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Ahmed Yousef Lafta Hzaa, Israa Malallah Alkanan and Mohammad Radhi Sahib
1 Department of Horticulture, College of Agricultural, University of Basrah, Iraq.
2 Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Technical Institute, Southern Technical University, Basrah, Iraq.
3  Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Al-Qasim Green University, Babylon, Iraq.
*  Correspondence: [email protected], Phone: +9647702681501
 Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/CSS/2023.08.01.1

Abstract: Ziziphus spp. is one of the economic fruit trees whose cultivation spreads in southern Iraq. This study was conducted with the aim of characterizing the morphological, molecular, and genetic diversity of five cultivars (Malasy, Normal, Zaytony, Bambawi, Tofahy), using 12 morphological indicators for leaf and fruit and six primers for RAPD technology. The results of the morphological characterization showed that the two cultivars (Normal and Malasy) recorded the highest genetic kinship between them amounting to 10.04, while the farthest genetic distance between the two cultivars (Zaytony and Normal) was recorded, which amounted to 29.3  As for the molecular characterization results, the primers produced 113 20 bands, with an average of 18.8 bands for each primer, and the percentage of polymorphism was 100%, and unique bands totaling 51 bands appeared, including 17 bands with different molecular weights characteristic of the cultivars. The genetic tree diagram showed the distribution of cultivars in two groups. The combination of morphological and molecular characterization is one of the most important tools that can be relied upon in finding genetic differences and determining fingerprints, especially between types of genders or cultivars of the same species.
Keywords: fingerprints, genetic distance, Morphological, RAPD, Ziziphus
 
 
Estabraq Hasan alwan*, Abd alnabe J ALmamorri and Naeem rahman Aljubore
1 Babylon College of Science for Women/University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq . [email protected] .
2 Babylon College of Science for Women/University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq .  [email protected].
*Correspondence: [email protected] Tel.: (+964 7801919715)"
Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/CSS/2023.08.01.2

Abstract: Hepatitis C and B is a serious public health problem worldwide. Thalassemia patients depend on blood transfusions throughout their lives and are at high risk of viral infections. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C infection and different clinical parameters of (HLA) in the multiplex thalassemia population. In this study, 66 patients with infectious complications of beta thalassemia were enrolled and samples were collected from the Genetic Hematology Center at Babel Women and Children Hospital in Babylon Governorate / Iraq infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) / hepatitis C virus (HCV), ALT & AST levels, serum ferritin, PCV and splenectomy were analyzed. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B virus and HCV was 3% and 55%, respectively, as 100% of patients over 10-20 years of age had hepatitis C infection, and some episodes were presented by different HLA molecules, presented by a molecule HLA from HLA class II (HLA-DR) and HLA class I (HLA-G), In this study, we review the role of the molecule and several parameters along the HLA-G and HLA-DR gene in viral hepatitis, studies of hepatitis suggest that even Human leukocyte antigen contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease. HLA classification combined with the study of the regulatory elements of genes may help in understanding the influence of genetic background on susceptibility to disease. This information allows the construction of a valuable HLA panel for hepatitis B.
Keywords: Detection of some immunological markers (HLA) for hepatitis patients and those with a previous infection with thalassemia
 
 
 
Alaa S. Kathim and Murtadha F. AL-Hillo
1 Department of biology, College of Education of Al Qurna, University of Basrah, Iraq
2 Department of biology, College of Education of Al Qurna, University of Basrah, Iraq
* Correspondence: Email: [email protected]. 009647718282278"
 Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/CSS/2023.08.01.3

Abstract: Background: The present study sought to verify the effect of dxamethasone on the biochemical changes in deference organs such as liver and kidney organs of both sex, males and female mice. Materials & Method: Muc muscular males and female mice (n=48 ) were used. To determine the effects of dexamethasone on the biochemical changes of liver and kidney organs, mice receiving a low dose (2mg/kg) and high dose (4 mg / kg) from dexamethasone continuously for a period of one month. Result: The results showed a significant increase(P<0.05) in Liver enzymes (ALP, AST, ALT). The levels of urea and creatinine also increased in the treated mice and in both sexes with the pesticide compared with the control group. Conclusion:  low and high doses of odexamethasone used in male and female mice caused pathological alteration of tissues structure kidney and liver organs.
Keyword: Mice, histological, liver, kidney, Dexamethasone, Toxicity.  
 
 
 
Bushra Sh J. ALobaidy1*, Malath A. Hamed1, Ahmed Shehab Abd-allah Ramadan1, Muayad Malik Ibrahim2 and Ali Fadaam Almehemdi3
1 University of Anbar, College of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops ; [email protected]. 0000-0002-0296-9718
2 University of Anbar - College of Basic Education \ Haditha - Department of Science.
3 Ministry of Agriculture, Iraq.
4 Center of Desert Studies University of Anbar. Iraq.
* Correspondence: [email protected]."
Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/CSS/2023.08.01.4

Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in Al-Saqlawiyah region, west of Baghdad, during the 2020 agricultural season in silty clay soil, in order to study the effect of planting pattern and the Row spacing on the growth and yield of three sesame cultivars. The experiment was carried out in a split-split plot design according to a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications, where the planting pattern occupied the main plots (seed prose, seedling pattern) and the cultivars occupied the sub plot (Haad, Sumer, Rafidain,), while the row distance occupied the sub-sub plot (40, 60, 80 cm). The results of the statistical analysis indicated that there was a significant effect of the cultivation pattern, as the cultivation pattern with seeds prose recorded the highest values in all the studied traits. The highest seed yield was recorded by seed prose method (364.5 gm plant-1) compared to the seedling method (290.2 gm plant-1). There was also a significant genetic variance (P<0.05) in the response of the studied sesame cultivars to the planting pattern treatments and the between row spacing. The cultivar Haad scored the highest values in most of the studied traits and thus gave the highest seed yield (452.1 g plant-1) compared with the rest of the studied cultivars. The row spacing of 80 cm between the lines gave the highest yield (350.4 g plant-1). It was concluded that the sesame crop should be planted with seeds, at row spacingof 80 cm between the lines.
Keywords: plant distance, cultivation methods, growth, sesame cultivars
Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.21931/RB/CSS/2023.08.01.4
 
 
Khawla H. Mohammed1, Khaun A. Muhsen2 and Alyaa A. Alwan3
1 Department of Hort. and Landscape, College of Agriculture, Basrah University, Iraq.
2 Date Palm Research Center, Basrah University, Iraq.
3 Department of Bio. College of Science, Basrah University, Iraq.
*Correspondence: [email protected]."
 
Abstract: This study was conducted at the Agricultural Research and Experiment Station, College of Agriculture, Basra University, from 02.01.2018 to 30.06.2018 on the Indian short-stemmed banana plant M. caredishii, multiplied by tissue in the tissue culture laboratory of the Palm and Localized Research Center, at 6 months' age. They were grown in a greenhouse equipped with a desert cooling system. The plants were sprayed with 5 concentrations of the nutrient solution SiliKaSol (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2) ml l-1 and by 5 sprays between one spray and another 10 days starting from the date 02.01.2018. These plants were irrigated during the study period by two types of irrigation water, magnetically treated water and normal water. The most important results can be summarized as follows: - Spraying at a concentration of 2 ml l-1 of the nutrient solution showed a significant increase in the physical characteristics (increase in plant height and leaf area), reaching 32.33 cm and 312.83 cm2, respectively, and an increase in chemical properties (content of leaves from proline, total soluble carbohydrates, total chlorophyll and nitrogen percentage in the leaves) reached 16.01 µg g-1, 1.26 mg g-1 and 4.31 mg g-1, respectively. The results also showed that the quality of irrigation water had a positive effect on improving most of the physical and chemical properties, as watering with magnetized water achieved an increase in plant height, leaf area, and dry weight of the leaves were 3.07 cm, 290.33 cm, 13.46 g, and 1.56 g, respectively, and caused an increase in the chemical properties of total soluble carbohydrates, total chlorophyll, and the percentage of NPK in leaves, which were 1.32 mg g-1, 4.73 mg g-1, 16.78%, and 1.32% and 20.39%, respectively. This study showed that the interaction between spraying with different concentrations of SiliKaSol and irrigation with magnetized water had a positive effect, and the treatment of 2ml l-1 SiliKaSol and irrigation with magnetized water was superior in most of the studied traits.
 
Keywords: Banana, Water Magnatic, SiliKaSol, Nutrient solution.
 
 
 
Rasha Mohamed Sajet Al-Oqaili*, Istabreq Mohmed Ali and Huda Zuheir Majeed
1Mustansiriyah University, College of Science, Biology Dep., Iraq
2Mustansiriyah University, College of Science, Biology Dep., Iraq
3 Mustansiriyah University, College of Science, Biology Dep., Iraq
* Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
ABSTRACT: The Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriocin represent one of the survival methods in the mixed communities. It had its own structure that gather between colicin which had enzymatic activity, and the pore-former toxin. Bacteriocins represent a way to gain the battle against immune system. Antibiotics were the most effective therapy, but with time and random usage, antibiotic resistance had been developed and spread throughout world. In this study ten isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were detected for production of bacteriocin against three isolates of Escherichia coli. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were bacteriocin producer. After that, curing by four concentrations (50 , 75 ,100 and 125) µg /ml of Ethidium bromide was done .The (75 and 100) µg /ml  were the most effective concentration in curing.  The Antibiotic sensitivity test for the antibiotics was done before and after curing, in order to make a combination between bacteriocin production and curing as a way to gain the battle against antibiotic resistance.     This study proved that the anti-plasmid factor could be considered as a promising way to deal the progress the spread of antibiotic resistance in the community.
Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteriocin, curing and antibiotic resistance.
 
 
 
Rana Qassem Nazzal and Zuhair Radhi Addai*
1Department of Biology, College of Education for Pure Sciences, Thi-Qar University, Iraq
2Department of Biology, College of Education for Pure Sciences, Thi-Qar University, Iraq
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine the antioxidants and antibacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza root, stem and leaf extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by measuring total phenolic content (TPC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The antibacterial activity was determined using paper disc method against two bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results showed part of plant effect of the antioxidants and antibacterial activity. The results showed that root sample had significantly (P <0.05) higher total phenol content and antioxidant activity compared to leaves and stem samples. The TPC value of leaves extract 211.64mg GAE/g dry extract and DPPH 86.36 % was estimated. The antibacterial activity exhibited by MeOH extract against Staphylococcus aureus zone of inhibition was 21.37 mm for root extracts and 8.30 mm against E.coli. The result showed that Glycyrrhiza root, stem and leaves extract were effective against both the bacteria tested with high concentrations. The Glycyrrhiza root, stem and leaf extract can be used to control infectious diseases and prevent oxidative damage.
Keywords:  Glycyrrhiza glabra, DPPH, TPC, Antibacterial activity
 
 
 
Reman M. Salih and Yass K. Abbass*
1Department of Biology, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq
2Department of Biology, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq
*Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The current investigation included estimating the efficiency of aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts of Dorema ammoniacum plant in inhibiting the growth of fungi, where the ethanolic extract recorded a higher rate of inhibition than the aqueous extract. It is more effective when the concentration is increased in inhibiting the growth two types of Candida C.albicans and C.krusei . The aqueous extracts of Dorema ammoniacum had no toxic effect on human red blood cells at concentrations (100, 200, 300) mg / ml at an incubation period 3 hours . As a result of the widespread use of medicinal plants as antimicrobial drugs, the absence of toxicity on the host cells is considered it is essential because it is an inexpensive, easy-to-apply, quick-results method and is safe when used as drugs.
Keywords: Dorema ammoniacum D. Don , cytotoxicity activity  , ,Antimicrobial activity.                                                   
 
 
 
Mohammed Abdulwahab Ati Al-Askeri
1 College of Biotechnology, University of  Al-Qadisiyah
Corresponding author:  [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Objectives: The study intended to distinguish a likely hereditary variety in the genomic DNA of Iraqi patients corresponded with cervical disease and the possibility of getting advantage the potential produced DNA fragment(s) as a molecular test for future related applications. Methods: Blood and tissues tests have been collected from female patients with cervical malignant growth and clearly solid females, DNA was extricated and purged from each example, then "Irregular Amhttp://wsx5customurl.complification of Polymorphic DNA technique"(RAPD) has been directed with oligonucleotide “OPA-20”. Results: RAPD results examination with oligonucleotide “OPA-20” could identify four polymorphic DNA groups in the genome of patients females, in which these bands were missing in the majority of genomic DNA of healthy people.
Keywords: Tumor, PCR, Iraq, gene polymorphism  
 
 
 
Murtadha Shanan Auda, Hassanain M. Gabash and Ahmed Zaer Resan
1Department of Horticulture and Landscape Design, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.
2Department of Horticulture and Landscape Design, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.
3Department of Horticulture and Landscape Design, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.
 
Abstract: The experiment was conducted in Shatt Al-Arab District - Fourth Al-Jazirah District - Basrah Governorate during the 2020 growing season to investigate spraying with garlic extract and silicon solution on some physical, chemical, and productive properties of date palm fruits Umm al-Dahn variety. The garlic solution extract at a concentration (0, 200, 400 ml L-1) and silicon at a concentration of (0, 250, 500, 750 mg L-1) was used in two-time sprays, the first two weeks after pollination?? and the second three weeks after the first spray. The spray t with garlic extract at a concentration of 400 ml L-1 and silicon at a concentration of 750 mg L-1 was significant in the physical characteristics under study (fruit weight, length, diameter, and fleshy layer weight), and chemical characteristics (total soluble solids, reducing sugars, dry matter, and total protein) compared to the control treatment. The treatment of spray t with garlic extract at a concentration of 400 ml L-1 and silicon at a concentration of 750 mg L-1 significantly decreased the percentage of sucrose in the fruits. It resulted in a significant increase in the weight of the fruit and the tree's yield. The spraying with garlic solution extract at a concentration of 400 ml L-1 with silicon spray treatment at a concentration of 750 mg L-1 resulted in the highest productivity of the palm (41.68 kg. Palm-1). At the same time, the control gave the lowest productivity of 31.74 kg Palm-
Keywords: Garlic extract, Silicon, Date palm, Productivity
 
 
 
Aya K. Taher* and Nada Jafer MH Radhi
1Master Student, Department of preventive dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad.; [email protected] .
2Assistant Professor, Department of preventive dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad.; [email protected] .
*Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: (009647722055383)"
 
Abstract: Background: Gingivitis is the inflammation of the gingival tissue around the teeth that is initiated by bacteria. Irisin is a newly identified as novel anti-inflammatory effect adipomyokine. Recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) remains as the most common ulcerative disease in the mucosa tissue of the oral cavity existing as repeated onset of single or multiple painful ulcers. The study aim is to evaluate gingival health status in relation to salivary irisin in oral ulcerative patients of Diyala city/ Iraq. Material and methods: The total sample consist of 200 patients whose are taken from specialized dental center in Ba’aquba / Diyala governorate from January-March 2022 for both gender with age group (20-31) year. 100 patients of them complaining from recurrent aphthous ulcer without any systemic diseases were selected and 100 patients free from recurrent aphthous ulcer. The gingival inflammation was examined and recorded using Loe and Silness (1964). Recuurent aphthous ulcer was assessed according to WHO (1997) and salivary irisin levels was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: In the both study and control groups the prevalence of gingivitis was 100% with a higher mean value of GI among study group than control group. Minor ulcer prevalence was higher than major ulcer. The level of irisin was higher in study group than control group and the correlation between GI and irisin was negative weak in the study and positive weak in the control. Conclusion: There is increased gingival inflammation in RAU with negative weak correlation of GI and irisin.
Keywords: Gingival health, Irisin, RAU.
 
 
 
Mohanad Isawi and Tatiana Dolzhenko,
1St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, Peterburgskoe sh.
2St. Petersburg, 196601 Russia
*  Correspondence: [email protected] , [email protected]  "
 
Abstract: Nanotechnology's application in agriculture has opened up new options for generating nanosized agrochemicals that have the potential to improve efficiency, improve stability, extend the effective duration, and reduce environmental impacts[1]. One of the most pressing difficulties in the agricultural industry is the need to handle pesticide-related issues such as environmental contamination, bioaccumulation, and increases in insect resistance, which necessitates reducing the amount of pesticide sprayed on crops and protecting stored products. Nanotechnology is proving to be an appealing tool for achieving this goal since it provides new ways for the synthesis and transport of active ingredients, together known as nanopesticides[1]. Nanoemulsions are particularly well suited to the creation of lipophilic functional agent delivery systems[2]. The current study uses a high-energy (ultrasound) emulsification approach to create oil-in-water (O/W) acetamiprid nanoemulsions with synthetic and natural additives. The acetamiprid nanoemulsions were spontaneously formed by adding a mixture of acetamiprid and solvent in an aqueous solution containing a surfactant (tween ) with continuous stirring the nanoemulsions were then formed by ultra-sonication. Various characterization techniques for acetamiprid nanoemulsions include particle size analysis (DLS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Acetamiprid nanoemulsions are further evaluated by studying thermodynamic stability this includes a Centrifugation assay, Freeze-thaw cycle nanoemulsions, Heating-cooling test, and Stability at room temperature of 25°C, pH measurement, and  Viscosity measurement. The droplet size and morphology of the acetamiprid nanoemulsions were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the results of DLS and TEM measurements showed that acetamiprid nanoemulsions had an almost droplet size distribution (PDI < 200 nm). On this basis, an insecticide acetamiprid was incorporated into an optimized nanoemulsion system to demonstrate potential applications in pest control.
Keywords: Acetamiprid nanoemulsion, nanoemulsion characterization, nanoemulsion stability.

 
Aeshah Muhana Mohammed1,*, Jameelah Kadhim Taher AL-Isawi2, and Husam Salman Jasim3,*
"1 Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Sciences, Ibn -Al-Haitham, University of
Baghdad, Baghdad, 61023, Iraq.
2 Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Sciences, Ibn -Al-Haitham, University of
Baghdad, Baghdad, 61023, Iraq.
3 Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Sciences, Ibn -Al-Haitham, University of
Baghdad, Baghdad, 61023, Iraq.
*  Correspondence: [email protected] , [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Now, the trend has begun to use some types of herbs, including salvia sage, in the development of medicines and medicinal drugs instead of synthetic drugs because they are antimicrobial and are considered preservatives against food spoilage. Sage is also an aromatic material and is used as a flavoring for foods. This work represented examining the antibacterial impact of the sage extract on four types of pathogenic and drug-resistant bacteria in vitro, like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas eruginosa, besides Klebsiella pneumonia, Providencia, and Burkholderia. On the other hand, cytotoxic effects of the ethanol extract of Salvia showed antitumor activity on MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner as the cell viability against MCF-7 cells was decreased with an IC50 of μg/ml. the experimental study of the antibacterial influence of extracted sage plants from ethanol on the evolution of multi-drug resistant bacteria was fulfilled with good diffusion at different concentrations; 50, 150, 200 mg/mL, and microdilution method. disclose the impact of the sage methanol extract on MCF-7 cell viability. In our study, Ethanol extracts of sage in the good diffusion method displayed obvious notable inhibitory against bacterial growth. These results refer to the inhibitory impacts of ethanol extract of sage with MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration)=8 mg/mL owing to S.aureus, MIC=5 mg/mL for E. coli, MIC=4.4 mg/mL owing to P. aeuginos , MIC=4.2 mg/mL owing to Burkholderia, MIC=5.7 mg/mL owing to Klebsiella pneumonia. The impact found with Providencia. results pointed to a dose-dependently growth inhibition of (63.18% at 250 µg mLG1). In relation to the antibacterial impact of ethanol extracts of Sage on the multi-drug impervious to bacteria the use of herbs as a replacement to antibiotics after pharmacological studies, for treatment is recommended. Methanol extract of sage exhibited profound cytotoxicity activity against MCF-7 cell line.  
Keywords: Salvia sclarea, sage, Antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity, MCF-7 cell line.
 
 
 
Rasha Hasan Jasim* and Ahssan Ali Lefta
1Department of Chemistry, Factually of Education for Girls, University of Kufa, Iraq
2Department of Chemistry, Factually of Education for Girls, University of Kufa, Iraq
*  Correspondence: *Email: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) so known coronary artery disease (CAD) or ischemic heart disease (IHD), where is result from hindrance of blood transit to muscle of heart cause to collect the lipid and cholesterol on the inner wall of the heart. Because of atherosclerosis, CAD contains many types of disease: stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction(MI), and sudden cardiac death. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is known as angioplasty is a non-surgical operation performed using a catheter to cram either inflate a balloon in the narrowing place or stent (a very small and fin grid tube is made of either plastic or metal of stainless steel). So it is covered with medicine to prevent the coronary artery blockage again), to expand or open up the vessels in the muscle of the heart that contain plaque buildup that cause stenosis. Galectin–3  (Gal-3) is a multifunctional protein that coordinates varied physiological and pathological processes in the body of human. Gal–3 is located in many of the cells and types of tissue and several functions can be described such as macrophage migration promotion, proliferation of fibroblasts and synthesis of collagen. The best function of Gal–3 is its role as preventer for acute and chronic inflammation. In universe has been related with carcinoma and CVD. Gal–3 has been discovered in various types of cells, like stimulate macrophages, fibroblasts, dendritic cells, eosinophils, mast cells, chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Previous studies have shown that Gal–3 plays different functions in many tissues and played its role in both intra and extracellular. Subjects: One hundred individuals were collected to contribute in the present study. These cases were divided into two groups, the first included 70 patients (their age ranged between 30-66 years) with MI who underwent to elective PCI, were divided to two subgroups; 30 patients with the first PCI and 40 patients underwent to more than one PCI. The second group involved 30 healthy individuals (with the age range 30-55 years) were enrolled in the present study as a control group. Results: The results showed a significant increase (p=0.001) of serum Gal-3 levels in the patients group when compared with those of the control individuals, moreover the result illustrated a statistically significant elevation in the Gal-3 levels  (p=0.000) when comparing the two male subgroups (patients with one PCI and healthy) and same results were observed at the female subgroups were compared together. While there are no significant differences were recorded when the two genders in the same group comparing (p=0.093 for one PCI patients and p=0.563 for healthy individuals). Finally, it was also noted that the highest level of Gal-3 (13.86 ng/mL) in the sample of female patient. Despite the observed increase in the levels of Gal-3 in elderly patients with MI who underwent PCI  more than once, the study did not find significant differences in the Gal-3 levels of their samples compared to younger patients or those who underwent elective PCI for the first time.
Keywords: CVD, CHD, PCI, Lectins, Gal-3
 
 
 
Rasha Hasan Jasim* and Mohammed Abbas Khulaibus
1 Department of Chemistry, Factually of Education for Girls, University of Kufa, Iraq
2 Department of Chemistry, Factually of Education for Girls, University of Kufa, Iraq
*  Correspondence: *Email: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Diabetes is one of the major risk factors for chronic renal failure (CRF). The present work involved study the effect of lifestyle factors such as (age, gender, smoking and area of residence) which can affect in the chronic renal diseases. Also, the study included an estimation of Oxytocin (Oxt) and Interleukin-14 (IL-14) using the sandwich ELISA technique in the serum of type 2 diabetic patients with CRF who presented to hemodialysis, and a control group. Blood samples of (50) diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients with CRF from both sexes were compared with (40) samples taken from healthy individuals as a control group. The results demonstrated significant elevation (p<0.05) in Oxt and IL-14 concentrations for patients with CRF compared to the control group. As for the subgroups, the statistical test showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) when comparing Oxt levels between the same sex in the two groups. While no significant difference was observed when comparing IL-14 in the same group or in the two groups. The parameters Oxt and IL-14 are necessary tools for predication of renal failure.
Keywords: Oxytocin, Interleukin-14, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hemodialysis
 
 
 
Rula  Dhahir Al-Jayid and Huda Jasim M. Altameme
1 Biology, College of Science for Women, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq. [email protected]
*  Correspondence: [email protected] , "
 
ABSTRACT: A review based on the literature reported that plant latex-producing angiosperms are distributed in 40 plant families, and more than 20,000 species are believed to possess laticiferous structures that represent specialized plant cells capable of secreting plant latex, which is one of the extensive defenses in plants against natural enemies. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to find the evolutionary relationship between five latex-producing plant species (Ficus carica L., Ficus elastica Roxb. ex Hornem, Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T.Aiton, Nerium oleander L., Euphorbia tirucalli L.) Using Five Primer (OPB18, BH10, BH11, BH14, and OPC2). The combined data revealed that (Ficus carica and Ficus elastica) and (Calotropis procera and Nerium oleander) are the most closely related cultivars. Euphorbia tirucalli, on the other hand, is a distantly related species with a low similarity index. Our study demonstrated that the RAPD technique could be a suitable tool for genotype identification and useful for the differentiation between latex-producing plant species.
Keywords: Latex, Laticifers, RAPD methods, phylogenetic tree.
 
 
Sadiq Al-Mansury1, Mohammed R. Obaid2, Saadeya A. Al-Gnami 3, Mohammed J. Jawad4, Hussein A. Ghanimi5, Adnan M. Jassim6, Hawraa T.  Abass7, Rusul Heider 8, Hamzah H. Kzar 9*, Moaed E. Al-Gazally10
 
1,6,9Physiology Pharmacology and Biochemistry Department, Veterinary Medicine College, Al-Qasim Green University, Babylon, Iraq
 
  2 Hamza Agriculture High School, Babylon, Iraq
 
  3College of Veterinary Medicine, University of AL-Qadisiyah
 
   4Karbala University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iraq
 
  5 College of Nursing, University of Al-Ameed, Karbala, Iraq
 
 8College of Hilla University/ Department of Anesthetic, Iraq
 
 10Collage of medicine, university of Al-Ameed, Karbala, Iraq  
 
 *Corresponding email: [email protected]
 
ABSTRACT: This study focused on recent synthesis on new compounds created from aryl propionic acid derivatives compared to naproxen. The present study aimed to investigate the safety and efficiency of the new derivatives in improvement of analgesic effect and reduce adverse effects via modifying of its chemical structure by the addition of new functional groups. The new compounds were characterized and evaluate their pharmacodynamics effects. The analysis and characterization of newly compounds were by 1HMNR and FT-IR spectrum. The investigation of the adverse effect after 5 days of remedy with 20 mg/kg daily administered with naproxen derivatives to the healthy male albino mice (25-30 g) for analgesic activity by use hot plate method. Mice were parted into 5 groups, consisted of control group and 4 groups that administered naproxen or derivatives of aryl propionic acid (E, H, D1 and D2).  The main tests are done by a hot plate, biochemical, macroscopic, and microscopic inspection. The results confirmed the new drugs have potent analgesic activity. The results showed the mice which administered with D1 expressed less ulcerative effect in contrast to parent naproxen, H, E and ethanol.  Moreover, a number of lesions were significantly less in D2 group, while D1 treated mice recorded no evidence of ulcers or hemorrhage seen in stomachs after examined under dissecting microscope. The study concluded that the new D1 derivative is a compound worthy of research and future clinical applications, due to its relatively high efficacy and low adverse effects compared to other derivatives prepared tested in this study.
 
Key word: Analgesic, Aryl propionic acid, Naproxen, Acidity
 
 
 
Huda Mawlood Taher1*, Ali Hasan Mohamed2, Selda Saeed Yaseen3
1 Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk, Iraq.
2 Department of Internal and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Kirkuk, Kir-kuk, Iraq.
3 Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk, Iraq.
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Intestinal parasites are endemic in many developing areas, and they are regarded one of the most frequent tropical diseases, where they are responsible for adult and child morbidity and mortality. The current study is a survey to find out the prevalence of intestinal   parasite infections in patients who attending to the General Hospital for Pediatric in Kirkuk city during the period from Jan. 2021 to Sep. 2021. Stool samples were examined by direct smear method with normal saline 0.9 % Nacl and 1% iodine-lugol solution staining method to determine the outcomes of the current investigation. The results were assessed using the Q-square statistic test. The current study's findings revealed that the intestinal parasites were reported in 69(31.7), the most affected group of patients with intestinal parasites, those with 1-3 years old (11.4%), Intestinal protozoa infection were (24.3%) significantly more than helminthes with (7.4%). The most common protozoa were Entamoeba histolytica (17.9%), the next common protozoan found was Giardia lamblia (6.4%). Intestinal helminthes infections were reported in this study (7.4%). Males were more infected with intestinal parasites (18.4%) than females (13.3%). The highest infection rate with intestinal parasites was recorded at the period between Aug. (6.4%) and Sep. (4.6%). Double infection was detected in three cases was infected with both Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia at the same time no triple infection was reported during this study. This study demonstrates that Intestinal parasitic infections are common among children in Kirkuk city, and this infection was affected by sex, age and month.
KEY WORDS: Intestinal parasitic infections, Intestinal protozoa, Intestinal helminthes, Kirkuk.
 
 
 
Jamal Almadhidi*, Abdullah Ali Mohammed and Husam Hadi Jasim
1Department of chemistry and biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Fallujah University, Iraq; mobile phone 009647806103326; E-mail: [email protected]
2Department of chemistry and biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Fallujah University, Iraq; mobile phone 009647716663685; E-mail: [email protected].
3Department of chemistry and biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Fallujah University, Iraq; mobile phone 009647902733300; E-mail: [email protected] of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Iraq
* Correspondence:  [email protected]  Tel.: 009647806103326;  country code: 10003"
 
Abstract Background: Few biochemical and immunological studies have been conducted on Iraqis infected with novel coronaviruses and also Patients' post-recovery condition is unknown, therefore we aimed to study the impact of COVID-19 on some biochemical compounds in the serum of the infected subjects, and to follow up the impact after 6-7 months. Materials and Methods: The research was conducted in Baghdad-Iraq from October to December 2021, and the study included four groups (each group consisted of 20 subjects): Group (A) Infected subjects without vaccination; group (B) Recovered subjects without vaccination; group (C) Recovered subjects after vaccination; and group (D) Non-infected subjects after vaccination. Subjects with COVID-19 infection confirmed by PCR and vaccinated individuals received the same type of vaccine. We measured some positive acute phase reactants (ferritin, C-reactive protein, and D-dimer), antibodies (IgM and IgG), and enzymes (LDH, AST, and ALT) in the subjects serum.  Results: Increased the level of ferritin, CRP, D-dimer and LDH in the serum of infected subjects (group A). The antibodies levels in the four groups were elevated while the liver enzymes (ALT and AST) were in the normal values. Elevation of LDH level also in the serum of recovered subjects (groups B and C). Conclusion: Elevated ferritin, CRP, and D-dimer levels may not remain in infected patients after recovery from COVID-19 except for LDH which is still elevated in some Iraqi subjects in Baghdad.
Keywords: Iraq, COVID-19, Vaccine, Acute Phase Reactants, Antibodies, Liver enzymes.
 
 
 
Dalal Abbass Kadham, Auda Jabbar Braihi and Hanaa Jawad Kadham
1 Polymer and Petrochemical Industries Department, College of Engineering Materials, University of Babylon, Iraq [email protected]
2 Polymer and Petrochemical Industries Department, College of Engineering Materials, University of Babylon, Iraq
3 Polymer and Petrochemical Industries Department, College of Engineering Materials, University of Babylon, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Three polymeric solutions; PVA, Collagen and Hyaluronic acid (HAc) were prepared and mixed by (55:22.5:22.5) ratios to prepare what named the net polymeric solution. Also, Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) solution was prepared and added to the neat solution by three ratios (1wt%, 3wt% and 5wt%), which then pumped by electrospinning technique to create nanofiber bead. Solutions results showed that G. lucidum, caused drag reduction, decreasing the viscosities, facilities solution flow inside the needle and leading to formation of fine nano fibers easily. Also, at low G. lucidum ratios, the electrostatic repulsion overcome the surface tension, which enables fibers to escape from the "Taylor cone" tip and gather on the collector. As well as, the electrical conductivity increased due to the ease of movement of HAc ions as a result of viscosity reduction. FTIR results proved no losses of any component of the net blend and there is no chemical reaction among them. Results of the obtained nano fiber showed that, with the G. lucidum addition, there is an increment in fiber diameter, number of beads, goodness of orientation and the surface roughness. G. lucidum, also, reduced the wettability, the crystallinity and the enthalpy consumed during thermal transition.
Keywords: Ganoderma lucidum, FESEM, Directionality Histogram, Electrospinning , Wettability.
 
 
 
MOHAMMED AM ER KAMIL1, HAZIMA MOSSA ALABASSI2 and ZAHRAA HUSSEIN M. KADR3
1 Department of Biology, University of Baghdad, Iraq. : [email protected]
2 Department of Biology, University of Baghdad, Iraq. [email protected],
3 Department of Biology, University of Baghdad, Iraq. [email protected]
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
ABSTRACT: Background: Systematic Lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been described as a chronic inflammatory illness where chemokines play an important role in its pathogenesis CX3CL1and CX3CR1 are chemokines that described their crucial role in immune response in SLE patients. Aim of the study: To evaluate the serum level of CX3CL1- CX3CR1 , C3,C4 & ESR  Abs in SLE patients without treatment and compare their level with those under treatment (hydroxychloroquin ,predeslone5-20mg ,D3). Patients collecting and Methods: 120 females with SLE and healthy, with ages ranged between 20-40 years, were involved in this investigation from Medical City (Consultant of Arthritis, Consultant of Dermatology, Lobby of Hematology and Arthritis)/ Baghdad Teaching Hospital and from Al-Imameen Al-Kazimeen Teaching Hospital from August 26 to October 18, 2021. The samples were included 80females with SLE (40 females as an early diagnosed patients (G2) without treatment, 40 females as patients that received treatment subjects (hydroxychloroquin, predeslone5-20mg, D3) (G3), while the control group included 40 healthy females (G1). Five mL of venous blood were obtained from patients and healthy females for measuring C3, C4 & ESR and serum levels of CX3CL1and CX3CR1 which were measured using ELISA method. Results: Our findings demonstrated a significant increase in the serum levels of CX3CL1, CX3CR1, and ESR. also, significant decreases in serum levels of C3, C4 in SLE patients (with and without treatment) in comparison to control group as well as a significant difference was detected between SLE patients without treatment and patients those receiving treatment. Conclusion: Based on our results, we can be concluded that CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 chemokines may have a role in the pathogenesis of SLE as they are increased in SLE patients. In addition, serum CX3CL1levels can be used as an independent biomarker of SLE activity. Furthermore, low levels of c3,c4 and  high levels of  ESR are considered as a diagnostic indicator of SLE disease in people.
Keywords: Systemic lupus erythematosus, CX3CL1; CX3CR1. C3,C4
 
 
 
Satar M. Kadam
1 Surgery Department, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
* Correspondence: [email protected]."
 
Abstract: Background: The heart is subject to structural and functional changes with advancing age. Left ventricular compliance appears to decline with age, which could explain why the elderly have such a high rate of heart failure. Changes in heart function with age are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death and morbidity. Various techniques have been used to measure the impact of age on heart structure and function. Subject and methods:  The study included 221 healthy adult male and female volunteers (160 females and 61 males, 20–80 years of age). All healthy subjects volunteered to participate in this study. They were classified according to their age. All healthy subjects who were enrolled in the study underwent myocardial perfusion imaging following the 2-day rest–stress 99mTc sestamibi (GSPECT) protocol. At rest and during stress, end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and ejection fraction using the GSPECT software were assessed both at rest and during stress for comparison. The following parameters were measured: left ventricular end systolic volume (LVESV), left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The results show that the change in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decreased during rest and stress in all age group. In contrast, the change in left ventricular end systolic volume (LVESV) increased during stress and rest compared with the left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV) for all age. Results show that a significant change in EDV, ESV, and EF% (16.49%, 30.35%, -7.49%) with p value < 0.05 for group (20- 49). Also a significant change in EDV, ESV, and EF% (12.13%, 24.86%,-1.62%)  respectively with  p value <0.05. for age range (50-80) years. In conclusion, in people with no cardiac functional or structural problems, the aging process is linked to considerable alterations in left and right ventricular EF, ESV, and EDV. When assessing SPECT with 99mTc investigations, our findings highlight the need to adopt age-adapted data as a standard of reference.
Keywords : SPECT with 99mTC, Age, , Hemodynamics, Rest and Stress
 
 
 
Esraa Abd -alhuseein Jasim, Kamal Benyamin Esho and Nagham Salah Salim
"1 Dept. of Horticulture and Landscape Designs, college of agriculture and forestry, University of Mosul, Iraq
2 Dept. of Horticulture and Landscape Designs, college of agriculture and forestry, University of Mosul, Iraq
3 Dept. of Horticulture and Landscape Designs, college of agriculture and forestry, University of Mosul, Iraq
 
Abstract: Throughout the agricultural season fall 2020/2021, the research has been carried out in vegetable researches field of the Dept. of Horticulture and Landscaping, Univ. of Mosul, to investigate the genetic performance of several Faba bean genotypes under consideration Mosul conditions. Seeds of 7 bean cultivars were sown (S2009-175, FBSPN2, Aguadulce, ILD1814, Histal, Favada Orio, and Luzde otono). The genotypes differed considerably in all of the examined variables at a probability threshold of 5%, according to the results of an Anova table analysis of sources of variance. The genotype FBSPN2 has been superior in characteristics of plant height and seed yields regarding each one of the experimental units, S2009-175 produced the maximum number of the dry pods for each plant, Favada Orio in the trait of seed length and pod weight, and Histal produced maximum diameter of a pod and in number of the seeds in each one of the pods and in diameter of seed for each experimental unit. The genetic and phenotypic variance was high for weight of the pods for each one of the plants, weight of 100 seeds, and the height of the plant, according to the results of the genetic parameter analysis, and the percentage of heritability in a broader sense had exceeded 60% for the traits, number of pods, and plant length. For the experimental unit, dry pods weight for each plant, dry pods per plant, seed diameter, pod length and diameter, dry seed yield, and 100-seed weight were all high, and genetic improvement for pods weight, seed weight, and weight  of a 100-seeds was high as well.
Key words:Faba bean, Seed properties, Genetic parameter, Genotypes, Heritability.
 
 
 
Ghasoun MA. wadai
1, College College of Biotechnology, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]."
 
Abstract: Cigarette smoking is responsible for respiratory tract disorder, by inducing the inflammation response. The Interleukin-6 is known as an important inflammatory interleukine produced by macrophages and epithelial cells of the airways. Due to the critical gap in our knowledge about the secretion of IL-6 by the healthy smoker, this study aimed to evaluate the serum level of interleukin-6 for healthy people due to active and passive smoking and compared them with healthy non-smokers. The research population included (49=n) healthy males aged from 22 to 28 years, classified into 3 groups, non-smokers (n =10), active smokers (n =29), and passive smokers (n =10). An ELISA kit(Peprotech Company) (USA) was used to quantify interleukin-6 in serum levels. the result has displayed significantly increased the mean IL-6  serum levels for active-smoker (552.7 pg/ml) and passive smokers (614.9 pg/ml) in comparison with non-smokers (332.8 pg/ml), at levels (P <0.01 ). In conclusion: Both passive and active smoking induces the secretion of IL-6 for healthy smokers significantly higher than non-smokers and so little contact with cigarette smoke or passive smoking raises the pro-inflammatory IL-6 as well as active smoking.
Keywords: healthy active smoking, healthy passive smoking, IL-6
 
 
 
Raghda Waleed Khalid1, Yasir Hamad Humada2 and Muhannad Abdullah Alazzawy3
1College of Sciences,  Kirkuk University, Iraq; e-mail : [email protected]
2Genetic. College of Sciences,  Kirkuk University, Iraq ; e-mail : [email protected]
3Medical Microbiology. College of Medical Technology.AL-Kitab University. Kirkuk, Iraq. ; e-mail  [email protected]
*Correspondence: e-mail : [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Background: Human Papilloma Virus is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. It is one of the causes of a series of neoplasms, including cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and head-and-neck cancers and laryngeal papillomatosis. Aims of the study: The aim of the current study was to the role of human papillomavirus and its relationship to the incidence of recurrent miscarriages. Material and Method: A cross-sectional hospital based study was carried out in Kirkuk city from the beginning of September 2021 to the end of February 2022 on 114 women attended Gynecological and Pediatric Hospital aged 20-40 years. The study also included 20 women who had previous two or more normal pregnancies and with no history of abortion served as controls. Patients with chronic diseases, clinical evidence of genitourinary infection, women suffering from any bacterial or viral infection related to abortion, such as Rubella, cytomegalovirus, Human Herpes Virus, and Toxoplasma parasites, were excluded from the study. Deep vaginal swabs were collected from all women enrolled in the study according to standard procedure of vaginal swab sampling; those swabs were inserted in tubes contained viral transport medium and stored in deep freeze until PCR extraction and amplification tests done by real-time PCR for qualitative and quantitative. Results: The study showed that the 10.53% (12 of 114) of RPL patients who positive by PCR while non one no one of control patients have by PCR +ve results. The study showed that 39.02 percent of the cases with 3 times of miscarriage were within the age group 30-39 years. Also, 67.65 percent of women with 4 times of miscarriage were in the age group <30 years while 46.15 percent of women with history of miscarriage for 5 times and more were above 40 years old. Quantitative results indicated that the mean HPV DNA load detected by RT-PCR in deep vaginal swab from the RPL group (n = 12) was 10.95 copy/cell (range 7.665–15.75 copy/cell). The study demonstrated that the high mean of HPV DNA load (13.724 copy/cell) was recorded among RPL with number of abortion (5 and more) and the lowest mean (7.953 copy/cell) was RPL women with 3 time aborted previously.
Keywords:  RPL; HPV DNA,; E6 protein;  RT-PCR;
 
 
26. The effect of sleep disorders on periodontal disease related to salivary alpha amylase among dental students
 
Abrar Ali Ahmed1* and Prof Dr Ban Sahib Diab2
"1; Master student, Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry,          
University of Baghdad. [email protected] ORCID
2; Professor, Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad. Bab-Almoadham, P.O. Box 1417, Baghdad, Iraq [email protected] ORCID
* Correspondence: [email protected]."
 
Abstract: Background: College students experience a number of sleep problems, which may impact on academic performance and health including periodontal health. The purpose of study was to assess the effect of sleep disorders on periodontal health related to salivary alpha amylase. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was done among dental students aged 22 - 23 years attending College of Dentistry in Al- Kufa University, 270 students were participated in this study, a questionnaire completed by those students was used to collect information about sleep disorders [Pittsburg sleep quality index (PSQI)].  Community Periodontal Index (CPI) by WHO in 1997 was used to assess periodontal health. Unstimulated Salivary samples was chemically analyzed for the detection of alpha-amylase using Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay. Results:  It was found that the prevalence of poor sleep quality among dental students was 58.9% , Concerning periodontal status the occurrence of  students  with health sextant as the highest score (CPI0) was higher among students with  poor sleep quality (81.13%) than this for students with good sleep quality (75.67%),  apposite result were found concerning students with gingival bleeding and calculus as the highest score , on the other hand the mean value of salivary alpha  amylase was found to be  higher for students those who have poor sleep quality than those who have good sleep quality, yet the difference was not significant. Conclusion: Students of good sleep quality more suffering from periodontal disease than students of poor sleep quality, but salivary alpha amylase was higher in students with poor sleep quality than in those with good sleep quality.
Keywords: Pittsburg sleep quality index, sleep disorder, alpha amylase, periodontal disease
 
 
 
Ghena S. Al-Hadithi, Nebrass Faleh and Hassan A. A. Al-Saady   
"1 Science College, AL-Mustansiriyah University, Iraq
2 Science College, AL-Mustansiriyah University, Iraq
3 Science College, AL-Mustansiriyah University, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of different level of vermicompost (0, 6, 12 and 18 g.pot-1), peat-moss (12mg.pot-1) and Di-Ammonium Phosphate (DAP) (1g.pot-1) on some yield components (length, No. and weight of pods and No. and weight of seeds) and alkaloids concentration in seed of fenugreek according to the complete randomized design with six replicates. The study was achieved by using high performance liquated chromatography (HPLC) technology. The analysis of HPLC data shows that the four alkaloids (choline, trigonelline, carpaine and gentianine) been separated and purified. The result showed that significant difference between different fertilizers levels on yield components and alkaloid concentration and treatment 12g.pot-1 give high value of studied characteristics mention above. Also, results showed that seed rich of trigonelline.  
Key words: alkaloids, vermicompost, trigonlline and fenugreek
 
 
28. The Role of Hydrogen Peroxide in Enhancing the Antioxidant System of Wheat Triticum aestivum L. Growing under Conditions of Salt Stress
 
Waqeed Mahdi hadif1, Saja Abdullah Mohammed1 and Izyanti Ibrahim2
1 School of Field Crops, College of Agriculture and Marshes, University of Thi-Qar-Iraq
2 School of Field Crops, College of Agriculture and Marshes, University of Thi-Qar-Iraq [email protected]               
3 School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, school of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia  [email protected]
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: This study was carried out on wheat growing during the 2020 growing season.discover the effect of soaking wheat seeds with a hydrogen peroxide solution on the increased ability of the crop to withstand salt stress.The hydrogen peroxide factor involved the use of six concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5) m mol, while the salt concentration depended on salt water irrigation.(Na+cl-) salt when the concentration(75) m.mol.during the growing season, a number of features such as the relative water content of the leaves.Total chlorophyll, total soluble sugar, carotene, H2O2 content, prolin, glutathione (GSH).malondialdehyde (MDA) content and K/Na ratio, the results showed that increasing levels of hydrogen peroxide at some 2 m.mol limit reached the highest levels.H2O2 content and thus enhance proline activity.glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), an indication which has helped to improve plants' ability to resist saline stress.
 
Key words: HydrogenPeroxide, Sodium chloride, Antioxidant, Wheat, Salt Stress
 

 
Hussein A. M. Al-Bayati 1*, Gufran J. Shamkhi 2, AL-Aidy S. R. 3, Hasanain A.J. Gharban 4
1Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Wasit, Wasit, Iraq; [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0778-5974
2Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Wasit, Wasit, Iraq; [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5780-6027.
3Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Wasit, Wasit, Iraq; [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0921-2221.
4Department of Internal and Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wasit, Wasit, Iraq; [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6438-1450.
*Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: (009647725028806)"
 
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to detection and isolation of the Parainfluenza-3 virus (PIV-3) in camels naturally developed respiratory illness, and to determine the titer of the isolates using the virus titration. Therefore, an overall 100 nasal swab and jugular vein blood samples were collected from diseased camels existed in four districts in Wasit province (Iraq) during December (2019) to March (2020). The swabs were subjected for six subsequent passages on bovine kidney cell culture (BKCC) to isolate of virus and to confirm of infection by molecular PCR assay. Fever (40°C), abundant runny nasal discharge, ocular discharge, coughing, depression, increased respiratory rate, and abnormal breath sounds, mostly wheezing are the most observed clinical signs. Positive findings were involved 24% by ELISA and 37% by RT-PCR. The age group from 1-2 years old showed a high infection rate, while lower level was in 4-6 years old group. Regarding season, infection rate was high at winter compared to spring. Obviously, Sheik Saad city appeared to have a high infection rate compared to other districts. The positive samples inoculated into the Bovine kidney cell culture (BKCC) were revealed the cytopathic effects (CPE) after three successive passages, which appeared as clumping and rounding with the progression of infection time at 4th passage. Elongation and giant cell formation were showed in some isolates after the 5th and 6th passages until reach to complete detachments of the cells from cell sheet. The titer of viral tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of the 3rd passage was determined in BKCC cells at 10–3/0.05 ml, and the high titer was shown at 5th and 6th passages in equal to 10-5/ 0.05 ml. In conclusion, PIV-3 is widespread among camels infected with respiratory illness; therefore, moreover studies are necessary to detect the rate of prevalence among camels in other Iraqi regions.
Keywords: PIV-3, Fusion protein gene, Hemagglutination protein gene, ELISA, PCR
 
 
 
Amin Hussein Jabal and Mohammed A. Abdulkareem
1 Soil Sci. Water Res. Dept., Coll. Agric., Univ. Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.
2 Soil Sci. Water Res. Dept., Coll. Agric., Univ. Basrah, Basrah, Iraq. [email protected]
*  Correspondence: [email protected] , "

ABSTRACT: Silicon can be used as a soil amendment to reduce deleterious soil salinity and improve nutrients availability under different levels of irrigation water salinity. Four treatments of Si (0,150 and 300 kg Si ha-1 as nano- silica and 300 kg Si ha-1 as potassium silicate) along with four salinity levels of irrigation water (1.65,3,6and 9 dSm-1 ) were used to investigation their effect on soil salinity at three soil depth ( 0-15 , 15-30 and 30-45 cm ) and availability of N,P and K in soil cultivated with tomato. The experiment conducted under greenhouse condition using a random complete block design with three replicates. According to the results, increasing irrigation water salinity level increased soil salinity and decreased available N,P and K to tomato .Si treatments decreased soil salinity and increased available amounts of N,P and K . Using 300 Kg Si ha-1 of nano- silica caused lowest soil salinity of 1.89, 2.51 and 3.23 dSm-1 for 0-15 , 15-30 ,and 30-45cm depth, respectively and increased availability of N ,P and K with a percents of 19.4 , 14.1 and 82.7 % , respectively .
Keywords: nano-silica, soil salinity, available N , irrigation water salinity, tomato.
 
 
31. The relationship between the spectral band data and some soil characteristics in some areas of Basra Governorate
 
Wisam Bisheer Hasan, Salah M. S. Al-Atab and Mohammed A. Kadhim   
1Department of Soil Science and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq, [email protected]
2Department of Soil Science and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq,
3Department of Soil Science and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq,
* Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Remote sensing techniques and geographic information systems were used to study the relationship between spectral band data and some soil characteristics in some areas of Basra Governorate. The satellite image for the year 2020 was used with eleven spectral bands. The spectral band values ​​were extracted using ArcMap10.4.1 software, after which SPSS 22 was used in order to conduct correlations between spectral bands and some soil characteristics to find the best statistical relationships. 15 surface samples representing the study area were determined using the GPS device for the purpose of conducting the required laboratory analyzes for the purpose of studying some physical and chemical characteristics. The results of the study showed that the values ​​of the spectral reflectivity of all the sites showed a similar pattern for all the spectral bands. This indicates that the used spectral bands are specialized for the properties and factors of the soil, but with different sensitivity, and therefore interference and similarity occurred in their spectral reflectivity . Spectral band B2 showed the lowest values ​​for spectral reflectivity, followed by spectral band B3. It is noticed through the curve of the spectral reflectivity of the spectral bands that there is a gradual increase in the values ​​of the spectral reflectivity of the spectral bands B4, B3, B2, B5 and B6 at all sites and that the highest reflection in the values ​​of the spectral reflectivity was in the spectral bands B4, B6, B5 and B7 for all sites. . A positive correlation was found with a correlation coefficient of 0.75 for sand content, and a negative correlation relationship for both silt and clay with a correlation coefficient of 0.55 and 0.57, respectively, while a highly significant positive correlation relationship was observed between the soil content of calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, soil salinity, and the numerical values ​​of the spectral reflectivity. As calcium carbonate showed the strongest positive correlation with high significant positive correlation with bands B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, B7, B8 and spectral reflectivity rate with correlation coefficient of 0.89, 0.88, 0.84, 0.87, 0.84, 0.77, 0.85 and 0.85, respectively. Whereas, the relationship between soil moisture and each of the B2,  B4, B5, and B6 bands was negative, with the value of the correlation coefficient being 0.53, 0.69 and 0.48, as it is noticed that there is a certain trend in the spectral characteristics that have an important weight in influencing the relationship and it was related. A negative effect with an increase in the presence of water, which leads to a decrease in the value of soil reflectivity within these bands.
Key words : Remote sensing , Soil characteristics , spectral band , GIS
 
 
32. Synthesis, characterization and study the Biological Activity of Some New Compounds Containing Triazine and 1, 3, 4- Thiadiazol units
 
Sahar F. Abbas1*, Wasan M. Abd–ALHameed2 and Jumbad H. Tomma3
1 Scientific Affairs Department, AL-Karkh University of Science. Iraq.
2 College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences University of Baghdad. Iraq.
3 Department of Chemistry, College of Education for pure science, Ibn Al-Haitham, University of Baghdad. Iraq.
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: The work involves synthesis of new four types from N-acetyl derivatives Va-d, starting from 1,2,4-triazines. Carboxylic acid compound II (which was get from reacted compound I with α-chloroacetic acid in fused MeCOONa and ethanol) treated with thiosemecarbazid in POCl3 to give 1,3,4-thiadiazol compound III. Schiff bases resulted from condensation of thiadiazole III with different benzaldehydes to form IVa-d which were converted to N-acetyl derivatives under addition reaction with acetyl chloride. Antibacterial activity of new synthesized compounds have been checked against E.coli gram (-), Klebsiella pneumoniae gram (-), Staph. aureus gram (+) , and also on Strep .mutans gram (+). FTIR and 1HNMR spectroscopy were used for characterized of synthesized compounds.
Keywords: Triazine, 1,3,4-Thiadiazol, Schiff bases and  N-acetyl compounds.
 
 
33. The Effects of Five Different Types of Combined Tillage Machines on Soil Properties and Yield of Maize
 
Aqeel J. Nassir1*, Dakhil R. Ndawi2 & Sadiq J. Muhsin1
1Agricultural Machinery and Instruments Department, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6286-8046  2https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9512-9947
2Department of Soil Science and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8647-9459
3Agricultural Machinery and Instruments Department, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.
*Corresponding author-mail: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: This study was conducted in silty clay loam soil, and concerns the effect of tillage treatments on soil properties, the yield of maize, and economic analysis. The experiment design included five types of combined tillage machines: (T1) combined tillage machine consisting of a subsoiler operating at depth of 60 cm, a chisel plow, disk harrow, and roller, (T2) same (T1) except subsoiler operating at depth of 40 cm, (T3) combined tillage machine consisting of a subsoiler operating at depth of 60 cm, a chisel plow, (T4) same (T3) except subsoiler operating at depth of 40 cm, and (T5) combined tillage machine consisting of a chisel plow and, disk harrow. The results showed that deep tillage by T1 and T3 can significantly improve the soil structure and physical properties, the soil bulk density, EC, and penetration resistance decreased, while the saturated water conductivity and MWD of both tillage treatments (T1 and T3) increased significantly compared with T2, T4, and T5. The results revealed that the sampling period had a significant effect (p<0.05) on physical properties. The soil bulk density, MWD, and EC decreased by 5.51, 14.18, and 43.60% respectively, while the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity and penetration resistance increased by 36.17 and 43.53% when compared between the start and end season of maize growth. However, T1 achieved the highest grain yield compared with T2, T3, T4, and T5 by 14.18, 7.02, 36.52, and 53.17%, respectively.  
Key word: Combined tillage machine, Soil properties, Maize yield
 
 
 
Deema K. Mostafa1, Intisar Ghanim Abdulwahhab1, Najwa Shihab Ahmed2
"1College of Education for Women, Tikrit University, Iraq [email protected],
2Biotechnology Research Canter, Al Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq  , [email protected]
*  Correspondence: [email protected] "
 
Abstract: Giardia lambila, also known as (Giardia duodenalis, Giardia intestinalis) is the causative agent of giardiasis, and it is the most common parasitic diarrheal disease that affects humans and more than 40 species of other mammals. The study recorded (17) positive cases of Giardia infection out of a total of (47) samples that diagnosed microscopically for pediatric patients arriving at Tikrit General Hospital from nearby areas. The results showed that the percentage of positive cases of infection with Giardia parasite amounted to (36.2%) for PCR, as significant differences appeared when compared with the microscopic examination ( P value< 0.05). Also, that the rates of infection with the parasite varied between males and females, and the percentage of infection in males reached (53.2%), while the percentage of infection in females was (43.14%), The results showed the relationship between infection with Giardia by age groups less than one year, where the percentage amounted to 44.6%, followed by the age group 1-2 years, the percentage reached 31.9%, and the lowest percentage was in the age group 3-4 years 10.6%.PCR technique diagnosed the specific region within the DNA of the parasite Giardia using special primers for the encoded gene (for Giardia2029/Gia2150c) and (for Giardria). Also, it was sequenced and alignment performing. The isolate in the current study was 100% similar with the globally recorded isolate. Inconclusion, the methods of detection of Giardia showed differences in positive results for this parasite. In addition, the infection in males more than females in the age less than one year more infected than in other ages.
Keyword: Giardia lambila, Giardia2029/Gia2150c, Giardia gene
 
35. Effect of plant extract on Pseudomonas aeruginosa
 
Ashwaq Audah*, Marwaa Mohsen Hussein and Ali Anok Njum
1 Department of Community Health Technologies
2 Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques
3 Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Technical Institute/ Samawa, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a reason for consumes and wound diseases. The justification behind the assessment was to consider plant concentrate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Consumes and twisted patient by nuclear and bacteriological inspect. An amount of 100 injury tests developed between (5-65) quite a while, were related with this assessment. After that sub refined of isolates on blood agar, MacConkey agar and cerebrum heart mixture agar to find the perceived by biochemical, nuclear test and hostile to disease sensitive test. After that availability of plant removes from zingiber and acacia, fractionation with soxholet extractor and isolate the unique material by HPLC, appraisal its force on S. pneumoniae separates by well spread and circle scattering test. Results showed that there was 13 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from wound culture, any spot Plant concentrates may be show most imperative deterrent zone estimation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa came to by movement of zingiber remove. While acacia remove was going with the most negligible deterrent effect for Pseudomonas aeruginosa advancement.
 
Keywords: plant extract, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, wound diseases
 
 
36. The Effect of Lemon Juice on The Concentration of Glucose and Some Hormones in Experimentally Fattened Male New Zeland Rabbits
 
Iman Mohammad Said Jallod1 and Muntaha Mahmoud Al-Kattan2
1 University of Telafer, College of Nursing, Iraq
2 Department of Biology, College of Science, Mosul University, Iraq ,[email protected]
*  Correspondence: [email protected] "
 
Abstract: The current study was conducted to figure out the effect of experimental fattening of white New Zealand male rabbits and the use of lemon juice on the concentration of glucose and some hormones in the blood serum of these rabbits. 40 white male New Zealand rabbits were used, their ages ranged between 8-10 months, and weights between 1250-1400 g. They were divided into two groups of 20 rabbits/group and placed in separate cages. The first group was fed the standard provender, while the second group was fed a special fattening provender rich in fat for a period of 12 weeks, and after the end of the period, all rabbits were weighed, and each group was divided into two groups with 10 rabbits/group, the control group, the lemon group, the fattening group and the fattening group with lemon: these groups were subjected to standard conditions of provender and water, and the lemon group and the fattening group with lemon were dosed with lemon juice 4 ml / kg for 8 weeks, where the dose was daily. The results showed that treatment with lemon juice led to a significant decrease at the probability level (p ≥ 0.0001) in the concentration levels of glucose, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyronine, thyroxine and leptin in both the lemon group and the fattening group with lemon compared to the control group and the fattening group respectively, while there was a significant increase in the insulin hormone and adiponectin in both the lemon group and the fattening group with lemon compared to the control group and the fattening group, respectively.
Keywords: obesity, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, thyronine, thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, lemon juice.
 
 
 
Bushra Bader Jerad Shammari
1 Department of food Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq.
*  Correspondence: [email protected] "
 
Abstract: The research aimed to determine total protein, phenolic content and vitamin C in green tea powder. The results were as follows: protein1.12%, phenolic content 143 mg / 100g and vitamin C 68 mg / 100g respectively. Beside. the functional properties were also determined. According to the resuits green tea powder had high water holding capacity 254% and oil holding capacity 214% compared with wheat flour. The research also determined the effect of replacement of wheat flour with green tea powder at 5%, 7.5% and 10% level. The results showed that sponge cake made from green tea at level 5% was higher in scort compared with the other sample and control. hardness of sponge cakes decreased from 700 g , 550 g – 400 g , 350g ,w 340 g with increased the addition level of green tea powder . sponge cake was stored at 25-30Cº for 8 days The results showed peroxide value increased during storage, high peroxide value was observed in control sponge cake from 0.4 to 7 millequiv.Kg. While low peroxide value ranged 0.2 to 1 millequiv.Kg in sponge cake containing green tea 10%..The results demonstrated that green tea could be used a good source for antioxidant in food industries.
Keyword: phenolic, vitamin C. water holding capacity, sensory evaluation, hardness
 
 
 
Sanarya Kamal Tawfiq, Staar Mohammed Qader and Muhannad Abdullah Al-Azzawy*
1 Ph.D. Medical Microbiology, College of Medical Technology, AL-Kitab University, Kirkuk, Iraq.
2 Medical Microbiology, College of Medical Technology, AL-Kitab University, Kirkuk, Iraq.
3 Medical Microbiology, College of Medical Technology, AL-Kitab University, Kirkuk, Iraq.
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Sewage is the used and wastewater consisting of human excreta, wash waters, and industrial and agricultural wastes (e.g. wastes from livestock i.e. chicken, cattle, horse, etc.) that enter the sewage system. The aim of the study is to study bacteria that isolated from sewage water for knowing their source, different antibiotic using , and, comparing it with other bacteria that present in human excrete. This study was carried out in March - 2019. Included (30) samples of water are taken from Al-Khassa river in Kirkuk, starting from Al-Tabaqchary bridge to Domiez bridge, All the samples were worked in general health laboratory of Kirkuk.  All the water samples were collected in sterile containers, and were processed within one hour after arriving at the laboratory. first it cultured on blood and MacConkey agar for each sample, the petri-dishes were putted in aerobic incubator at 37 c0 for 24 hours. And was isolated on nutrient agar for purification, incubating at 37 c0 for 24 hours.  Bacterial colonies were identified on the basis of diagnosed by using morphology, cultured characteristics, and biochemical characteristic included  The antimicrobial screening were performed using Muller-Hinton agar disk diffusion assay for signing drug sensitivity,  The study showed that E. coli represented the most isolated bacteria from Al-Khassa river (14 isolate), Serratia marcescens (10 isolates), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5 isolates) and Proteus spp. (only 2 isolates), The study showed that gentamicin was the most active antibiotic against the Gram-negative bacilli isolates tested, as only 2.6% of these isolates were resistant to this antibiotic at concentration up to 10μg, while susceptible to clindamycin.
Keywords: Al-Khassa; Kirkuk; Sewege; river; Contamination
 
 
 
Sarah Kadhim Al-Rahimy1, Alaa Sajjad AlKhafagi2, Balqees Hadi Al- Musawi1, Rafid Abbas Al-Essa3 and Iqbal Khawwam Khshayyish1
1 College of Science, University of Kerbala, Iraq
2 General Directorate of Education of Holy Kerbala, Iraq , [email protected] ,
3 College of Science, University of Kerbala, Iraq  , [email protected]
4 College of Education for Pure Science , University of Kerbala, Iraq
5 College of Science, University of Kerbala, Iraq , [email protected]
*  Correspondence: [email protected] "
 
Abstract: The effectiveness of the aqueous extract (cold and boiled) of bean peels was studied and the active compounds were determined by Foureir Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FT-IR), and concentrations (1, 3, 5) mg/ml were used when treating fourth-instar larvae and the pupae of Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes and its effect on the percentage of the mortality of the fourth larval instar , the pupa stage and the inhibition of emergence of adults when treating the fourth larval instar  and pupa stage of the insect in Kerbala governorate for the month of March 2022 to control mosquitoes. The results of the study showed the effect of the two extracts was approximate to a large percent to a certain extent in the percentage of cumulative mortality of immature stages, as for the inhibition of the emergence of adults, the cold extract was more effective than the boiled extract of bean peels, and it was found that the cold extract of bean peels was more effective from the boiled extract and the effect differed according to the different concentrations of the extract when treating the fourth larval instar, and the effect on the pupae treated with the boiled extract was more compared to the cold extract of the bean peels .
Keywords: Culex quinquefasciatus, Plant extracts, Vicia faba
 
 
40. Estimation Of Some Biochemical Changes As Risk Factors In Prostate Cancer
 
Muthaffar S. AL-Kirikchi* and Huda Y. AL-Attar"and Huda Y. AL-Attar2
1 College of Science, University of Mosul, Iraq
2 College of Science, University of Mosul, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]."
 
Abstract: This study was conducted in order to evaluate some indicators as factors that increase the risk of developing prostate cancer. The current study included the parameters of PSA, vitamin D, phosphorous, and calcium in the blood serum with a number of (191) samples: (90) samples belonged to prostate cancer patients, (43) samples were from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and (58) samples were from healthy men as a control group. Samples were collected from patients attending the Specialized Nuclear Medicine and Oncology Hospital in Mosul depending on PSA test levels and from information documented in patient data in hospital . The results show a significant (P ≤ 0.01) increase in PSA level in the prostate cancer group compared with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and the control group also showed a significant (P ≤ 0.01) increase in PSA level in BPH group compared with the control group, while no significant (P ≤ 0.01) difference in all tumor stages . The results of the current study showed that there was a significant (P ≤ 0.01) decrease in the levels of vitamin D in the blood serum of the prostate cancer group compared to the benign prostatic hyperplasia group and the control group , and there was also a significant (P ≤ 0.01) decrease in the levels of vitamin D among in the patients  with benign prostate hyperplasia group and control group. In contrast, there was no significant (P 0.01) differences in vitamin D levels across all tumor stages. The results showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.01) in the levels of serum calcium in the patients with prostate cancer compared with the benign prostate hyperplasia group and control group and a significant increase (P ≤ 0.01)  in patients with the benign prostate hyperplasia group compared with the controls groups . Whereas the results revealed no significant difference in calcium levels across all tumor stages .The results  showed a significant (P ≤ 0.01)  increase in the phosphorus levels in patients with prostate cancer compared with the benign prostate hyperplasia group and control groups and a significant (P ≤ 0.01) increase in the patients with benign prostate hyperplasia group compared with control groups, whereas the result showed no significant difference in phosphorus levels between all stages of tumor .
Keywords: PSA , Phosphorus , Prostate cancer, Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), Vitamin D ,  Calcium .
 
 

Shaima A. Mhadi 1*, Nihad N. Hilal 2 and Mohammed M. Abdul-Aziz
1 Medical Technologist (for pathological analyzes), Kirkuk General Hospital, Iraq
2 Professor of chemical pathology, Tikrit University College of Medicine, Iraq
3 Professor of urology, Tikrit University College of Medicine, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: The World Health Organization (WHO) and Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) define menopause as a permanent endpoint of the menstrual cycle for one year that occurs naturally or by induction of surgical procedure chemotherapy, or radiation. The etiology of menopause is classified into physiological and non-physiological. Pathophysiology of menopause includes the decline of ovary function in menopause, response to a loss of ovarian feedback mechanism, the decline of hypothalamus and pituitary function. Endocrine changes in menopause lead to alteration of gonadotropin secretion cycle patterns, changes in steroid and peptide hormones through monophasic patterns to increase gonadotropin, a decrease of estrogen. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of FSH on lipid profile in postmenopausal women. Study design:  A cross-section observational study. Method: The study is a cross sectional study done on 90 women, these women aged more than 50 years and had cessation of menstrual cycle for more than one year. The blood samples were taken from 90 postmenopausal women and interviews were carried out with them using a questionnaire. FSH measure, by ElectroChemiLuminescence (ECL) technology for immunoassay analysis done by Cobas e411 device.Lipid profile measure, by manual techniques done by use of spectrophotometer device. Result: We observed increase Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) during postmenopause has positive significant correlation with body mass index (BMI) (r 0.350, p 0.001), total cholesterol (TC) (r 0.397, p 0.001) and Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) ( r 0.421, p 0.001)  FSH also correlated positively but insignificant correlation with triglyceride (TG) (r 0.175, p 0.098) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) ( r 0.055, p 0.604) . FHS has negative significant correlation with Estradiol ( r -0.509 , p 0.001) and Vit.D( r-0.220, p 0.037) as well as FSH correlated negative but insignificant with age( r -0.142 , p 0.183) and High-density lipoprotein (HDL) (r -0.048 , p 0.656). Conclusion: The current study showed significant positive correlation of FSH with TC and LDL but insignificant positive correlation with TG and insignificant negative correlation with HDL.  
 
Keywords: Postmenopause, FSH, Lituenizing Hormone, HDL.
 
 
 
Zahraa Khudhair Abbas Al-Khafaji , Hassanin sabah hashim , Maryam Jabbar Nasser and Mohammed A. Dabbi
1  Medical laboratory Technique Department, The Islamic University, Diwaniya, IRAQ.
2  Research and Studies Department, The Islamic University, Najaf, Iraq.
3  Nursing Department, Al-mustaqbal University Collage, Babylon, Iraq.
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: At present, extensive varieties of pesticides are being used but the demand for Organophosphorus pesticide is increasing globally to control insects. Chlorpyrifos is a broad-spectrum, highly toxic, and chlorinated organophosphate insecticide that is synthetic in origin and is normally ester or thiol derivatives of phosphoric. The mode of action involves inhibiting acetyl-cholinesterase leading to the accumulation of acetylcholine causing neurotoxicity. Bacteria capable of degrading the pesticide, chlorpyrifos, were isolated from soil contaminated with pesticides. In this way, three distinct chlorpyrifos degrading strains of p.mendocina were isolated, characterized using morphological and biochemical analysis. Strains were exhibited the greatest chlorpyrifos degradation rate reach to 100% and was consequently selected for further investigation. Degradation of chlorpyrifos by strains were rapid at 20 and 37C. bacteria species were able to effectively degrade chlorpyrifos in sterilized medium using high inoculum levels. The maximum degradation rate of chlorpyrifos was calculated as 100% during 6-12 days. Bacteria such as strain PC1, that use chlorpyrifos as a carbon source, could be employed for the biordegradation of sites contaminated with pesticides.
Keywords: Biodegradation , organophosphate, Chlorpyrifos , pseudomonas putida , Hplc.
 
 
 
Wurood Alwan Kadhim and Ahmed Khudhair Al-Hamairy
1 Department of biology, College of science for women, University of Babylon, Iraq.
 
Abstract: Laboratory experiments were performed to study 66 samples were collected for beta thalassemia patients, with 30 samples for control of healthy people, male and female, and 96 samples were examined in the Cobas e411 Advice for both IgG and IgM, 20 samples were obtained positive for IgG in patients with beta thalassemia and one sample was positive for IgM, then the Uric Acid examination was conducted for all After that, 12 male and female samples were selected with a high percentage of Uric Acid, 6 of which were positive for Toxoplasmosis and 6 negative for the disease. To perform the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique and use the standard substance Allantoin to observe the relationship between Uric Acid and Allantoin, where the relationship is inverse between them, In the case of infection and the presence of the parasite in the blood, the Uric Acid oxidizes and combines with the free radicals (reactive oxygen species) in the blood such as oxygen and hydrogen peroxide that are harmful to the cell or tissue. Free radicals in abundance and as a guide to the extent of damage performed by the parasite.
 
Key words: beta thalassemia, Uric Acid, Allantoin, Toxoplasmosis, IgG and IgM.
 
 
 
Ridhab Mahmood ALhadidi1, Ahmed Khudhair Al-Hamairy 2, Huda Jasim M. Altameme
1 M.Sc. A student in College of Science for Women, University of Babylon, Biology Dept. Hilla, Iraq.
2 Prof. Dr., College of Science for Women, University of Babylon, Biology Dept. Hilla, Iraq.
3 Prof. Dr., College of Science for Women, University of Babylon, Biology Dept. Hilla, Iraq.
*Correspondence:[email protected]
 
Abstract: Hydatid cystic disease is a financial burden in Iraq because it reduces the productivity of sheep, goats, cows, and camels by leaving their afflicted organs unsuitable for human consumption, causing weight loss and poor health. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and applicability of Brassica oleracea boiling water extract as an in-vitro anti-protoscolices therapy model to albendazole. Fresh leaves of purple cabbages (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) were extracted comprehensively by maceration in boiling water, and the required 100, 200, and 300 mg/ml concentrations were tested. Hydatid (human or animal) samples were collected from the hospital and external laboratories in Babylon province and stored in Kreb ringers culture media and cyst fluid (4:1) until use. For comparison, several concentrations of albendazole were generated. The control group received one milliliter of distilled water and all of the extract and drug concentrations stated above in three replications. The viability rates of the protoscolices were determined for (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216) hours. The proportion of viable protoscolices was 84 % at zero time and 0 % on the ninth day after the experiment began, according to the findings. The boiling water extract for purple cabbages with a concentration of 300 mg/ml was shown to be the most successful in removing protoscolices viability at a percentage of 0.67% after 96 hours, compared to the albendazole medicine at a percentage of 0% after 120 hours. The findings of a boiling water extract from Brassica oleracea var. capitata revealed that protoscolices' viability had been effective. It can also be used as an alternative for chemotherapy in the treatment of cyst hydatid infection.
Keywords:  Purple cabbages,   Protoscolices,  Echinococcosis, Albendazole, plant  extract
 
 
 
 
Rana A.H. Al-Sarray 1 and Sattar J. J. Al-Shaeli
1Department of Biological Science, College of Education for Pure Sciences, Wasit University, Wasit, Iraq ; [email protected]
2Department of Medical Basic Sciences, College of Dentistry, Wasit University, Wasit, Iraq ; [email protected]. 0000-0003-2669-0073
*Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +964(0)7831634353"
 
Abstract: Recently animal toxin including bee venom BV draw attention in medical field as alternative therapy to control and manage several diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Due to limited researches focused on the potential role of BV to enhance T2DM in Iraq, thus the study aimed to detect the histological and anti-oxidant impact of BV in diabetic mice. Fifteen male mice were randomly assigned into three groups. The first group is control (C), the second is diabetic (received 95 mg/kg alloxan only), and the last group is BV (diabetic exposed to 1 mg/kg BV daily). The blood was obtained at the end of 30 days, and serum was used to measure the level of glucose, insulin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA) kits. Furthermore, the pancreas of all animals undergoes histological assessment using special Gomori stain. Alloxan caused significant elevation and reduction in the level of glucose and insulin respectively compared to control. These alterations were positively enhanced by BV which decreased and increased the glucose and insulin levels respectively. BV also promoted significant elevation in the activity of SOD and suppressed the activity of MDA compared to diabetic mice.  Histological investigation of the diabetic mice pancreas displayed clear alteration in the histological structure of the pancreas. These alterations including reduction of capsular tissue, islets and beta cells vacuolization, beta cells initial degeneration, reduction in the shape and size of the islets and beta cells, and vascular hemorrhage. All these changes were remarkably enhanced nearly to normal in response to BV. Therefore, using BV could participate in control the diabetic condition which may consider potential anti-diabetic agent.
KEYWORDS: Diabetes mellitus, SOD, MDA, pancreas, mice, BV
 
 
46. Comparative study between CT Scan and Intraoperative Endoscopic Findings in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis
 
Nawras Jawad Ali1, Wisam Gheni Mahdi2, Ayyed Odhafa Jasim3, Kassim Raisan Dekhil4 , Muthanna Saleem Abdulameer5,
1 Hammurabi College of Medicine, University of Babylon
2 Hammurabi College of Medicine, University of Babylon
3 Hammurabi College of Medicine, University of Babylon
4 Hammurabi College of Medicine, University of Babylon.
5 Hammurabi College of Medicine, University of Babylon
Corresponding author: Nawres Jawad Alshlah, [email protected],
ORCID: 0000-0002-3150-8953. Tel: 009647716229835"
 
ABSTRACT: Background: Paranasal  sinus  diseases  are  one  of  the communest causes of  patients  visit  to  an  Otolaryngologist.  The  symptoms  are  multiple  and nonspecific,  while  inspection  is  often  limited  as  sinuses  cannot  be examined  directly.  Anterior  rhinoscopy  gives  little  information  about middle meatus and osteomeatal unit. Objective: The study is carried out with an objective to compare the CT scan  findings  and  diagnostic  endoscopic  findings  with    operative  nasal endoscopy findings in patients with chronic rhinosinusits. Methods:  A  cross  sectional  study dealt  with  36  patients  with  chronic rhinosinusitis  not  responding  to  routine  medical  lines  of  treatment  were selected and operated after being thoroughly investigated by means of CT scan  and  nasal  endoscopy.  All  patients    underwent  bilateral  surgery,  a total  of  72  events  were  carried  out. Verdicts of both the CT scan as well  as  analytic  nasal  endoscopy  were  correlated  with  operative findings. Results: In the current study, a high association was found between both the modalities of assessment  i.e CT scan and operative nasal endoscopy. Indicative  nasal  endoscopy  is  found  to  be  highly  specific  investigatory modality  with  mean  specificity  (87.5%),  while  it’s  mean  sensitivity(79.5%).Whereas  CT-scan  was  highly  sensitive  (92.5%),  while  it’s specificity was (84.18%). Conclusion  :  Both  nasal  endoscopy  and CT-scan  are  objective  measures that can increase the accuracy of chronic rhinosinusitis diagnosis. The use of  symptoms,  CT-scan,  and  nasal  endoscopy  may  prove  to  be  the  most accurate approach for reaching the diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis.
Keywords:  Paranasal  sinus  disease,  CT  scan,  Diagnostic  nasal, endoscopy, Endoscopic sinus surgery.
 
 
 
Doaa Adel Qasim
"1 Market Researches and Consumer Protection Center, University of Baghdad, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
ABSTRACT: Different genera and species of bacteria were isolated from shrimp, which were brought from Al-Faw area in Basra governorate, and these isolates were diagnosed after purification through studying their phenotypic characteristics and conducting API confirmation, biochemical tests, motility examination and staining with gram stain, in addition to using different types of diagnostic tools bacteria. Twenty five bacterial isolates of genera and species of bacteria were isolated and diagnosed from shrimp. Morganella morganii sub. Morganii,, Klebsiella pneumonia sub. Pneumonia, Proteus marina,  Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter taylorae, Cronobacter sakazakii,  Escherichia coli, Hafnia alvei, Citrobacter amalonaticus, Citrobacter freundii, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio vulnificus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Aeromonas sobria. The results of the detection of histamine-producing bacteria, which were detected by using broth media such as Histamine decarboxylase broth (H.D.B.), Trypticase Soy broth-Histidine (TSBH) and solid media such as Histamine decarboxylase agar (H.D.A.) showed that all bacteria were producing histamine in different proportions except Aeromonas sobria and Hafnia alvei were non-histamine-producing.
Keywords: histamine, shrimp, bacterial contamination
 
 
48. Effect of Cloud Cover Types on SolarRadiation Types for Selected Stations in Iraq
 
Zainab M. Abbood1, Salwa S. Naif1 and Osama T. Al-Taai1*                                                   
1 Department of Atmospheric Science, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
*Correspondance: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Earth's system emits longwave radiation into space, while incoming shortwave radiation enters the atmosphere (incoming SW radiation). Solar energy is absorbed by the Earth's surface, which then transports the heat to the atmosphere above. Cloud cover is a critical atmospheric component affecting solar radiation, which has a considerable impact on the global energy budget for cooling and heating. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting collects data on sunspot numbers, cloud cover types, sunshine during of time for hrs, maximum net solar radiation for clear skies; maximum solar radiation; and maximum incident solar radiation (all in Watts per square metre) (ECMWF). The stations in Baghdad, Mosul, and Basra were omitted in favour of the time period under consideration (1979-1983). Monthly averages of the four forms of solar radiation, as well as the link between these four types of solar radiation and the four types of radiation they produce, may be of interest to interested parties. There was an inverse association between “TCC” and “Top” in the data for all three sites Mosul and Basra have the highest connection, whereas Baghdad lies in the middle of the correlation scale. Seasons with the highest TCC concentrations were winter and spring, respectively. Mosul had the highest cloud cover, while Basra had the lowest.
 
Keywords: Iraq, Solar radiation types, Cloud cover types, ECMWF, Radiation budget.
 
 
 
Ahmed A. Al-Behadili1, Osama T. Al-Taai1* and Abdul Haleem Ali Al-Muhyi2       
1 Department of Atmospheric Science, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Iraq.
2 Department of Atmospheric Science, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Iraq.
3 Department of marine physics, Marine Science Center, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: The Arabian Gulf region is regarded as one of the world's most significant commercial areas, with large-scale and continuous marine shipments of commodities and goods to and from the Gulf. Iraqi ports are one of the most important ports in the Gulf, and they are a vital source of revenue for the Iraqi economy because of the money they bring in, as any stoppage of operations or damage to the ports may lead Iraq to lose a significant amount of money and halt shipping operations. Maritime accidents are one of the most significant concerns that have resulted in the suspension of maritime navigation and loading and unloading activities in Iraqi ports, since there are various forms of marine accidents at the ports and many causes. With this study, we will look at maritime accidents caused by bad weather, as there have been many recent marine mishaps and ship collisions caused by bad weather, resulting in the loss of life and equipment, as well as halting marine activities. We'll look at a few incidents and the meteorological conditions that contribute to them, as well as the link between them and the most likely cause of the accident. We will study an accident that occurred in the port of Khor Al-Zubair in 2018, which is considered one of the most important ports of Iraq, as it contains berths for importing and exporting goods, as well as on many of the Iraqi oil export berths, the accident of the Iraqi crane, Aba Thar. This report advises Iraqi port officials to limit activity in severe weather in order to reduce accidents that lead to loss of life and equipment, as well as significant economic losses to the country.
Keywords: Khor Al-Zubair, Maritime accidents, Aba Thar, Bad weather, The Arabian Gulf
 
 
 
Hind Yarub Abdul-Wahab* and Hayder Raad Abdulbaqi
1 College of Dentistry ,University of Baghdad; [email protected] .
2College of Dentistry ,University of Baghdad; [email protected].
*Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: (optional; include country code; if there are multiple corresponding authors, add author initials)"
 
Abstract: Matcha tea is a fine-powdered green tea characterized by its special “Umami” taste. It is a popular beverage prepared from the leaves of Camellia sinensis plant which is growing under shade few weeks prior harvesting the leaves. Consequently, Matcha tea is a green tea possessing distinctive proportions of bioactive chemicals. The health promoting effects of Matcha tea are well-documented. Matcha tea constituents have diverse beneficial biological activities such as anticarcinogenic, anti-stress, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects as well as enhancing cognitive function. On the other hand, no researches regarding oral health promoting properties of Matcha tea have been conducted yet. Oral health benefits of Matcha tea are always granted to green tea. This review highlights the health promoting properties of Matcha tea as well as its chemical composition. Also, it summarizes the oral health benefits of green tea as a representative for matcha tea. It is highly suggested to investigate the benefits of Matcha tea for enhancing oral health as it shares bioactive components with green tea, but at different proportions.
 
Keywords: Matcha tea, oral health, Camellia sinensis
 
 
Hayder Nsiefe Jasim* and Issam Jumaa Nasser
1 Department of medical laboratories, College of health and medical techniques, middle technical university, Baghdad region – Iraq.
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: This study was conducted in Diyala Governorate for the period from September 2021 to October 2022 and included the study of chemical variables and what is known as inflammatory markers such as LDH, D DIMER, CRP and FERRITIN. It was observed these chemical variables change and are affected in both vaccinated and unvaccinated corona patients. This study was conducted first to find out these variables and study them with vaccinated patients and compare them with non-vaccinated patients Secondly, to study the types of vaccines that were given against corona disease and know whether one type is better than the other according to these variables, knowing that these variables mentioned representing the severity of the disease the result was Present study show there are significant differences (p<0.05)  between LDH, D dimer, and ferritin parameters and study groups. the LDH, D dimer, and ferritin parameters scored the highest mean value in Unvaccinated patients (442.46±150.78, 1016.16± 400.77, and 290.61±122.02), and the lowest mean value in vaccinated patients (232.95±111.82, 929.46± 340.54, and 58.55±25.80) respectively compared to healthy groups The LDH scored the highest mean value in unvaccinated females (448.50±166.33), and least mean value in vaccinated males (192.01±88.85), D dimer scored the highest mean value in vaccinated males (1115.36±500.26), and the least mean value in healthy males (357.54±83.25), ferritin scored highest mean value in unvaccinated males (382.95±150.79), and least mean value in vaccinated females (53.19±21.44) compared to other values. The present study showed significant differences (p<0.05) between CRP parameters and vaccine types. The CRP scored the highest mean value in patients with the Pfizer vaccine (214.65±88.51) and the least mean value with AstraZeneca (125.36±55.40).
Keywords: covid19, inflammatory markers, D-dimer
 
 
 
R. E. Y. Al-Hayali1, Idrees H. M. AL-Jaf2, Falah, H. R. AL Miahy3, Ahmed F. Z. Al-Dulaimy4
1Department of Biotechnology, College of Applied Sciences, University of Fallujah, Iraq
2Department of Horticulture and Landscape Gardening, College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, Iraq
3Department of Horticulture and Landscape Design, College of Agriculture, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq
4Department of Horticulture and Landscape Gardening, College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, Iraq.
*  Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: In the year 2021, in one of the communities in the Abu Ghraib area of Baghdad, a factorial experiment was carried outto study the effect of adding organic manure(poultry,cattle andsheep)and dry bread yeast suspension on certain yield characteristics of cucumber plants (Hadeel hybrid) grown in a greenhouse.Results showed that poultry wastegave the best effects in the fruit set (67.21%), diameter offruit)2.58 cm(,number of fruit (36.81 fruit plant-1), weight of fruit (66.00 g), and the yield (2.42 kg plant-1).The poultry manurecaused a reduction in the peel thickness to a minimum value of (0.145mm).When compared to the control treatment, adding dry yeast suspension to plants improved all yield parameters tested.
 
Key words: Cucumber, sheep manure, cattlemanure, dry yeast, poultry manure, yield.
 
 
 
Idrees H. M. AL-Jaf1, R. E. Y. Al-Hayali2, Ahmed F. Z. Al-Dulaimy3*, Falah, H. R. AL Miahy4
1Department of Horticulture and Landscape Gardening, College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, Iraq
2Department of Biotechnology, College of Applied Sciences, University of Fallujah, Iraq
3Department of Horticulture and Landscape Gardening, College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, Iraq
4Department of Horticulture and Landscape Design, College of Agriculture, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq.
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: A factorial experiment was carried out during the year 2021, in one of the villages in the Abu Ghraib district – Baghdad,to evaluate the effect of adding animal waste and dry bread yeast suspension on some vegetative growth characters of cucumber plants (Hadeel hybrid) grown under a protected environment.Three types of animal wastes (cattle, sheep and poultry) and dry bread yeast suspension were selected and the control treatment without adding any organic waste.The results indicated that poultry manure showed the best effects in the studied traits, which included leaf area )31.69 cm2(, dry weight of shoot )40.0 g(, number of leaves )32.73 leafplant-1), stem diameter (11.48 mm), plant length (224.3 cm) and number of nodes 33.73 node plant-1).On the other hand, the addition of dry yeast suspension to plants showed an improvement in all studied of vegetative growth characters compared to the control treatment.
 
Key words: Cucumber, fertilize, organic manure, bio fertilizer, vegetative growth.
 
 
 
Zahraa H. Kadhim1, Mais E. Ahmed2* and Ilker Şimşek3
1Department of Biology, Institute of Natural Sciences, Çankiri Karatekin University
2Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq
3Department of Biology, Institute of Natural Sciences, Çankiri Karatekin University
*  Correspondence: [email protected] "
 
ABSTRACT: The risky of a major concern resistance antibiotic s become for public health. The alternative treatment  metallic nanoparticles (NPs) such heavy metals effects on antibiotic resistance bacteria  different type antibiotic- impossible to treat using noval  eco-friendly synthesis technique nanoparticles copper oxide (CuO NPs) preparation from S. epidermidis  showed remarkable antimicrobial activity against S.aureus Minimum inhibitory concentra range (16,32,64,256,512) µg/ml via well diffusion method in vitro, discover those concentrations effected in those bacteria and the best concentration is 64 µg/ml ,characterization CuO NPs to prove this included  atomic force microscope, UV , X-ray Diffraction and TEM and anticancer activity was tested against cell membrane A375. The cells viability was decreased with increasing the CuNPs and displayed adose-dependent sequence of progressive cytotoxicity beginning at lower concentration to its maximum inhibition (22)% inhibition of HdFn cells and (66)% inhibition of A375cells.
 
Keywords: CuO NPs, Green synthesis, A375cells.
 
 
 
Ahmed Kadhim Fazaa Al-Ghanimi
1 College of Agriculture, University of Al-Muthanna, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Four areas were selected in the Al-Rehab region, the desert of Muthanna Governorate, which differ in the management style, the duration of agricultural exploitation, and the quality of irrigation water. It was taken in each Pedon region and the morphological and chemical measurements were revealed and conducted, and it was found that the thickness of the A horizon ranged between 10-15 centimeters and the thickness of the B horizon between 25-45 centimeters in all study pedons. The administration style did not affect Hue, as all horizons were within the color (10YR) and chroma, as the colors ranged from light white to very bale brown (10 YR7/4) and white (10YR8/1), the soil texture was between Sandy loam, Sandy clay loam, Loamy Sand. As for the chemical properties, the percentage of lime CaCO3 ranged between (250-400) gm/km-1 and the percentage of gypsum ranged between (1.2-1.8) g. km-1 The electrical conductivity EC ranged between (3.9-18)ds.m-1, while the organic matter was between (2.1-13.5) and the CEC values ​​ranged between (12-18Coml.kg), where the results showed that there are clear differences in the substance Organic, cation exchange capacity, carbonate distribution, and increased gypsum accumulation as a result of soil management.
 
Key words: soil management, calcareous soils
 
 
 
Zaidoon Ahmad Alathami
1 Al Yarmok University College, Iraq ; [email protected]
ORCID : 0000-0002-0648-7742
*Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: 00964 -7702932400"
 
Abstract: The sunflower represents a significant economic annual plant (oil-producing and edible). Despite the fact that the sunflower is categorized as one of the most salt-tolerant plant types and is treated as a major plant in saline soil reclamation, the rate of its photosynthetic and growth are adversely influenced via high levels of salt in the soil, especially, when the groundwater level rises on the soil surface, which in turn causes the raising of soil salinity. Therefore, there is a critical need to control the accumulation of salt to increase sunflower crop yields. An evaluation of the impact of asphalt material, soil salinity, groundwater table depth, and soluble ions on the growth of sunflower crops is presented in this paper. Several treatments were used in this study; asphalt material, bitumen material, and controlling treatment. The experiments were conducted, calibrated, and validated during the season of spring in 2019. The obtained results show a considerable reduction in soil salinity and groundwater table depth regarding the asphalt material control aspect, and thus increasing the growth properties of the sunflower crops.
Keywords: Growth of Sunflower, Asphalt and Bitumen Materials, Soil Salinity, Soluble Ions, Groundwater Table Depth.
 
 
 
Seror A.Abdul Hussein, Neihaya H. Zaki and Khetam H.Rasool
1 Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
2Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq. [email protected]
3 Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq. , [email protected]
*  Correspondence: [email protected] ,
 
Abstract: Prolidase is a ubiquitous enzyme that acts a chief role in the metabolism of proline-rich proteins. The goal of this study extraction and purify prolidase from E. coli and evaluate some applications such as anti-biofilm and anticancer. Hundred stool Samples were collected from infants with breastfeeding, non- vomiting, and non-diarrhea to isolate E.coli bacteria, 16S rRNA gene (585 bp) was found in all isolates of E. coli via PCR identification. Depending on the qualitative method on prolidase agar, there were only 40 (80%) isolates could produce prolidase from 50 isolates which considered non-pathogens, then only 32 isolates revealed different levels in prolidase production with specific activity equal to (2.1U/mg) of E.coli MS12. Sucrose, casein, and 40Co were the best conditions for the production of prolidase by chosen isolate. Cold acetone precipitation and dialysis were used to extract enzyme and DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-150 column was used in purification with specific activity (2 U/ml) and (6.6 U/mg) protein. Prolidase showed the highest effect on biofilm at a concentration of 500 μg/ml against P. aeruginosa then E. coli, 65% and 60.3% respectively . Brain Tumor Cell Line (A127), Colorectal Adenocarcinoma cells (CaCo-2), and Normal embryonic liver cell line (WRL-68) were used to test the prolidase effect on these cell lines. An assay of MTT was used to detect the inhibiter concentration (IC50) values and cytotoxic effect of purified prolidase.
 
Keywords: E.coli, Prolidase, purification, antibiofilm, anticancer activity.
 
 
58. Some toxic effects of Sio2NPs on the functions with histological changes of liver and functions of thyroid gland hormones in female rats.
 
Riam Sabah Abbood and Noori M. Luaibi  1
"1 Department of biology, Collage of Science, University of Al Mustansiriya, Baghdad, Iraq
2 Department of biology, Collage of Science, University of Al Mustansiriya, Baghdad, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: This study was investigating the toxicity effect of Sio2NPs on thyroid gland and liver function in female rats, the experiment was included The experimental animals were randomly divided into three groups including two  as treatment groups ( treated with a low dose (25mg/Kg  ) and high dose (100mg/Kg of body weight) of sio2 NPs and one group as a control, then each group of them was divided into three subgroups according to the injection periods of exposure (10, 20, and 30) days daily, then measure Thyroid function hormones (T3,T4,TSH) and liver function(GOT, GPT, ALK and TSB), the results revealedT3 demonstrated a significant decrease (p< 0.05) for the animals that exposed to SiO2 NPs at low and high doses (25 and 100 mg/kg) (during (10 days) when compared with the control group As well as, there was a significant decrease (p< 0.05) in the level of T3 for all animals that treated with these doses during (20  and 30days)) in serum of animals that were treated with both doses of SiO2 NPs when compared with the control group (p< 0.05), while T4 showed decreasing in treated group during (10 and 20 , 30 days) compared to control group with highly significant ((p< 0.05), finally while TSH showed a highly  increasing in treated group during (10 and 20 , 30 days) compared to control group (p< 0.05). Moreover, the liver enzyme GOT, GPT, ALK, and TSB showed an increase in the treated group during (10 and 20) but the highest value was recorded during (30 days) compared to the control group (p< 0.05). Moreover, However Histological examination for liver tissues at a low dose (25mg/kg) of SiO2 NP during 10 showed like normal histological structure appearance of hepatic tissue with mild sinusoidal dilation but marked sinusoidal dilation with atrophy and apoptosis of hepatocytes in 20 days but after for 30 days showed very marked sinusoidal dilation with apoptosis and high atrophy hepatocytes and depletion of glycol protein While in high dose (100mg/kg) in 10, 20 days some sinusoidal dilation with atrophy and apoptosis of hepatocyte the, finally in 30-day depletion glycol protein, fatty change, an apoptotic cell with rare mitotic the study revealed dysfunction in the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) may lead to impaired liver functions causing a significant increase in Total bilirubin, GPT, GOT, ALK and histological changes.
 
Keyword: Sio2NP, thyroid gland, liver function, histological changes
 
 
 
Riam Sabah Abbood and Noori M. Luaibi 2
1 Department of biology, Collage of science, University of Al Mustansiriya, Baghdad, Iraq
2 Department of biology, Collage of science, University of Al Mustansiriya, Baghdad, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: This study was investigating the toxicity effect of Sio2NPs on body weight and thyroid gland in female rats, the experiment was included The experimental animals were randomly divided into three groups including two  as treatment groups ( treated with a low dose (25mg/Kg ) and high dose (100mg/Kg of body weight) of sio2 NPs and one group as a control, then each group of them was divided into three subgroups according to the injection periods of exposure (10, 20, and 30) days daily, then measure the body weight and Thyroid function hormones (T3,T4,TSH), the results showed that there was a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the body weight of animals that exposed to SiO2 NPs at two doses (25 and 100 mg/kg) during (10 days) while increased during (20 , 30 days) but the highest value recorded in the animals that were treated for (30 days) at both doses. On the other side , the T3 findings recorded a significant decrease (p< 0.05) for the animals that exposed to SiO2 NPs at low and high doses (25 and 100 mg/kg) (during (10 days) when compared with the control group As well as, there was a significant decrease (p< 0.05) in the level of T3 for all animals that treated with these doses during (20 and 3 days) in serum of animals that were treated with both doses of SiO2 NPs when compared with the control group (p< 0.05), while T4 showed s decreasing in treated group during (10 and 20 , 30 days) compared to control group with highly significant ((p< 0.05), finally while TSH showed a highly  increasing in treated group during (10 and 20 , 30 days) compared to control group (p< 0.05). The study revealed the Exposure to Sio2NPs at different concentrations caused structural, functional, and in the thyroid gland, characterized decrease T3 and T4 hormone levels and increase in the TSH hormone level, and caused hypothyroidism this lead to decrease in the metabolism process and thus the body weight of animals gained a significant increase.
 
Keywords: nanoparticles, Sio2NPs, Thyroid gland, T3, T4, TSH, Body weight, female rats
 
 
 
Ghena S. Al-Hadithi*, Hassan A. A. Al-Saady and Nebrass Faleh  
1 Al-Farahidi. University, Iraq
2 Al-Farahidi. University, Iraq
3 Al-Farahidi. University, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of different level of vermicompost (0, 6, 12 and 18 g.pot-1), peat-moss (12mg.pot-1) and Di-Ammonium Phosphate (DAP) (1g.pot-1) on some yield components (length, No. and weight of pods and No. and weight of seeds) and alkaloids concentration in seed of fenugreek according to the complete randomized design with six replicates. The study was achieved by using high performance liquated chromatography (HPLC) technology. The analysis of HPLC data shows that the four alkaloids (choline, trigonelline, carpaine and gentianine) been separated and purified. The result showed that significant difference between different fertilizers levels on yield components and alkaloid concentration and treatment 12g.pot-1 give high value of studied characteristics mention above. Also, results showed that seed rich of trigonelline.  
Key words: alkaloids, vermicompost, trigonlline and fenugreek
 
 
Mais Zubair Jasim 1 and  Muna Saleem Khalaf
1 Master student. Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Pedodontic and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
* Correspondence:[email protected]"
 
Abstract: Background: Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) has shown effectiveness in both hardening of tooth structure and killing bacteria. Therefore, it can be used for both prevention and arresting of dental caries. Riva Star (SDF) treatment alone will stop cavities but won't reverse the cavitation. The Silver Modified Atraumatic Procedure, often known as Smart, is the optimum technique for regaining the tooth's structure and function. Glass ionomer, was introduced in (1972) as a new material that has become one of the most widely used materials in restorative dentistry. This material by releasing fluoride ions, has a therapeutic impact on the surrounding tooth structure. Microleakage known as the ingress of bacteria, its byproducts, toxins, chemicals, oral fluids, and ions between the margins of the restoration and the cavity walls. Dental restoration lifetime is thought to be significantly influenced by microleakage at the tooth-restoration contact. Material and method: In this study we used 32 primary molars, class V cavities prepared on buccal surface of all teeth. The teeth were divided into 2 groups, group 1: 16 teeth treated with 38%SDF  8 of them restored directly with GIC filling and the other 8 restored after 14 days, Group 2: 16 teeth as control group left untreated with 38% SDF,8 teeth restored directly and 8 restored after 14 days. A samples were thermocycled, immersed in 2% methylene blue and then sectioned in bucco-lingual direction.  Dye penetration was measured with digital camera connected to stereomicroscope. Result: results of this study showed a significant difference in microleakage between two time intervals in which microleakage in GIC filling decreased at 14-days interval than that of first day interval in experimental group, while in control group microleakage at 14 days’ interval was higher than first day interval but it was not significant. Conclusion: Pretreatment the primary teeth with SDF can decrease the microleakage of GIC restoration. If placed after 14 days, the microleakage would be lesser than that if the restoration was placed directly after SDF treatment. Therefore, it is recommended that SDF treatment to be done followed by a permanent restoration after a 14 days’ period, so null hypothesis cannot to be accepted.
 
Keywords: Microleakage, Silver diamine fluoride, Glass ionomer filling, non-invasive dentistry
 
 
 
Galib, A . A. Alkaabi* and D. Firas S. Al-Ani
"1 Shatrah Technical College, Sothern Technical University, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted in one of the fields of the Technical Institute in Shatrah 2022 to study the evaluation performance and productivity of the locally modified chain carrier potato. Slippage percentage, fuel consumption and machine productivity were studded in this research. The included use of three factors: the forward speed of the tractor at three levels, where it was (2.50,3.20 and 4.00 km / h) respectively, and the second factor was the speed of the chain conveyor at two levels 43 and 38 m /min and the third factor is a type of chain conveyor with two levels of iron bars and cloth -coated bars. The complete random design with three replications was used in the research. The results were statistically analyzed and the averages were tested in a way of least significant difference at the probability level of 0.05. The results showed that the tractor speed 2.50 km / hr in recording the lowest slippage percentage reached 4.20%, while the speed get 4.00 km / hr on the lowest fuel consumption and the highest productivity digger.       
 
Keyword: Slippage percentage, fuel consumption, speed chain conveyor type
 
 
 
Zina Bakir Al-Hilli
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Al-Qasim Green University, Iraq
*Correspondence: [email protected] . "
 
Abstract: Because of its exceptional chemical, physical, as well as biological features, graphene oxide (GO) has gained great attention. The Simplified Hammer's method was used in this study to synthesize GO nanosheets, which were then characterized by UV-Vis, SEM, FTIR spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. GO's UV-Vis peak of absorption was at 230 nm. A peak of diffraction at 2θ= 10.75° was found in the XRD examination, equivalent to around 0.82 nm spacing among layers. In the FTIR spectra, characteristic peaks associated with oxygen functional groups of GO were identified. In SEM pictures, GO made up of crumpled thin nanosheets. The diffusion in agar well procedure was applied to investigate the effect of as-prepared GO nanosheets against gram-negative "Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi" and gram-positive "Enterococcus sp., Kocuria sp." Different concentrations of GO demonstrated potent antibacterial activity, with higher efficacy against gram-positive bacteria.
 
Key words: Graphene Oxide , Nanosheets, Antibacterial effect, XRD, SEM, FTIR.
 
 
 
Ahmed R. Kareem 1* and Athraa M. Alwaheb2
1 College of Dentistry, University of Kerbala, Iraq
2 College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected] "
 
Abstract: Background: Dental caries, dental plaque, calculus and gingivitis are the most common and widely spread oral health conditions affecting humans at different ages. socioeconomic status was reported to be one of the factors affecting the severity of oral diseases. The aim of study included study the impact of socioeconomic status on the oral health variables and also to investigate the prevalence and severity of dental caries, gingivitis, dental plaque, dental calculus and to great data baseline for planning a future preventive programs. Materials and methods: The total sample composed of 500 male students at 15 years old selected randomly from the secondary schools in Karbala city. Assessment of the socioeconomic status using a questionnaire, Information about the students' socioeconomic status (SES) was obtained from the students' guardian. Diagnosis and recording of dental caries were according to the criteria described by WHO (2013). gingival index of Loe and Silness (1963) was followed for recording gingival health condition, Plaque index of Silness and Loe (1964) was used for plaque assessment, assessment of calculus was done by applying Ramfjord index (1959). Results: in this study found that high prevalence dental caries (95.60%) and the caries free students represent  (4.40%), the caries prevalence and severity represented by (DMFT)(DMFS) respectively and the  (FS) component of the DMF were significantly affected by the socioeconomic status (SES), Dental plaque and calculus are  more in low SES group than other groups ,with no significant differences, The mean of gingivitis of the total sample was(1.908), also finding gingivitis is more in low SES group than other groups with a Significant difference(0.011), and regarding the Gingival severity, all subjects have moderate type of gingivitis (1.1-2). Conclusion: A clear and significant increase in the prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis in relation to the socioeconomic status of this adolescent group of students which requiring a good dental school health programs and improve the education level about the importance of oral health and more regular dental visits.
 
Keywords: Dental caries, oral health  , gingivitis, socioeconomic.
 
 
 
Akram A. A. Alkhalidy1*, Majed S. hmoud2 and Ali F. Nasir3
1 Department of Agricultural Machinery and Instruments, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq.
2 Department of Agricultural Machinery and Instruments, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq.
3 Department  of Field Crops- College of Agriculture - University of Basrah, Iraq  
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the field performance of the new tillage machine in a silty clay soil, which consists of a two subsoiler plows, a rotary plow, and two opener furrows, and their effect on some mechanical and field indicators, which included: draft force, mean weight diameter and field efficiency.where Three depths of plowing were used(30, 40 and 50 cm), two rotational speeds for the rotary plow blades are(250 and 300 rpm), and three distances between two plates of the two opener furrows are(35, 40 and 45 cm).The results showed an increase in that the draft force with an increase in the plowing depth from 30 to 50 cm, a decrease in the rotational speed of the rotary plow from 300 to 250 rpm, and an increase in the distance between two plates of the two opener furrows from 30 to 40 cm. A decrease in the mean weight diameter was decreased at using  shallow plowing with a depth of 30 cm compared to deeper plowing with a depth of 50 cm and with an increase in the rotational speed of the rotary plow blades from 250 to 300 rpm. As for field efficiency, the highest average was recorded for shallow plowing at a depth of 30 cm, high rotational speed of 300 rpm, and the small distance between two plates of the two opener furrows of 35 cm was 73.28, 69.12 and 68.39%, respectively.
 
Key words: Plowing depth, Rotational speed, Mean weight diameter, Draft force, Field efficiency
 
 
 
Sadeq  Jafar Teaimah, Kadhim  Saleh  Al-Hadlag and Nasir  Abd  Ali Hlifi Almansour
1 Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Basrah, Iraq,
2 Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Basrah, Iraq,
* Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate of the efficacy of some plant extracts on the control of callosobruchus maculatus .The plant extracts were Cuminum cyminum seeds, Nerium oleander leaves and  Conocarpus erotica leaves at three concentrations 0.5, 1, and 2% compare to the pesticide malathion 1.25ml. l-1 against southern bean insect Callosobruchus maculatus. Results showed that the ethanolic Conocarpus erotica leaves extract 2% achieved the highest mortality percentages to eggs, larvae and pupae by the values 12.86, 77.14, 17.12 %, compare to malathion, 77.7, 95.3, 70.36 % respectively, followed by ethanolic Nerium oleander leaves extract 2%, while the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Cuminum cyminum seeds performed the lowest effects. Repellent activities of Conocarpus erotica leaves and Nerium oleander leaves extracts gave a good and higher effects especially with the highest concentration 2% and when it extracted by ethanol. So, these extracts could be recommended to use in integrated pest management programs to protect cowpea seeds against Callosobruchus maculatus.
 
Key words: Plant extracts, Mortality, Repellency effect, Callosobruchus maculatus..
 
 
 
Noor Naeem Jasim, Rasha M. A. Al-humairi, Teeba Hashim Mohammad* and Ruwaida A. Hussein
1 Department of Biology, College of Science (for Women), University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
2 Department of Biology, College of Science (for Women), University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
3 Department of Biology, College of Science (for Women), University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
4 Department of Biology, College of Science (for Women), University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Penicillium chrysogenum have been used for production of metal nanoparticles. It was experimentally showed that in biomass, silver nitrate ions are reduced to silver nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles are synthesized from 1 mM silver nitrate. The external morphology of ground AgNPs was established by SEM analysis, UV-visible spectrophotometry, and the  size of AgNO3 particles was observed to be 23 nm with particles being spherical in shape by AFM. In In vitro investigations the antifungal susceptibility of Candida al was calculated, and the results showed that the inhibitory effect of AgNPs synthesized with P. chrysogenum is increased with increasing the concentration of nanoparticles, and the effective fungicidal concentration (EC50) was 1 ppm, and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) was 100 ppm. Furthermore, the pathogenicity of C. albicans on kidneys in mice during infections was tested and thus indicated that the ability of kidneys was significantly enhanced when animals are treated with the combination of  AgNPs and  P. chrysogenum,. In this study, data from examination provide  a valuable preliminary statistics for using biosynthesized silver nanoparticle  in the management of various microorganisms.
 
Keywords: Candida albicans, AgNPs Synthesis, Penicillium chrysogenum
 
 
68. Synthesis, optimization, and characterization of acetamiprid polymeric nanocapsules
 
Mohanad Isawi and Tatiana Dolzhenko,
1 St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, Peterburgskoe sh. 2, St. Petersburg, 196601 Russia
2 St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, Peterburgskoe sh. 2, St. Petersburg, 196601 Russia
*  Correspondence: [email protected] , [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Nanotechnology in agriculture has opened up new avenues for the development of nano-agrochemicals with the potential to improve efficacy, stability, effect duration, and environmental impact. One of the challenges facing the agricultural industry is addressing issues such as chemical pesticide pollution, bio-accumulation, and pesticide resistance, which necessitates reducing the amount of pesticides sprayed on crops and finding ways to improve the specifications of these chemical pesticides. Nanotechnology has proven to be an appealing tool for accomplishing this goal since it gives novel methods for synthesizing and transporting the active ingredients, known as nanopesticides. Nanocapsules of insecticides are a suitable alternative for this tar-get. The focus of ongoing research was on the preparation of a nanocapsules insecticide coated with a polymer that has slow releasing properties with enhanced solubility, permeability, and stability, these properties are mainly achieved through either protecting the encapsulated active ingredients by polymer from premature deg-radation and increasing their efficacy for a longer period. The preparation of the nanocapsule of the acetamiprid was performed by in polymerization technique using polymers polyethylene glycol and chitosan. Acetamiprid nanocapsules were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scan-ning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results (FE-SEM) and (DLS) measurements showed that acetamiprid nanocapsules particles in different shapes and sizes depending on the method of preparation. On this basis, the insecticide acetamiprid was incorporated into an improved encapsu-lated polymer system to demonstrate potential applications in pest control.
 
Keywords: acetamiprid nanocapsule, nanocapsules characterization, polymers.
 
 
 
Noora Maher Kudiar1,*, and Ayser Najah Mohammed2
1 Department of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Iraq
2 Department of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Several diseases of the mouth are common health issues, including dental caries and periodontal disease. In the absence of prevention, these conditions result in periodontal pockets. It has been proven that periodontal diseases are associated with supra-gingival plaque bacteria, including Streptococcus sanguinis. To avoid antibiotic side effects and bacteria becoming increasingly resistant, an alternative to antibacterial agents must be developed to ensure no side effects or increased resistance. As a consequence, natural herbs and Ayurveda drugs have become increasingly important. The goal of this research is to investigate the anti-bacterial activity of Eucalyptus Globules essential oil against Streptococcus sanguinis bacteria. An evaluation of the antimicrobial effects of different concentrations of Eucalyptus Globules oil on Streptococcus sanguinis bacteria was conducted using well-plate approach was also utilized to compare the effects of Eucalyptus Glob-ules oil on bacterial growth in comparison to 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash. It was found that Eucalyptus Globules essential oil was highly antibacterial against Streptococcus sanguinis as the concentration of extract increased, with a highly significant difference (P ≤ 0.01) between all concentrations and chlorhexidine. Thus  this antibacterial activity of Eucalyptus Globules essential oil against Streptococcus sanguinis suggests that it could be used as a natural antibacterial component in the treatment of oral infections.
Key words:  Essential oil, Eucalyptus Globules, Dental plaque, Antibacterial activity.
 
 
 
Nafea. A. Jubair1 and Ahmed F. Z. Al-Dulaimy2
1 General Association of Direction and Agricultural Cooperation, Iraq.
2 Department of Horticulture and Landscape Gardening, College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: The study was conducted in one of the private palm orchards in the district of Hit - Euphrates district on date palm trees (CV. Khastawi), aged 30 years, to find out the response of the date palm cultivar Khastawi to spraying with micro-elements at concentrations (0, 1 g L-1) and symbolized by (M0 and M1), and spraying with gibberellic acid at concentrations (0, 100, 200 mg L-1) and symbolized by (G0, G1, and  G2) respectively, and spraying with salicylic acid in concentrations (0, 100, 200 mg L-1) and symbols symbolized by (S0, S1, S2) respectively. 54 trees were selected as homogeneous as possible, and the number of fronds for palms and fruit cluster was unified. All service operations of the orchard were carried out in the same way as adding animal manure, pruning, pollination, watering, pest control and other service operations in a similar manner for all experimental units. The results showed that spraying with microelements at concentration (M1) showed a significant effect on all studied traits except for the non-reducing sugars content of the fruits and it amounted to (10.76 g, 15.63 kg cluster-1, 125.03 kg palm-1, 69.37%, 33.78%, 53.61%) this is for the traits (fruit weight, cluster weight, yield, total soluble solids, reducing sugars, total sugars), respectively. Also, spraying with gibberellin showed a significant effect on the traits (fruit weight, cluster weight, yield, total soluble solids), and the treatment (G2) gave the highest values for the traits (fruit weight, cluster weight, yield), with 10.53 g, 15.46 kg cluster-1, 123.71 kg palm-1, respectively. Whereas, treatment (G0) achieved the highest value of total soluble solids (67.50%). On the other hand, salicylic spraying did not have a significant effect on the studied traits with the exception of total soluble solids, and reducing sugars. The concentration (S2) showed the best values for the two traits with 67.59%, 34.36%, respectively. The two-way interactions between the study factors showed a significant effect that varied according to the type of trait and the interaction factors. Whereas for the three-way interaction between the study factors reached the level of significance in all the studied traits. The greatest effect of the interactions was achieved according to the type of trait and the interacting factors, while the control treatment showed the lowest values of the most of the traits.
Key words: Date palm, Micro-elements, Gibberellic acid, Salicylic acid, Yield.
 
 
 
Hussein Ali shaghati1, Emad Hamdi Jassim2, Labib A. Kadhim AL-Zubaidi
1 Genetic engineering and biotechnology institute, University of Baghdad. Iraq ; [email protected]
.ORCID 0000-0002-3542-2268
2 Genetic engineering and biotechnology institute, University of Baghdad. Iraq [email protected]
3 Environment & Water Directorate/ Ministry of Science& Technology, Baghdad. Iraq.
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: The increasing resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae to antibiotics has led to difficulties in treating infections due to its virulence factors. As one of its major pathogenic factors, this opportunistic pathogen may develop a thick biofilm coating, allowing the bacteria to attach to living or nonliving surfaces and promote drug resistance. It was necessary to search for therapeutic alternatives from a plant source that was safe and effective in treating this multi-drug resistance bacteria. In this concept, Syzygium aromaticum extract (SAE) are used to combat K. pneumonia. The extract was confirmed by GC-MS and loaded onto chitosan nanoparticles (SACSNPs). The SACSNPs were prepared by the ionic gelation method with tripolyphosphate (TPP). and then characterized using UV-vis, FTIR, AFM, SEM, and XRD techniques. The K. pneumonia isolates were obtained and identified using the VITEK-2 system and the MIC of SAE and SACSNPs were confirmed using a 96-well resazurin aided microdilution method, which was 6.25 μg/ml for SACSNPs and 75.5 μg/ml for SAE. The inhibitory activity using sub-MIC of analytical substances was determined by measuring the optical density using a microplate reader with a 96-well plate and 0.1% crystal violet dye. The results show the S. aromaticum extract loaded with chitosan nanoparticles has higher inhibitory activity against the biofilm formation of K. pneumonia than S. aromaticum extract.
Keywords: Chitosan nanoparticles, S. aromaticum, K. pneumonia, Biofilm, GC-MS, resazurin, XRD.
 
 
Sammar Jassim Mahan 1,*, Mohammed Mahmood Mahammad 2 and Hassan Mutrtadha Hassan
1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Mustansiriyah University, Iraq 1; [email protected]
2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Mustansiriyah University, Iraq 2; [email protected]
3Department of Internal Medicine, Al-Hussien Medicial City, Iraq 3; [email protected]
*Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: (009647735457801)"
 
Abstract: The present study was aimed to assessment the health-related quality of life of a group of Iraqi diabetics in the city of Karbala, and to investigation the sociodemographic and disease-related factors that influence it. The present study included 200 Iraqi patients with type 2 diabetes who visited the Endocrinology Center/Al-Huja Hospital in Karbala between November 2020 and December 2021. A control group of 120 healthy people was also included. The Arabic version of the Short Form 8 was used to assess the medical quality of life. The measure used a 5-point Likert scale with responses ranging from 1 to 5. Each domain is scaled in the opposite way, so a greater score reflects a worse quality of life rating. In general, diabetes impacted the HRQoL of diabetic patients in a very significant level, with median scores for all HRQoL domains being significantly higher in patients than in controls (P<0.001). Obesity, education level, monthly incomeand glycemic control are all affected overall.Glycemic controlisthe most powerful variable influencing the total domains of HRQOL. In conclusion, Type 2DM showed the significantly lower health-related quality of life in various domains than healthy control subjects. Glycemic control isthe most powerful variable influencing all domainsof HRQoL.
Keywords: Health-Related Quality of Life; type 2 DM; Short Form
 
 
 
Hussein Ali Mutlag1 and Intesar N. Khelkal2
"1 Biology department, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Iraq, [email protected]
2 Biology department, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected], "
 
ABSTRACT: Due to the importance of rpoB gene that proposed as an alternative biomarker for microbial community studies, thus this study has been came to focus on phylogenetic relationships among local Proteus clinical isolates. Fifty bacterial isolates were collected and identified phenotypically according to the culture, microscopic examination and biochemical tests. VITEK 2 compact system was used to confirm identification. Genotypic identification has been performed after DNA extraction for 10 selected isolates and amplification with rpoB gene specific primer and gel electrophoresis ,the products were detected with ( 1090 bp ) molecular size band which sent for Sanger sequencing using ABI3730XL automated DNA sequencer and data were analyzed and compared  with standard sequences in GenBank .The isolates have been registered in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) with accession numbers  and named as (HIMUS1 ,HIMUS2, HIMUS3, HIMUS4, HIUS5, HIMUS6, HIMUS7,HIMUS8, HIMUS9 and HIMUS10 ). Phylogenetic tree was constructed for those ten strains using partial (895 bp) rpoB gene sequences. Evolutionary distances were calculated using the method of Maximum Composite Likelihood with 1000 bootstrap replicates using GENEIOUS software. The sequences presented a similarity percentages ranged between (98.76 - 100%) when compared with the sequences of standard strains in NCBI.  
Keywords: rpoB gene, Proteus spp. Sequencing, Phylogenetic analysis.
 
 
Hussein Ali Mutlag1 and Intesar N. Khelkal2
1 Biology department, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Iraq, [email protected]
2 Biology department, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Iraq
* Correspondence: [email protected],"
 
ABSTRACT: Some bacterial genera and species couldn’t be identified by16S rRNA sequencing so rpoB gene has been suggested to be the alternative because the sequence of rpoB gene is more distinguished than the 16S rRNA gene to discriminate various species of bacteria. Thus this study has been designed to show the usefulness rpoB gene in accurate identification of Proteus clinical isolates. Fifty bacterial isolates were collected and identified phenotypically according to the culture, microscopic examination and biochemical tests. VITEK 2 compact system was used to confirm identification. Genotypic identification has been performed after DNA extraction for 10 selected isolates and amplification with rpoB gene specific primer and gel electrophoresis, the products were detected with (1090 bp) molecular size band which sent for Sanger sequencing using ABI3730XL automated DNA sequencer and data were analyzed and compared with standard sequences in GenBank. It has been concluded that identification and discrimination of Proteus species by rpoB gene sequence analysis is more correct and accurate.  
Keywords: 16S rRNA, rpoB gene, Proteus spp. identification, sequencing
 
 
 
Shahad Abd Al-Hassan* and Maha Sh Mahmood
1 Department of Periodontics, College of dentistry, University of Baghdad, Iraq
2 Department of Periodontics, College of dentistry, University of Baghdad, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
ABSTRACT: Periodontal disease is typically treated with mechanical debridement of the tooth surface. It may, however, be insufficient to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms on its own. Because of the microbial etiology of periodontitis, systemic or local antibiotic therapy is used as an adjunct treatment. The present study aimed to determine the effects of curcumin gel on Porphyromonas gingivalis. Eleven patients with stage II and III periodontitis were registered in the study. A double blinded split mouth design followed. Periodontal pockets were distributed into 2 groups; the test group received scaling and root planing along with curcumin gel while the control group received scaling and root planing along with a placebo gel.  Plaque index, probing pocket depth and relative attachment level were recorded with collection of subgingival plaque sample at different time intervals for bacterial analysis using Real Time-Polymerase chain reaction. Results showed a significant reduction in the bacterial outcomes in the test group. There was a significant improvement in the Plaque index, probing pocket depth and relative attachment level in the test group when compared with the control group. On intra group comparison, both groups showed significant reduction of Plaque index and probing pocket depth with greater reduction was in test group and only test group showed significant reduction of relative attachment level. A strong positive correlation of P.gingivalis with probing pocket depth and relative attachment level in the test group was estimated. Curcumin gel has antibacterial effect agianst Porphyromonas gingivalis and showed a potent improving in the outcomes of the periodontal parameters.
Key words:  Curcumin gel, periodontal pocket, Porphyromonas gingivalis
 
 
 
Adnan Shakor Ahmed Al-Perkhdri 1, *, Sami Ibrahim Abdullah2, Ahmed Sami Shaker
1Public health, College of veterinary, University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk, Iraq
2Anatomy and histology, college of veterinary, University of Kirkuk, Iraq
3Animal production department, directorate of agricultural research, Al-Sulaymaniyah, KGR, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Cinnamon oil is a plant extract use as exert antimicrobial actions against important pathogens. 96 samples of goose liver were used and divided for four treatments (control, T1=0.025, T2=0.050, T3=0.075), for three different storage time (1, 15, 20 days). After the storage periods finished samples were analyzed, chemical traits (carbohydrate, protein, ash, and moisture), physical traits (pH, Water holding capacity, loss during cooking, and loss during throwing). Also a microbial trait was measured (cold bacteria, and total bacteria). Significant differences were found just in (pH, loss during throwing, cold bacteria, and total bacteria (0.000, 0.046, 0.000, and 0.000) respectively in the three different storage periods. It could be concluded that there were statistically significant differences between the different levels of cinnamon oil and the storage periods, which, was effected on the microbial number. Further studies are needed to test another meat parts of the geese with different levels of cinnamon.
Key words: Liver, meat , storage, chemical, physical, microbiological
 
 
 
Mohammed Abed Alwan 1 and Mohammed Jasim Mohammed Shallal
"1 Department of Microbiology, College of  Medicine, University of ThiQar, Iraq.
2 Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of ThiQar, Iraq, [email protected]
*  Correspondence: [email protected]. "
 
Abstract: The new virus first appeared in the Chinese city of Wuhan in 2019, and spread around the world like the outbreak of the Corona virus (Covid-19), causing severe acute respiratory syndrome in humans, which can be fatal to individuals at risk.The main purposes of this study are to assess the diagnostic power of the following biochemical (D dimer, CRP, LDH and serum ferritin) markers in identifying the diagnosis and severity of COVID-19 and to find out the differences in these hematological and biochemical markers among COVID 19 patients and recovered. The study was included (50) patient diagnosed with Covid-19 (25 males and 25 females), who visited Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital in ThiQar province, (50) Patients recovering from COVID -19 infection, (50) People who have received COVID-19 vaccines and (50: 25 people were vaccinated with Sinopharm and 25 people were vaccinated with Pfizer) apparently healthy subjects as control group. The study population age ranged from (20-70 years) old. All patients COVID-19 in this study were diagnosed by specialist physicians and the diagnosis confirmed by clinical and laboratory testes especially polymerase chain reaction PCR. The results of the current study have shown that there is a significant difference(P- Value < 0.05) between the study groups according to the age group in each of the levels (D dimer, LDH, serum ferritin).The current study also revealed that there is a significant difference between the study groups according to gender in each of (D. dimer , LDH) and there is no significant difference in each of (C.R.P, serum ferritin).A significant difference is expected where the difference between the two averages is between the patients' COVID-19 group and the control group, or the recovered group, or the vaccinated group( L.S.D of D. dimer >95.10, L.S.D of C.R.P >11.86, S. ferritin >120.61, L.S.D of LDH >75.45) and no significant between control and recovered.It could conclude, An increase in the levels of the following vital signs for patients with COVID-19: D dimer, CRP, LDH, and serum ferritin. In the recovered groups, the levels were normal.
Keywords: biochemical markers, COVID19, recovered and vaccinated group of people
 
 
 
Reyadh Jassem1, Dr. Fadya Al-Hamadani 2, Dr Haydar Fakhri Al-Tukmag 3 and Dr. saad John hamza al_mensory
1 Student in Clinical Pharmacy Department                                                                                                         
2 Clinical Pharmacy Department at College of Pharmacy University of Baghdad , [email protected]
3 Baghdad College of Medical Sciences, [email protected]
4 Nephrologist Babylon Health Directorate Ministry of Health-Iraq dr.saadjohn95@gami
*  Correspondence: [email protected]. "
 
Abstract: Background: Uncontrolled hyperphosphatemia is the main difficulty facing staff treating patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis. Sevelamer and calcium-containing phosphate binder have been associated with cost burden and tissue calcification, respectively. Therefore, the current trial was targeted to investigate the efficacy of a new phosphate binder, ferric citrate, in a sample of Iraqi patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis
Key words: Ferric citrate Hemodialysis Phosphate binder
 
 
 
Hussein Ahmed Mohammed1* and Kareem Ubaid Hasan2
"1Department of Soil Sciences and Water Resources, Iraq
2Department of Soil Sciences and Water Resources, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad.
* Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
ABSTRACT: The study was conducted in the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad on soil with a mixture of loam during the winter season of the year (2020-2021). The study included a field experiment to evaluate the effect of the prepared nitrogenous bacterial bio fertilizer and yeast extract at a concentration of 5 g.L-1 and mineral fertilization on the nitrogen budget in the soil and in the growth parameters of wheat plants and the interaction under the 50% level of the fertilizer recommendation with the use of a recommendation treatment Complete fertilizer 100% For comparison, the amount of water added to each experimental unit was measured after draining 50% of the prepared water using a water meter. A (factorial) experiment was carried out by arranging the split plates (The Split-Plot Design) according to the (RCBD) design. The results of the experiment showed the moral superiority of the intercropping coefficients in Dry weight, the yield of grain weight, and nitrogen concentration in the soil and plants for biological fertilization treatment, where bacterial fertilization and yeast recorded the highest values ​​compared with the mineral fertilization 50 and 100% If it gives an average of (6.667 and 11.533) (Mg.ha-1) for dry weight and grain yield, respectively, and 39,730 mg.Kg-1 nitrogen concentration in the soil and 1.367 % nitrogen concentration in the plant compared to the dry weight (4.567 and 4.633) (Mg.ha-1), grain yield (10,066 and 8,300) (Mg.ha-1), and the nitrogen concentration in the soil (24,400 and 22,200) mg.Kg-1 and nitrogen concentration in the plant (1.237 and 1.043) respectively for each of 50 and 100%  The mineral fertilization treatments of 100% also recorded the highest value of ammonia volatilization amounted to 19,700, followed by 50% treatment at 17.746, and the lowest amount of volatile ammonia was recorded by the bacterial fertilization treatment at 12.976, then the treatment of 12.976 Bacteria with yeast extract 16.980 and yeast treatment 17.960 (kg N ha-1)for the intercropping treatments. The results also showed an excess nitrogen budget in the intercropping cultivation that exceeded the surplus in the monocropped.
Keywords: Bio fertilization, Yeast extract, Mineral fertilization, Budget nitrogen intercropping
 
 
 
Rihab Abdul Hussein Ali and Ban Sahib Diab
1Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad.
2 Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Iraq
* Correspondence: [email protected] "
 
Abstract: Background: Wearing dental implant may affect the gustatory function , which are important elements of health in older adults that can affect the cognition status. The aim of this study was to assess the sweet and salt taste threshold detection among dental implant patients in relation to cognition status and salivary Acetylcholinesterase in comparison with partially edentulous and fully dentate patients matching in age and gender. Materials and methods: The study comprised 90 dental implant patients between the ages of 50 and 60 compared with 90 partially edentulous and 90 fully dentate individuals who were age and gender matched. The participants' cognition status was tested using the Self-Administered Gero-cognitive Examination (SAGE) test, which classified them into two groups, poor and good. A two-alternative forced choice question was used to establish taste threshold sensitivity, with concentrations presented in ascending order. One chemical was investigated for each taste quality (salt and sweet), and each component was delivered at five different concentrations. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent test (ELISA) kit was used to measure salivary acetylcholinesterase. Spss 22 Chicago Illionis USA was used to examine the data. Results: There was a significant association between sweet and salt taste threshold and the patients groups as the higher patient occurrence concerning the lowest taste threshold was found for dentate patient while the higher patient occurrence for the highest taste threshold  was found for  partially edentulous patient. Data analysis showed a significant association between cognitive status and sweet and salt taste threshold for the implant patient group as the percentage of patient with lowest taste threshold was higher for good cognitive status, the same result found concerning partially edentulous and fully dentate patient however the association were not significant. The results revealed that the mean value of salivary Acetylcholinestrase (AChE) was higher among the fully dentate group followed by implant and then the partially edentulous groups with statically not significant differences for both poor and good cognitive status group on the other hand when comparing between the poor and good cognitive status groups, results revealed that the mean value of salivary Acetylcholinestrase was higher among the good than the poor groups with statically significant differences among all sample groups. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this investigation, it was confirmed that taste threshold detection is connected with missing teeth and cognition status. The findings show a complicated interplay of several factors that affect gustatory acuity, including oral health and cognition status.
Keywords: Threshold, Dental Implant Patients, Salivary Acetylcholinesterase
 
 
 
Shaimaa Hameed Hassan1*, Thaer R. Mhalhal2 and Majdy Faisal Majeed3
"1Department of Anatomy and Histology, post graduate student \ College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Basarh, Iraq
2Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Basarh, Iraq
3Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Basarh, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Objective: a comparative study of the histomorphological structure of the wall of the small intestine of canary  (Serinus canaria) and white-eared bulbul    (Pycnonotus leucotis). Methodology: Selected Five birds healthy from the canary and white-eared bulbul, all birds were euthanized, dissected, and histological staining procedures were used on the specimens. Result: . Bulbul's intestine length to body length and intestinal weight to body weight ratios were higher than a canary's.. The small intestine is divided into three sections, according to morphological studies (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The duodenum was same in both birds the jejunum of bulbul that is structured into short and wide segments that run caudally and in canary was it forms a cone-shaped mass with outer centripetal and inner centrifugal turns and the ileum is short in both birds  . Histologically, the small intestine was lined by simple columnar cells and goblet cells, while the muscular mucosa of the duodenum is made up of two thick layers of smooth muscle that are divided into inner circular and outer longitudinal bundles, the submucosa was a loose connective tissue layer that was thick, tunica serosa appeared as a thin layer of loose connective tissue on the areolar surface. The mucous membrane in the jejunum was thrown into enormous numbers of villi, which were grouped in finger-like projections with only a few bundles of circular muscle fibers. Similar to the jejunum, simple columnar cells and goblet cells were seen in the ileum.  Although there were important distinctions in certain histomorphometric parameters of each tunica, the structure of these tunics was fundamentally the same. Bulbul goblet cells were more prevalent in all sections of the small intestine than canary goblet cells, and the number of these cells grew steadily as the birds' intestines approached the end.
Key words: canary , white eared bulbul ,small intestine ,morphology  ,  histology.
 
 
 
Shahad Tariq Hamad and Kais Kassim Ghaima
1 Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for Postgraduate Studies, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
2 Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for Postgraduate Studies, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
* Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
ABSTRACT: Background: The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae that causes infection associated with multidrug-resistant strains, is a major clinical and public health concern. Objectives: The aims of this study were the evaluation of the expression level of bla-IMP and bla-VIM genes in the presence and absence of meropenem antibiotic Methods: Eighty K. pneumoniae isolates were obtained from 250 urine samples collected from patients in Baghdad Hospitals, Iraq from November 2020 to March 2021. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured for the isolates by microdilution method. The presence of bla-IMP and bla-VIM resistance genes was detected by Real time PCR. The bla-IMP and bla-VIM genes expression level were measured by real-time PCR in the presence and absence of meropenem antibiotic. Results: The results of this study showed that the higher expression level of bla-IMP and bla-VIM increased in resistant strains in the presence of meropenem, where the range of fold for gene expression of bla-VIM was 1.3 to 8.3, while for bla-IMP gene was 1.5 to 8.4. Conclusion: In conclusion, the overuse of meropenem and imipenem antibiotics in the treatment of K. pneumoniae may be lead to increase the resistance of this species to carbapenems and cephalosporins and there was a correlation between the meropenem resistances in K. pneumoniae isolates and the gene expression of the tow genes bla-IMP and bla-VIM
Keywords: Carbapenem Resistance, Klebsiella pneumoniae, bla-IMP, bla-VIM, Gene expression, UTI.
 
 
 
Asmaa Ghafer*, Abdulameer M. Ghareeb, Abdul Hussain M. Al-Faisal
"1 Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for Postgraduate Studies, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
2 Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for Postgraduate Studies, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
3 Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for Postgraduate Studies, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: The current study Included 90 samples were collected and divided into (45) Urinary tract infection of E coli patients and (45) controls with different ages of both genders. Patients samples were collected from UTI patients who admitted to AL-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, AL-Karama Teaching Hospital and Al kidney Teaching Hospital during the period from November 2020 to March 2021. The current study involved measuring the level of concentration of Tamm horsfall protein (THP) in patients with Urinary tract infection and healthy groups. The study also included Relationship of Umod rs12917707 genotype and Uromodulin level in patients and control using Nested T-ARMS PCR. Our study had two objectives: First, to address whether urinary uromodulin concentration aassociated with urinary tract infection with E. coli in a community-based study, and, second, to determine whether a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the UMOD region, rs12917707, is associated with urinary uromodulin concentrations. After statistical analysis, the results showed that there could be association between having mutant homozygous GG polymorphism in UMOD gene and having UTI of E coli. While the mutant homozygous TT represent as a risk factor comparing to other genotypes (ORs: 0.4, 95% CI (0.17 - 0.93 and ORs: 4.4, 95% CI (1.47-13.26) respectively. The results also showed a significant decrease at P≤0.01 in patients group with Urinary tract infection (1.38 ± 0.03) Ng / ml compared with control sample, which was (1.83 ± 0.04) Ng / ml. Conclusion: Nested T-ARMS PCR is a good screening method to detect genetic variations in a uromodulin promoter region.
Keywords: urinary tract infection, UPEC, UMOD-promoter region, SNPs, Nested T-ARMS PCR
 
 
 
Dunia B. Shabeeb and Eman N. Naji
"1 Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
2 Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
*  Correspondence: [email protected] "
 
Abstract: Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the role of dental caries-causing bacteria in increasing acute or chronic tonsillitis among Iraqi children. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 patients were part of the study and was divided into 6 groups, each group had 20 patients with age range was 6–12 years. Swab samples were obtained from dental plaque and tonsils to identify the bacterial flora. Identification methods included metabolic capability, microscopic reading, and biochemical reaction. Results: The results showed that, Streptococcus pneumonia was the most common Gram positive bacterial species isolated from three different groups and control in rate (32.9 %), also the Moraxella catarrhalis, Granulicatella elagans and Streptococcus parasanguinis  were appeared in both tonsillitis and dental caries. Conclusion: - Interested association between dental caries and tonsillitis in children aged ranged 6-12 years old was appeared and that the Most Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial isolates were multi drug resistant to anti-microbial agents.
Keywords: parallel infection, dental caries, tonsillitis, Iraqi children
 
 
 
Dunia B. Shabeeb and Eman N. Naji
1 Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
2 Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Aims and Objectives: Study the correlation between Anti streptolysin O Titer (ASOT) and C Reactive Protein (CRP)with other related factor and the correlation between bacterial species and related with some tested parameter. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 patients were part of the study and was divided into 6 groups, each group had 20 patients with age range was 6–12 years. Blood Sample Collection about 10 ml was withdrawn from each patient via vein puncture using 10 ml disposable syringes, 5 ml for immunological study and 5 ml for hematological study. Results: The results of ASOT titer showed that a highly significant positive correlation with Monocytes and  a highly negative correlation with eosinophil. As for CRP it was found it  have a highly significant positive correlation with eosinophil ,lymphocytes  and have  a highly negative correlation with neutrophil percentage  and monocytes percentage.  with a positive correlation with ESR. Conclusion: Our study shown that ASOT are still useful diagnostic tools for tonsillitis. CRP levels in the tonsillitis patients group were significantly higher than those in other groups, whereas ESR levels in the tonsillectomy patients group were significantly higher than those in other groups.
Keywords: blood components, inflammatory factors, bacterial spp, tonsillitis, dental caries
 
 
 
Mokhtar Jassim Nassir and Kamil Kadhim Fahad
1 College of Agriculture and Marshlands, University of Thi-qar, Iraq
2 College of Agriculture and Marshlands, University of Thi-qar, Iraq, [email protected]
*  Correspondence:  [email protected].  "
 
Abstract: The current study examined the concentrations of three heavy metals (cadmium, copper, and zinc) in the tissues of common carp fish. (gills-muscles-intestines) collected from one of the private farms that raise fish in floating cages in the Euphrates river from 18/10/2021 to 18/3/2022. On a monthly basis, water samples were analyzed, as were fish tissue samples. Using an atomic absorption spectroscopy device, standard procedures were followed to assess the concentration of heavy metals in water and tissues. The results showed that during the winter season, the highest concentration of zinc, cadmium, and copper was detected in the water, reaching (125.5-31.95-1.37) MKgm/L. While the highest concentrations of cadmium in tissues were found in the autumn season for gills and muscles (1.58-0.81) mkgm/L dry weight, and the highest concentration in tissues (0.80) mkgm/L dry weight in the winter. The highest concentrations of copper were found in the gills and muscles, followed by the intestines. where concentrations are at their highest in the autumn season (11-9.89, 12.31) mkgm/gm dry weight. As for zinc, it was found in high concentrations in the gills, intestines, and muscles, with the highest concentrations recorded in the autumn season (81.6-85-93 – 112) mkgm/gm dry weight. The results revealed that heavy metal accumulation occurred in the following pattern: Concentrations in water: cadmium <copper<zinc  while in tissues the arrangement was as the following : Cadmium – gills – muscles – intestines – copper. gills – muscles – intestines
Keywords: Heavy metals, Cadmium, Copper, Zinc, common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.
 
 
 
Sarah Mosleh Yaseen Al–jburi and Munam F. Alshammari
"1 College of Diyala Agriculture, University of Diyala, Iraq
2 College of Diyala Agriculture, University of Diyala, Iraq, [email protected]
* Correspondence: [email protected] . "
 
ABSTRACT: The experiment was carried out in Diyala Governorate, Khalis District for the agricultural season 2021–2022 to study the effect of spraying with zinc, calcium, and sorbitol alcohol on qualitative yield traits of the potato, cultivar of Arezona. The treatments of spraying zinc, calcium, and sorbitol individually on potato plants led to a significant increase in all studied traits such as the percentage of protein, dry matter, starch, total sugars, and total soluble solids (TSS%).The treatments of sorbitol (10 g. L-1) + Zn (200 mg. L-1) + Ca (1 g. L-1) gave the highest percentage of protein in the tubers, reaching 11.56% compared to the control treatment of 8.106%,the treatments of sorbitol (10 g. L-1) + Zn (0 mg. L-1) + Ca (0.5 g. L-1) gave the highest percentage of dry matter in the tubers, reaching 18.69% compared to the control treatment of 11.88%, the treatments of sorbitol (10 g. L-1) + Zn (0 mg. L-1) + Ca (0.5 g. L-1) gave the highest percentage of starch in the tubers, reaching 12.66% compared to the control treatment of 6.61%, the treatments of the sorbitol (10 g. L-1) + Zn (100 mg. L-1) + Ca (0 g. L-1) gave the highest percentage of total soluble solids, reaching 6.203%, while the control treatment gave the lowest value, reaching 3.4130%,the treatments of sorbitol (10 g. L-1) + Zn (0 mg. L-1) + Ca (1 g. L-1) gave the highest percentage of total sugars, reaching 3.547%, compared to the control treatment of 2.231%.
Keywords. Potato, zinc, calcium, sorbitol alcohol
 
 
 
Raghad Katran Hassan1*, Rasha Adel Abdul-Nabi1, Zahraa Aqil Hassan2
"1 Technical College of Musayyib, Iraq
2 Technical College of Musayyib, Iraq
3 Karbala Agriculture Directorate, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in the Experimental Field of Field Crops Department of College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad during the winter of 2019-2020. To study the effect of foliar fertilization (FULARTAL) on the growth and yield of three wheat cultivars. A factorial experiment was applied by designing complete randomized plots with three replications. The first factor included cultivars (Abu-Ghraib, Fateh, Sham 6) they symbolized by (F1, F2, F3), the second factor included three levels of fertilizer (0, 2, 4) l ha-1, and the following symbols were taken (M0, M1, M2). The results showed there were significant differences between the levels of factors in the studied traits. There was a significant difference between cultivars, as Abu-Ghraib (F1) outperformed in some features, including plant height, tillers number, and spikes number by giving the highest averages at (107.77 cm, 434.00 spikes. m2 and 383.88 spikes. m2). While Sham 6 cultivar (F3) showed the highest average in the flag leaf area, spike length, and the number of days from planting until 50% of flowering appeared (37.11 cm2, 9.55 cm and 110.33 days). The concentration of 4 l ha-1(M2) gave the highest average in the trait: plant height, tillers number, flag leaf area, spike length, and spikes number, reaching (109.89 cm, 430.89 tillers. m², 36.11 cm², 9.41 cm and 382.44 spikes m2). The concentration of 2 l ha-1 (M1) gave the least days from planting until 50% of flowering appeared (107.89 days).
Keywords: FULARTAL fertilizer; wheat; growth and yield characteristics; foliar fertilizers.
 
 
 
Sarah Jassim Abd* & Satar Abood Fari
1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq
2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected] "
 
Abstract: In the current study, birds (Columbae livia ) were used as a new model to study the effect of streptozotocin on the pancreas gland and the level of glucose in the blood. Three concentrations of 75,65,55 mg/kg were adopted for five consecutive days with one IP dose per day. The experimental animals showed a gradual rise in blood glucose Where the average glucose in the first week of the experiment was normal for the three groups compared with the control group, while there was a significant change in the blood glucose level in the three groups at the end of the experiment (4th week), where the average glucose in the streptozotocin groups was 55 mg/kg (213.80 ± 12.43) mg/dl and the group 65 mg/kg(282.60 ± 16.78) mg/dl and a group of 75 mg/kg( 371.0 ± 38.39) mg/dl. The histological study revealed changes in the morphology and diameter of the pancreatic islets in addition to changes and decrease in the number of beta cells for the groups treated with streptozotocin. The streptozotocin group at a concentration of 75 mg/kg was the most affected compared to the other groups, It was also observed that the alpha and delta cells and the exocrine part of the three groups treated with streptozotocin were not damaged            
Keywords: Streptozocin, langerhans islands, pancreas
 
 
 
Mustafa S. Ghaji1*, Yasmeen J. Mohammed2, Thaer R. Mhalhal11*, Yasmeen J. Mohammed2, Thaer R. Mhalhal1
1Department of Anatomy and Histology, Veterinary Medicine College, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.
2Department of Pathology and Poultry disease, Veterinary Medicine College, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.
3Department of Anatomy and Histology, Veterinary Medicine College, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.
4Department of Pathology and Poultry disease, Veterinary Medicine College, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.
5Department of Anatomy and Histology, Veterinary Medicine College, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.
*  Correspondence: *[email protected]  Tel: 009647734952025"
 
Abstract: Background: Immunity in some animal such as goat stands unique properties, by which they withstand unpleasant environments. Spleen influence animals immunity through its hematopoietic and immunological roles. Because of that, we emphasized the normal morphological and histological properties of the Goat, Sheep, Cow and Buffalo spleen. Material and Methods: We collected three spleens for every species randomly from apparently healthy slaughtered Goat, Sheep, Cow and Buffalo all the animals were adult age, and weighed about 71, 80, 400 and 500 grams respectively. Histological cutting was followed according to the paraffin method, then the samples will be ready for microscopically exam. Result: The structure results revealed that the spleen of animals experimental is supported externally by thick fibromuscular connective tissue capsule which vascularizes by subcapsular sinus. Stromal trabeculae emerge from the capsule, entering splenic parenchyma. The parenchyma of animals spleen differentiates into white pulp, which organizes into the periarterial lymphatic sheath along with lymph nodules, red pulp ropes in splenic sinuses among splenic cords, and marginal zone in which macrophage occupies great importance. Conclusion: In this study, it was concluded that the amount of smooth muscle in the spleen septa in goats was more than in the rest of the other experimental animals.
Key words: Histomorphology; Spleen; Goat; Sheep; Cow; Buffalo.
 
 
 
Safa fakhri Kadouri1*, Ghalib Adrees Atiya Ali1 and Abdel Moneim Abbas Karim2
1 Chemistry Department, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Diyala, Iraq
2 Chemistry Department, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Diyala, Iraq
3 University of Diyala, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: The polymers that, have been prepared include the following: Poly(glyceride-ALT-adipate) which symbolizes it have been prepared in two steps: The first step: Prepare the monomer from the reaction of glycerin with sunflower oil (glyceride reaction) in the presence of catalysts (pbO2) at a temperature of 150 and using the Electrical Stirrer for 5 hours. The second step: This step includes the polymerization process (condensation) in order to prepare (Alkyd Resin), where the monomer (Monoglyceride) is prepared by reacting with (Adipic acid) at different temperatures starting from (150 240 ). with a difference of 10 between one reaction and another using an electronic thermometer to control the temperature and with continuous stirring using a magnet bar and in the presence of nitrogen gas (inert atmosphere). The reaction kinetics is also calculated, which includes two processes: The first process: the kinetics of the reaction makes by tracking the amount of decrease in the concentration of acid value, this makes by the polymerization process of polymer. The processes study at an average of 10 minutes between reading and another, at different temperatures from and with a difference of 10 degrees between one reading and another, and in the presence of a pbo2 catalyst, and after that they are graphic representation.
Keywords: sunflower oil, adipic acid, PbO2 Catalyst
 
 
 
Zainab Hussein Alewi1*, Taghreed Fakhir Gaber Zwayen2, Hameedaa Abd Noor Abbood2 and Mansoor A. Aboohanah1
1 Department of Horticulture and Landscaping, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kufa, Iraq
2 Faculty of Education for Girls, University of Kufa, Iraq   
3 Faculty of Education for Girls, University of Kufa, Iraq    
4 Department of Horticulture and Landscaping, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kufa, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: An experimental trial was conducted at Al-Haidariya district, Najaf governorate, Iraq for the spring season 2019-2020.  the experiment included two factors. The first factor included three cultivars of   tomato plant Solanum lycopersicum (Jawahiri, Al-Ibrahimi and Al-Asili), as for the second factor, it included spraying three concentrations of Ceratophyllum demersum (hornwort) extract, which are (0,5,10) ml -l, on vegetative growth. randomized complete block design (R. C. B. D.) was used as a factorial experiment in a split-plot design with three replicates for each treatment. duncan’s multiple range test was adopted to compare mean with a probability of 0.05% level of significance. The results appear of the variety on the vegetative growth indicators, as the Al-Asili variety outperformed in increasing the plant height, the number of plant leaves, the number of main branches, leaf area, dry weight, chlorophyll percentage, and the amount of yield, which amounted to 54.43cm, 97.63 leaf. plant-1 and 6.66 branches. plant-1, and it reached 73.86 cm2. and 125 % for dry weight percentage, while the total chlorophyll content was 1.23 mg.gm-1 and 10.1Km, compared to Al-Jawhari cultivar, which had the least effect plant height on   reaching 37.43cm , 68.76 leaf. plant-1 and the number of papers was 62.06 cm2. leaf -1, while the dry weight decreased and the chlorophyll the variety Al-Ibrahimi 83.33 g and 1.04 mg.gm-1. Spraying at a concentration of 10 ml.l-1 lead to in increasing the vegetative growth characteristics significantly, as the plant height reached 54.46 cm and the number of leaves was 100.76 leaf. plant - 1 and the number of branches is 6.3 branches. Plant-1 leaf area and amounted to 73.53 cm2 and the dry weight of the shoot total 133.33% and the percentage of total chlorophyll was 1.22 mg.gm-1
Key words: Ceratophyllum demersum , hornwort , , Solanum lycopersicum , vegetative parameters
 
 
 
Sara I. okab1 , Ziyad A. Abed2
"1 College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad-field of crop science
2 College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad-field of crop science
*Correspondence: mailto:[email protected] "
 
Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in the fields of the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad during the fall season of 2021, in order to find out which of the cultivated cultivars of maize are efficient under nitrogen fertilization. The experiment was applied according to a RCBD (split plot design with three replications). The cultivars of experiment (Baghdad, 5018, Sarah) and supplying three levels of nitrogen fertilizer, which are N1 (100 kg.N/ha), N2 (200 kg.N/ha) and N3 (300 kg.N/ha). The results of the statistical analysis are showed the superiority of the Sarah genotype, which gave the highest value of SOD and CAT enzymes, which reached 11.59 units mg-1 and 10.76 units mg-1. Protein sequentially, while  cultivar5018 outperformed as it gave the highest value of POD enzyme which was 5.43 units mg-1.protein, and there were no significant differences between genotypes in NR enzyme. The increase in nitrogen fertilizer caused an increasing in the values of oxidation and reduction enzymes, as the nitrogen level N3 gave the highest value for SOD, POD, CAT and nitrate reduction enzymes NR, reaching 11.59 mg-1 and 6.94 mg-1 units. protein and 16.40 mg-1 units. Protein and 6.30 mg-1 units. Protein sequentially. The results of the molecular analysis using Real Time PCR technique showed the expression of the ZmNR1 gene, The analysis showed that the cultivated genotypes contained the gene in varying proportions, as the expression of the gene increased in the compositions to which the nitrogen fertilizer was added, and the value ranged from (0.16) to (49.46) times (a copy of the gene), where the highest expression of the gene was (49.46) for the Sarah  cultivar when The nitrogen level N2 also gave the same gene expression ZmNR1 (15.01) folds. The cultivars of maize varied among them  in their tolerance to excess or deficiency of nitrogen and in the ability to express the ZmNR1 gene, which is one of the most important nitrogen-carrying genes for maize crop.
Keywords: maize, gene expression , nitrate reductase , anti-oxidants enzymes  
 
 
 
Jawad N. K. Makassees1, Neihaya H. Zaki2, Asmaa, A. Hussein3
1Directorate of Education Governate, Wasit, Iraq
2Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad /Iraq
3Department of Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Biotechnology, Al- Nahrain University, Baghdad /Iraq
Corresponding Authors: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Elastase is a type of protease that specifically degrades elastin. The elastase produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and purified by three steps ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and Sephadex G-150 chromatography. The optimal condition for elastase production was showed high specific activity with starch (3.8 U/mg protein), casein as nitrogen source with a specific activity reached to (3.3 U/mg protein). The maximum elastase production was obtained when the pH value was (7.5) with specific activity (4.4 U/mg protein). Elastase (free and immobilized on TiO2- NPs) used in application as antibacterial and anti-cancer, and results showed high antibacterial activity against pathogenic isolates especially Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were affected by immobilized elastase. Free and immobilized elastase have anti-cancer activity against lung cancer using A549 cell line, and immobilize elastase was potent cytotoxic effect on A549 cells with IC50 142.8 µg/ ml compared with IC50 of normal cell line HdFn on 655.0 µg /ml.
Key Words: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Elastase, Immobilization, TiO2-Nps- Antibacterial, Anticancer.
 
 
95. Use Seeds of Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) Growing Within Mosul City, in Water Purification
 
Fathi A. Al-Mandeel and Taha A. Al-Tayyar
1 Environment Research Center, Mosul University, Iraq
2 Environment Research Center, Mosul University, Iraq
Corresponding Authors: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Hundred gram of large peach seeds were weighted and used as dried clean seeds. Part of dried seeds was grinding and sieved to obtain fine size of granules, with 3 mm as an average. This size of grain is suitable for absorption with ensures that the particles remain completely and did not dissolved or passes with water through contact to treatment. Water samples were collected from water sources for municipal uses in Mosul city, from artesian wells with different characteristics in addition to Tigris river water to analytic the physical, chemical, and heavy metals concentrations. Results shows that Peach seeds were active in improving quality of water. The efficiency of improvement by absorbance the ions. Improvement are increase as the surface area of seeds are increased also. Decrease in the concentrations of ions causing pollution water reaches 35%.
Key words: Water purification, Stone Seeds, Peach, Prunus persica, Drinking-water.
 
 
 
Farah T.O.Al-Jumaili1*, Maysaa Hamid1, Ashwaq S. Abed2
"1 College of Biotechnology, AL-Nahrain University, Iraq
2 College of Biotechnology, AL-Nahrain University, Iraq
3 Biotechnology Research Center, Al-Nahrain University, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected], Orchid: 0000-0003-2840-9521"
 
Abstract: Ammi majus (Kella) plant is frequently used to cure a variety of health issues. This study aimed to investigate the most important phytochemical compounds of Kella seeds and evaluate the effect of its aqueous and alcoholic extracts on CCl4-induced nephrotoxicity in mice using a count of white blood cells (WBC) test and some biochemical markers for renal functions besides the histopathological study of kidney tissue. According to secondary metabolite analysis, the seeds contained tannins, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, and polyphenols at varying levels depending on the solvent utilized. In terms of total flavonoids, the alcoholic extract showed the highest concentration (193.2±25.7 mg/g) compared to the aqueous extract (176.3±19.2 mg/g). The WBC count test in the in vivo study showed an improvement in the immune system by increasing the numbers of WBC of mice treated with plant extracts and reducing the toxic effects of CCl4 compound compared with a negative control group. In the positive control group (treated mice with CCl4), the biochemical analysis and histological study of the kidney sections revealed that CCl4 causes nephrotoxicity through increasing urea and creatinine concentrations in the blood and lowering total protein content, as well as formation of necrotic tissue in the kidney sections. In contrast, these markers decreased in groups of mice treated with plant extracts, particularly alcoholic extract. In conclusion, A. majus plant can improve kidney function during CCl4 doses. Consequently, it could be a promising treatment for nephrotoxicity caused by certain drugs.
Keywords: Ammi majus; kidney markers; nephrotoxicity.
 
 
97. Evaluation the Role of Brassinosteroid in Propagation of Momordica cochinchinensis Spring (GAC) and it is Content of Active Substances in vitro
 
Abeer Abdelazeem Saad Faris 1, Shurook M. K. Saadedin 1 and Maha Ibrahim Salih
1Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Baghdad, Iraq                                                                                
*Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: This study was conducted in order to estimate the effect of growth regulator 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on leaves content of total carotenoids in general and beta-carotene and lycopene in particular by using tissue culture technique of propagating Momordica cochinchinensis Spring. Efficiency of NaClO in reducing percentage of explant pollution appeared as its concentration increased, nodes gave a higher response rate than apical buds in initiation stage due to effect of different concentrations of benzyladenine (BA), for shoots multiplication,  it was found that as concentration of EBR increases, the number of shoots decreases, (EBR 0.0+ GA3 0.1+ BA 1.5) mg/L was significantly superior with an average of 3.10 ± 0.27 in number of shoots, while treatment (EBR 0.05+ GA3 0.1+ BA 1.5) mg/L gave highest rate of shoots length (4.51 ± 0.30 cm). For leaves content of carotenoids, it was found that EBR raises level of it, where (EBR 0.1+ GA3 0.1+ BA 1.5) mg/L gave highest content of total carotenoids (9.5 %), compared to mother plant (8.9 %) using spectrophotometric method, same treatment gave the highest content of beta-carotene and lycopene (23.8, 5.3) ppm respectively compared to mother plant (4.7, 0.7) ppm respectively, using HPLC for both compounds.
Keywords: in vitro micro-propagation; 24-epibrassinolide (EBR); carotenoids;  Momordica cochinchinensis Spring (GAC).
 
 
 
Sinan A. mahdi*1,  Adil H. Abdul Kafoor2
1 College of Agriculture, University Of Anbar, Iraq
2 College of Agriculture, University Of Anbar, Iraq
* Correspondence: mailto:[email protected]"
 
Abstract:A field experiment was conducted at a College of Agriculture research station - University of Anbar during winter season of 2021-2022 to studying there response of seed yield and its components of several genotypes of Vicia faba L. to spraying of zinc nanoparticle fertilizer. The experiment was carried out by Split Plots arrangement according to the Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) at three replications. The main plots included four concentrations of zinc nanoparticle fertilizer (0, 60, 12 and 180mg L-1), whereas the sub-plots included four genotypes of faba bean(Local, American, Dutch and Italian).The results showed that the Americangenotype wassignificantly superior in the number of pods per plant (21.40 pod plant-1), fertility percentage per pod (88.80%), seed yield (6.57 Mg ha-1) and biological yield (11.01 Mg ha-1), whereas the Dutch genotype achieved a highest mean of number of seeds per pod (5.64 seed pod-1) and weight of 100 seeds (107.68 g). Also, the spraying of zinc nanoparticle at a 180 mg L-1were significantly superior in thenumber of pods per plant (22.35 pod plant-1), weight of 100 seeds (111.40 g), fertility percentage per pod (90.30%), seed yield (6.23 Mg ha-1) and biological yield (10.78 Mg ha-1), while thespraying of zinc nanoparticle at a 120 mg L-1 gave a highest mean of number of seeds per pod (5.66 seed pod-1).The interaction between two factors had significant effect on the most studied traits; the American genotype with spraying of zinc nanoparticle at a 180 mg L-1 gave a highest values of number of pods per plant (25.23 pod plant-1), fertility percentage in pod (91.14%) and seed yield (7.88 ton ha-1).
Keywords: Viciafaba L., nano-zinc, seed yield, yield components.
 
 
 
Sanaa Khadem Abdul-Amir Ali Al-Fatlawy1*, Abdoun H.Alwan2 and Hassan J. Al-Fatlawy3
1College of Education for Pure Sciences / University of Kerbela
2College of Science / University of Kerbela
3College of Science / University of Kerbela
*Correspondence: e-mail: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: The study was conducted using plastic pots during  the growing season 2020-2021 in a private  field crops at the Holy Karbala Governorate to study the effect of the quality  of water, soil moisture and potassium levels on som growth, parameters of wheat plant var. AL baraka . A factorial experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design (C.R.D) with three replications, which included two types of irrigation water treated heavy water and soft water, three levels of field capacity  i.e.25%, 50% and 100% and  four levels of potassium i.e. 0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg. L-1 The experiment included 72 experimental units. The results were statistically analyzed and the means of treatments were compared using the least significant difference under the probability level of 0.05. The following characteristics were  measurements: plant height, number of leaf area, dry weight of shoot and root systems. Results could be summarized as follow: Water quality had a statistical effect on the traits under study, as the treatment with treated heavy water gave the highest values ​​of plant height, number of tillers, number of leaves, leaf area, root and shoots dry weights, which amounted to 70.21cm, 14.03leaf, 23.42cm2 , 6.24g, 1.76g respectively  compared to soft water, which amounted to 69.17 cm, 3.52tiller, 13.24leaf, 22cm2, 58, 5.94 and 1.68g. Addition of 100% of the field capacity value gave the highest averages of the following :-plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, root and shoots dry weights which amounted to 80.80cm, 15.98leaves, 27.81cm2, 7.69g and 2.15g sequentially. Addition of 3000 mg.L-1 of potassium gave the highest averages for the traits plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, shoot dry weight and root dry weight where their averages were 73.11cm, 14.66 leaves, 25.11cm2, 6.63g and 1.87g respectively. Some bi and tr- interactions between studied factors showed a different effect on the studied characteristics.
Keywords: Wheat  plant, wster quality, field capacity,  potassium concentration
 
 
 
Sanaa Khadem Abdul-Amir Ali Al-Fatlawy1*, Abdoun H.Alwan2 and Hassan J. Al-Fatlawy4
1College of Education for Pure Sciences / University of Kerbela
2College of Science / University of Kerbela
3  College of Science / University of Kerbela
*Correspondence: e-mail: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: The study was conducted using plastic pots during  the growing season 2020-2021 in a private  field crops at the Holy Karbala Governorate to study the effect of the quality  of water, soil moisture and potassium levels on lead and cadmium of wheat plant var. AL baraka . A factorial experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design (C.R.D) with three replications, which included two types of irrigation water treated heavy water and soft water, three levels of field capacity  i.e.25%, 50% and 100% and  four levels of potassium i.e. 0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg. L-1 The experiment included 72 experimental units. The results were statistically analyzed and the means of treatments were compared using the least significant difference under the probability level of 0.05. The following characteristics were  measurements: The element lead and cadmium in the roots, leaves and leaves, obtained,Results was statistically different  in the traits under study, treated water treatment, gave the highest values ​​for the concentration of lead and cadmium in leaves and grains, their averages were 17.38 mg-1 0.691 mg mg-1, 0.207 mg. .061 mg.kg-1 and 0.031 mg.kg-1 and 6.48, respectively. The highest concentration is 6.69 mg. Direct lead to water (treated) 3.983 over its counterpart in plain water 1.035 and with an increase per cent was 298.3%. The heavy water treatment gave a very high value with leaves cadmium concentration of 0.6916 mg. Cadmium 1 mg.kg.compared to the treatment of soft  water, which gave the value 0.0311 mg.kg-1, with an increase of 565.59%.Treatment of 100% of the field capacity value gave the highest values ​​for theconcentration of lead and cadmium concentration in roots, leaves and grains 14.41 mg-1 ,2.716,1.389,0.480,0.383 and 0.181 sequentially. The addition of (3000) potassium gave a decrease in the concentration of lead in the roots, leaves and grains due to potassium application  of 9.73 mg-1 ,2.170,1.056,0.39,0.233 and 0.079 sequentially.
Keywords: lead, cadmium, wheat plant, water quality, water stress, potassium.
 
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