture – AL- Refaie district. A questionnaire was adopted for purpose of data collection and took of range and ratio to each property. The results of the current study showed that the preferred con-sumption of fish is 50% in all seasons of the year and there is no strict use of fish consumption during the year. As for the preference for consuming animal protein from its sources, the results showed that the preference was for the consumption of poultry meat, followed by all types. In terms of the desire to consume caught (dead) or live fish when the purchase it was noticed that 62 % of people prefer live fish and 23% do not have a difference when buying. As for the information about the preferred weights for consumption and the method of cooking, 61% of the sample had simple knowledge of the types of fish and the preferred weight for consumption (1.5 - 2 kg) by 69% and approximately 61% of the people preferred the method of grilling fish over the rest of the methods. As a result, we must develop awareness campaigns in the community to raise awareness among people to have each of the traits studied and the advancement of society for better health.           
              Keywords: fish meat; cooking fish; health awareness,     
                             
42          The effects of various doses of a leaky isolation fungus (Fusarium solani) are handled in seedling okra plants that are 30 days old.        
              Halima Z. Hussein1,*, Kifah Hadi Radi2, Shahbaa Hameed Majeed3         
              1 University of Baghdad College of Agriculture Engineering Sciences, [email protected] .https://or- cid.org/0000-0003-3068-9999  
              2 Babylon Education/Ministry Education; [email protected].            
              3 College of Basic Education, Mustansiriyah University, [email protected]. http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2258-9165.                
              * Correspondence: [email protected];               
              Abstract: This study aimed at the investigation of root rot disease root to, deteriorating and death of okra plants; and the isolation of okra plants in Baghdad, Babel and Karbala provinces. Diagnosis and test the pathogenicity. Fungi associated with the roots were isolated and identified. The field survey results showed the dissemination of root rot disease and death of okra plants in the three provinces. The survey infection percent- age ranged from 50 to 100%, while the severity of infection was 18- 89%. Microscopic examination showed the existence of six innate genera associated with the roots of the deteriorating okra plants. In a varied replicater- atesas, these fungi, namely Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Pythium sp., Mu- cor sp. and Aspergillus sp. were in varied incidence rates. The highest incidence percentage was 58% for Fusarium solani. The Pathogenicity tests, using radish seed, f or of the 63 pathogenic fungi isolated from the- roots of the okra showed all isolates were pathogenic. Seed germination percentage ranged from 084%, compared to 100% for control treatment. The Pathogenicity test of ten F. solani isolates, showed the germination percent ranged from 020percentcompared to100% control. Culture filtrate heat treated of F. solani (F. sH6) at 25, 50, 75 and 100% concentration affected the infection severity rate by 85and 91, 100and 100, 56 and, 80, 100 and 100%, respectively. while the infection rate of untreated culture of F. solani (F. sH6). was 100%forall concentrations and the infection severity percentages were 88.50 and 90.10, 100 and 100%, respectively.       
              Keywords: Fusarium solani, Root rot disease, Radish plant, Okra plant, Heat       
                             
43          Extraction of xylan from wood sawdust for xylose production using enzymatic hydrolysis method          
              Hussein khlaif 1 and Jassem M. Nasser 2              
              University of Sumer 1; [email protected]. ORCID              
              University of Baghdad [email protected] . ORCID         
              Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: (optional; include country code; if there are multiple corresponding authors, add author initials)               
              Abstract: Wood sawdust xylan was used as source for produce of xylose which is used in the production of xylitol. Extraction of xylan from sawdust was performed under alkaline and alkaline autoclaved conditions as a suitable pretreatment method before enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that the highest of xylan yield was 26.13% using (10% NaOH with autoclave 121 C for 15 min) in comparison to non-autoclaved 10% sodium hydroxide at room temperature for 24 hrs was (19.34%). Xylan was hydrolyzed to xylose using xylanase. The effect of concentration, temperature, and incubation time on the yield of xylose production in the enzymatic hy-drolysis was studied, the highest productivity of xylose was 64.46%, at 50 ° C for a 45-hour incubation time, while the concentration of xylose produced decreased when the incubation time increased, even more. Alkaline autoclaved pretreatment was best for production of xylan which converted to xylose using enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan.    
              Keywords: Wood sawdust, hemicelluloses, alkaline extraction, autoclave and enzymatic hydrolysis      
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