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Noor Sabah Al-Obaidi, Ahmed A. Ahmed, Ahmed N. Abd
1Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Al-Mustansiryah University, Baghdad, Iraq ; [email protected]
2Polymer Research Unit, College of Science, Al-Mustansiryah University, Baghdad, Iraq ; [email protected]
3 Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Diyala University, Iraq ; [email protected]
*  Correspondence: [email protected] "
 
Abstract: The photostabilization of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films having saccharine complexes of Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Fe(III), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes was investigated. The production of PMMA films containing such complexes (0.5% by weight) was carried out by the casting method using THF. The photostabilization activities of the compounds were determined by monitoring the carbonyl, hydroxyl index with irradiation time. Evaluation of stabilizing efficiency of PMMA by ultra-violet spectroscopy to investigate photodecomposition rate constant (kd) for PMMA films in the absence and presence of saccharine complexes.The changes in the viscosity average molecular weight of PMMA with irradiation time were evaluated. The rate of photostabilization for PMMA in the presence of the additives was found to follow the order Ni(sac) > Cu(sac) > Zn(sac) > Cd(sac) > Hg(sac) > Fe(sac). Depending on the structure of the additive, such as a peroxide decomposer, UV absorption or a radical scavenger for the photostabilizer.
Keywords: Photo degradation, UV-stabilizers, PMMA, Saccharine.

 
Jabbar L.K. Al-Darraji, Ilham J. J. Alshami and Mujtaba A.T. Ankush
1 Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah
2 Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah
3 Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah
 
Abstract: The current study was conducted in three stations (Alsibah, Alnajibiya and Almas-hab marsh) during the period from December 2020 to November 2021 in the course of Shatt Al-Arab River. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS) was used to measure the quantities of several heavy metals (lead, cadmium, copper and iron) in water. The results revealed that noticeable seasonally variation of heavy metals in the Shatt Al-Arab water. Lead concentration was 3.246 mg/l in Autumn. Cadmium concentrations reached from 0.001 mg/l to 0.008 mg/l during Spring and Winter, respectively. Whereas, copper ranged between 0.001mg/l- 0. 319 mg/l in Spring and Winter, respectively. The iron ranged 0.703 mg/l - 9.00 mg/l in Winter and Summer, respectively. According to recent study, water of Shatt Al-Arab was contaminated with some heavy metals (lead, copper, and iron ) that reached over the  concentrations of standard  Iraqi criteria, whereas cadmium concentrations still within the standard levels
Keywords: Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Shatt Al-Arab, Heavy metals, Water contamination
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Haneen Adnan Abd and Essam Fadel Al- Jumaili
1 Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute for Post Graduated Studies, University of Baghdad, Iraq
2 Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute for Post Graduated Studies, University of Baghdad, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Introduction: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disorder that develops as different cell groups become resistant to insulin action on peripheral tissues. Eventually, the pancreas is unable to produce sufficient insulin to overcome this resistance resulting in insulin deficiency. The transcription factor 7-like-2 gene (TCF7L2) rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism is one of the most susceptible genes to T2DM discovered to date, with contribution to the disease through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway affecting pancreatic islet development. To investigation analyze the correlation of TCF7L2 gene polymorphisms and its association with type 2 diabetes for Iraqi patients. This study included 80 blood samples equally divided into two groups, patients with T2DM and normal healthy controls. All Genotypes of rs7903146 (C/T) SNP in theTCF7L2 gene were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction via TaqMan allelic discrimination. Analysis of the distribution of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 genotype and allele revealed that the TT genotype was more frequent in T2DM group (32.5%) than in healthy controls (12.5%) (OR = 5.9, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.6–20.6, p = 0.05).The T allele was more frequent in diabetic patients (52.5%) than healthy control (25%) and it was associated with high risk of diabetes (odd ratio = 3.3, 95% CI= 1.6- 6.4), P=0.0005. Conclusion: The T allele of rs7903146 polymorphism of TCF7L2 confers susceptibility to development of T2DM in the Iraqi population
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes mellitus · Transcription factor 7-like-2 ·rs7903146 polymorphism.

4.      Anatomical study of the roots of seven varieties of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.)
 
Emad A. M. Aldahab1*, Yahya N. Kalaf2, Abdulkareem M. Abd3
1Department of Combat Desertification, College of Agriculture, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq.
2Date palm research Center, Basra University,  Iraq
3Department of Horticulture and Landscape,  Basrah University, Iraq.
*  Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract:  This study was conducted at one of the private orchards, to determine the variety through the anatomical characteristics of the roots, three palm trees were selected for each variety, identical, 15-18 years age. The anatomical characteristics of the roots of seven date palm varieties were studied. The studied traits were circumferential circle diameter, phloem bundle length, xylem bundle length, next xylem, epidermis, sub-epidermal, fibrous bundle, cortex, and the diameter of parenchymal cells. Results show that the results that the studied varieties differed in the studied anatomical characteristics. The Khadrawi variety was significantly superior in the characteristic of the surrounding circle diameter compared to the rest of the studied varieties, The Barhi variety was significant in the cortex and phloem bundle length, The Asabee Al-Aroos variety were distinguished in the characteristic of epidermis thickness, and the lowest values were in the variety Halawi. The Halawi variety was distinguished by the thickness of the sub epidermal area, and the lowest values were in the variety Barhi.
Keywords: Anatomical study, roots, seven varieties, date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.)

 
Mubarak Hijaz Hashim* & Hassan Risan Al-Rikabi
1 Biology Department. College of Education for pure science University of Thi-Qar, Thi-Qar, Iraq
2 Biology Department. College of Education for pure science University of Thi-Qar, Thi-Qar, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: This study was carried out at the Biotechnology Research Laboratory, Mazaya University College, for the period from December to June 2022. This study included 150 samples (100 asthmatic patients and 50 healthy controls). By analyzing the results, it was found that the highest incidence of asthma was in patients whose duration of illness ranged between (less than 14) years and reached (69%), and the lowest incidence was in patients whose duration of illness ranged from (≥30) and more, reaching (6%), with a very high significant difference, which reached (0.00). The results of the current study showed the frequency of genotypes and alleles of the IL-17 gene for the two groups of patients and the comparison, as the percentage of genotype frequency (GG) in the comparison group was (46%) and in the group of patients (44%), without a significant difference, where the value of (OR = 1.00) The percentage of genotype frequency (AA) was in the comparison group (16%) and in the group of patients (32%), with a significant difference of (OR=2.09). As for the frequency of the genotype (GA) it was in the comparison group (38%) and in the group of patients (24%) and without significant difference, where the value of (OR = 0.66).  The current study showed vitamin D levels in both males and females (24.63 ± 15.54 / 23.01 ± 17.21), respectively, and without significant differences at the level of probability (0.05) (P.Value=0.794).  IL-17 gene mutations have been recorded in GenBank with accession numbers,LC715929|seq1, LC715930|seq2, LC715931|seq3, LC715932|seq4, LC715933|seq5, LC715934|seq6, LC715935|seq7, LC715936|seq8, LC715937|seq9, LC715938|seq10, LC715939|seq11, LC715940|seq12, LC715941|seq13, LC715942|seq14, LC715943|seq15, LC715944|seq16, LC715945|seq17, LC715946|seq18, LC715947|seq19, LC715948seq20, LC715949|seq21, LC715950|seq22,     LC715951|seq23 ,     LC715952|seq24,
Keyword: IL-17, asthmatic, Thi-Qar population.

 
Fatima Aziz Mahdi Al-badry
"Biology Department, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq
 
Abstract: The current study was designed to prospecting the protective effect of alcoholic extract of Boswellia carterii  in some physiological parameters and histopathological changes caused by amoebic infection experimentally of female rats , thirty two adult female rats were used . It were divided into four groups , the first group received physiological saline as control group , the second group infected experimentally by amoeba (Entamoeba histolytica) which administrated (1 mL/Amoebic suspension /Animal /day) for 10 days , while the third and fourth groups treated with alcoholic extract of plant at (1 mL /animal/day) for one and two months respectively after amoebic infection was ten days .The results indicated a significant decreasing (P≤0.05) in body weight and liver enzymes (ALT,AST,ALP) of amoebic group compared with control group while a significant increasing (P≤0.05) in these parameters were occurred by using of alcoholic extract of plant compared with infected group by Amoeba . Also, the phagocytosis factor and kidney functions (urea and creatinine) were increased significantly (P≤0.05) when amoebic infection compared with control group. in that alcoholic extract caused decline significant (P≤0.05) for natural levels in these parameters compared with amoebic group. In the hand the present results reported that administration by alcoholic extract of Boswellia carterii caused improvement the histopathological damages of kidney and liver which resulted from amoebic infection experimentally by Entamoeba histolytica. These histological changes in kidney comprised fibrosis, inflammation, structural changes in glomeruli as absence, shrinkage and death of glomeruli, enlargement of Bowman's space, congestion and hemorrhage. While in livers that included infiltration of inflammatory cells, enlargement of sinusoids congestion and sever hemorrhage.                                                      
Keywords: Boswellia carterii, Liver Enzymes, Kidney.

 
Adil H. Abdulkafoor1,Ahmed Shehab Abd-allah Ramadan1*, Muayad Malik Ibrahim2, Bushra Sh. J. Alobaidy1, Khaleel I. Kosaj3
"1 University of Anbar - College of Agriculture- Department of Field Crops, Iraq
2 Ministry of Agriculture, Iraq
3 The Iraqi Company for Seed Production, Iraq
*Correspondence: [email protected] .Ahmed Shehab Abd-allah Ramadan. ORCID: 0000-0001-6674-2371
 
Abstract: A field experiment was carried out by using Design (RCBD), in the arrangement of split-plot design with three replications. The plants of the Hade variety outperformed significantly in giving the highest means for traits of plant height, number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, and seed yield. While Rafedain variety plants achieved the highest average weight of 1000 seeds, and Sumer variety plants took the least number of days to reach the 50% flowering stage, The highest mean of the plants planted at a distance of 80 cm between rows was in the traits of plant height and plant yield, while at a distance of 40 cm between the rows achieved the highest means of the traits of the number of branches, the number of capsules, and the weight of 1000 seeds. The highest average for interaction between plants of Hade cultivar at a distance of 80 cm was in the traits of plant height and the seed yield, While the highest mean for a distance of 40 cm for the number of capsules, in comparison to other interactions.
Keywords: sesame, planting distances, growth, varieties, (Sesmum indicum L.)

 
Khadija A. Sahan1*, Ismail H. Aziz2, Sana Nadhir Dawood 3, Shaymaa S. Abdul Razzaq4
"1 Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for Postgraduate Studies, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
2 Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for Postgraduate Studies, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
3 Oncology Teaching Hospital, Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq.
4 Pharmacist, Al Yarmuk Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq.
*Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease defined by molecular types and subtypes. It constitutes the most commonly-diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in women, worldwide, according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) World Cancer Reports in 2020. The study aimed to evaluate the miR-146 and miR-196 expression level and their association with ca15-3 serum level of the participants diagnosed with breast cancer.  A total number of 105 samples; three groups of 35 fresh blood samples and FFPE Tissue samples were collected as malignant, benign and apparently healthy control. CA15-3 concentration was elevated in malignant group with mean equal to (36.14 Unit/ml) in comparison to (27.07 Unit/ml) for benign group and (14.34 Unit/ml) for apparently healthy control group (p<0.01). The results revealed that the expression of miR 146 in Malignant breast tumor tissue was (2.378 ±0.76) times more, while in benign breast tissue, with fold of expression (1.197 ±0.38) in compared with apparently healthy tissue. While the expression of miR 196 in Malignant breast tumor tissue was (8.11 ±2.15) times more, while in benign breast tissue, with fold of expression (2.584 ±0.84) in compared with apparently healthy tissue with highly significant differences.
 
Keyword: Breast Cancer, miR-146, miR-196, ca15-3, FFPE

 
Huda Shakir Farhan1, Suha Haitham Mohammed2; Azza Sajid Jabbar
1Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq
2Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Basrah, Basrah,Iraq.
3Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Basrah, Iraq
*Correspondence : [email protected]
 
Abstract: Hydatid cyst infection is a serious disease that affects humans who come into touch with the infective stage of the tape worm Echinococcus granulosus, which is found all over the world. The current study used patient physical and laboratory examinations, X-ray imaging, ultrasonic inspection, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify hydatid cyst presence in patients from the Iraqi cities of Al-Najaf and Al-Diwaniyah, and to identify hydatid cysts and concomitant liver enzyme dysfunction in patients from the Iraqi cities of Al-Najaf and Al-Diwaniyah using conventional and phylog Both strategies used partial gene sequencing (PGS) to target the E. granulosus antigen subunit B2 (EgB2) gene. The findings revealed an abdominal lump (6-7cm, left costal border), leukocytosis (12103/mm3), eosinophilia (84101/mm3), and an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (35mm/hr), ultrasonic-detected splenic and liver cysts, and increased levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP)= Mean standard error (MSE) (170.12.3 IU/l), Patients with such changes were then given surgical interventions to diagnose and remove cysts, which were identified as hydatid cysts (wheel-like, "rosette-like," or "honeycomb-like" cysts with cystic cavity-based "snowflakes" like protoscoleces, wavy or serpentine-like cystic membranes of punctured or solid-pseudotumor ball-like calcified degenerated cysts, respectively). The existence of hydatid cysts from the E. granulosus tape worm was discovered by PCR. The PGS validated the results of the previous tests, yielding three nucleotide-sequence-based isolates that were identical to those from Brazil (bovine), Argentina (camelid), and Bengal (buffalo). The study found hydatid cyst infection in human patients in the Iraqi cities of Al-Najaf and Al-Diwaniyah, implying the presence of the adult form of the worm, Echinococcus granulosus tape worms, in dogs in these areas.
 
Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, EgB2 gene, hydatid cysts.

 
Elham Ahmed Toama* and Hamssa Ahmed Jasim
Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for Postgraduate, University of Baghdad, Iraq
*Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the commonest causes of female infertility. Clinical features caused by high levels of androgens, oligomenorrhea, and polycystic ovarian morphology are necessary for diagnosis. This study aims to find a relationship between the genetic polymorphism of HNF1A on the risk of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in a Sample of Iraqi Women. The study includes one hundred subject of Iraqi women in Baghdad (15-35 years), Patients were divided to three groups.  The first group was including Patients treated with metformin, while second group was including Patients without metformin, the third group was including apparently healthy. DNA was extracted, then the Genotyping polymorphism (rs1169288) of the HNF1A gene was done by RT-PCR. The AA genotype showed a higher frequency in the control (p=0.001) while the CC genotype showed a higher frequency in the patients (p= 0.0001).
Keywords: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), genetic polymorphism, HNF1A protein, Glucose and lipid profile.

 
Kahraman H. Habeeb1, Abdul kareem Hasan Odhafa1 and Hashim H. Kareem2
"1College of agriculture, University of Wasit, Wasit Province, Iraq
2College of basic education, University of Misan, Misan province, Iraq
*Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in one of the fields of Diwaniya governorate for the agricultural season 2019 to study the effect of adding organic fertilizer and sources of phosphate fertilizer during the growth stages of the maize plant (Zea mays. L) and its reflectance on growth and productivity of the plant. The experiment was conducted according to the design of the (split-split plots design) and included two levels of the organic fertilizer(L1-L0) standing for (0- 1.5 tons) and three sources of the following fertilizers: Tri super phosphate TSP, Di-Ammonium phosphate DAP and Urea UP) as add to control treatment (p0) symbolized by p1, p2, p3, respectively. The seeds of maize (Zea mays. L) Behoth 5018s cultivar were planted in a range 25 kg/H. The kinetics of phosphorous in the soil were studied and the rate of phosphorus release was determined during the stages of plant growth and the best equation in describing the mechanism of desorption in the stages of plant growth (25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 day). The results showed that all used equations (first- order, diffusion and Elovich) have well described the mechanism of phosphorous release from solid phase to the soil solution. All equations gave a highly significant correlation (r) between released phosphorous in the stages of Plant growth, the first-order equation surpassed other equations in describing the mechanism of phosphorous release in the soil, and the values of the coefficient of phosphorous release rate (KP) ranged between (0.0045 - 0.004 mg. p. kg-1. Day-1) for the equation of first- order, where the results showed that the linear relationship between the amount ofreleased phosphorous as a function of time for the equation of first-order, is the best equation in describing the release, which indicates the interest in the amount and timing of addition of p fertilizers during the stages of plant growth, according to what was shown in the kinetic equations.                                                                          
Keywords :( phosphorous desorption, fertilizers, Maize, kinetic equations, soil solution)

 
Alaa S. Kathim1*, Kassim Fawzi Abdulkareem2, Murtadha F.  AL-Hillo3
1 Department of biology, College of Education of Al Qurna, University of Basrah, Iraq
2Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Basrah/ Iraq
3 Department of biology, College of Education of Al Qurna, University of Basrah, Iraq
*Correspondence :[email protected] 009647718282278
 
Abstract: The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of two doses of the organophosphorous pesticide methidathion on the lungs of laboratory mice Mus musculus L. The animals were divided into three equal groups: the first group represented the control group injected through the intraperitonial membrane with 0.1 ml of normal saline, and the second and third groups were injected with 0.1 ml of methadathione solution at a concentration of (1.2, 2.4 mg/kg) respectively. The histological study of the lung of groups treated with methadione showed the presence of histological changes in the low dose group represented by hyperplasia represented by the enlargement and swelling of the lining of the alveoli  and the narrowing of its cavities  as well as congestion, bleeding and infiltration of inflammatory cells . Whereas the second treated group showed more histological changes in lung composition, represented by the infiltration of inflammatory cells near the respiratory channels and around the walls of blood vessels that appeared congested with blood , edema and bleeding between the alveoli were noted.                                                                                                                   
Keywords:  Lung, Histological changes, Organophosphorous methidathion

 
Ammar Taleb Diab and Ali saleh Hassan Al-kinani
1Dept. Animal Production, Agriculture of College, University of Diyala, Iraq
2Directorate of Agriculture in Diyala governorate, Ministry of Agriculture, Iraq

Abstract: The experiment was carried out in the poultry field of the Department of Animal Production/College of Agriculture/the University of Diyala during the period from 4/9/2021 to 15/10/2021 to study the effect of adding ginkgo leaf extract to broiler diets as an antioxidant and study its impact on the productive performance of birds. This experiment used 225 unsexed hybrid broiler chicks (age: one day). The average weight of the chick was (43.62 g.). Firstly, The chicks were randomly distributed by using five experimental treatments. For each treatment, there are three replicates (15 birds/repeat). Experimental transactions are as follows. T1 = (control treatment) A standard diet without addition is provided, T2 = standard ration to which 1 g/kg of Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract is added, T3 = Standard diet to which 2 g/kg of Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract is added, T4 = a standard diet to which 3 g/kg of Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract is added, and T5 = standard ration to which 4 g/kg of Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract is added. The results of the experiment were as follows. The results of the experiment indicated that there was a significant effect (P≤0.05) when adding different levels of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract to the diets of 308 Ross broilers during a period of 1-42 days. The fourth treatment was superior to the average live body weight during the sixth week and the cumulative weight gain compared to the control, in addition There is a significant superiority (P≤0.05) in the rate of cumulative feed consumption, cumulative feed conversion efficiency and production index value, where all the addition treatments (1,2,3,4)g/kg feed excelled compared to the control.
Keywords: Ginkgo biloba leaves Broiler, Growth performance, Antioxidant activity.

 
   
Ammar Taleb Dhiab and Ali Jabbar Ali, [email protected]
Dept. Animal Production, Agriculture of College, University of Diyala, Iraq
*Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The experiment was carried out in the poultry field of the Department of Animal Production/College of Agriculture/the University of Diyala from 4/9/2021 to 10/14/2021 to study the effect of adding Cynara scolymus L. )artichoke( extract to the diet of broilers. It was used as an antioxidant to show its effect on birds' productive, physiological and immune performance. In this experiment, 225 unsexed Ross 308 hybrid broiler chicks were used (one day age), with an initial weight of 44.36 g/chick. These chicks were randomly distributed from the first day of receiving them to five experimental treatments with three replicates for each treatment (15 birds/repeat). The experimental treatments were: T1 = (control treatment) provided a standard diet free of additives, T2 = Standard ration plus 75 mg/L artichoke extract, T3 = a standard diet supplemented with 150 mg/L artichoke extract, T4 = Standard ration to which 2 g/kg of artichoke extract is added, and T5 = Standard ration to which 3 g/kg of artichoke extract is added. The experiment results indicated a significant effect on product traits when adding different levels of artichoke leaf extract powder to Ross 308 broiler water and diet (1-42 days). Generally, treatment T3 was significantly (P<0.05) superior in the fourth week in recording the highest average live body weight of 3170.90 g, and treatment T4 was significantly (P<0.05) in the fourth week and recorded the highest rate of weight gain. Also, treatment T1 in the first week recorded the highest rate of feed consumption, treatment T2 in the first week recorded the highest efficiency of food conversion, and treatment T3 significantly (P<0.05) and recorded the highest rate of productive evidence.
Keywords: broiler, artichoke leaf extract, productive traits

 
Sadiq Sahib Mohammed and Mahmood Basil Mahmood, [email protected]
"Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq
*Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The research was conducted to study the impact of thermal pollution on the Nasseriyah power plant ( NPP )  on the zooplankton community and the water quality of the Euphrates River. The study area included four stations, the first before the discharge point (control station), the second station, the discharge point of the hot liquid station flows, and the third and fourth stations after the discharge point. Several physical and chemical variables have been selected, which have a direct relationship with the presence of zooplankton and water quality, namely water temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and BOD5. The results of the study showed a significant decrease in the quality of river water compared to national and international determinants, and a decrease in the number, density, and diversity of species of zooplankton and we observed the complete disappearance of the class of Cladocera in the second station in some months of study as a result of the negative impact of the plant flows.
Key Words: NPP, Zooplankton, Cladocera

 
   
Noor Mohammed Fadhil1,*, Rana Ali Hamdi2, Khitam Malik Abdulhameed3,liqaaAli Jaber4
1 Department of clinical biochemistry, collage of medicine, university of Baghdad; [email protected].
2 Department of clinical biochemistry, collage of medicine, university of Baghdad; [email protected].
3  Infertility and clinical reproduction
4  Medical laboratory technologist
*  Correspondence: [email protected];
 
Abstract: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most prevalent endocrinal disorders affecting women of reproductive age which has been linked to  an enlarged risk of cardiovascular disease and premature atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, is a persistent inflammatory and lipid-depositing disease originally starts from endothelial response to injury that ultimately leads to critical cardiovascular events. Podocalyxin, a cell surface sialomucin, found on endothelial cells covering blood vessels. Objectives: measuring serum podocalyxin to predict early atherosclerosis in PCOS women, also measuring lipid panel including the Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) which is a powerful marker that can accurately predict the likelihood of developing th℮ risk of atherosclerosis even when other atherogenic risk factors appears  within normal limits. Materials and Method: this case control study included 124 age-matched women that were divided into: 63 women diagnosed with PCOS (patients) and 61 healthy women (controls). Lipid panel and serum podocalyxin were measured. Results: There is significant elevation in mean value of serum podocalyxin (P=0.000), TG (P=0.39), TC (P=0.002), VLDL-C (P=0.039), LDL-C (P=0.001), Risk ratio of TC/HDL-C (P=0.000), Risk ratio of LDL/HDL-C (P=0.000), and AIP (P=0.013) with significant decrease in mean value of HDL-C (P=0.000) in PCOS women as compared to healthy control. Conclusion: higher levels of serum podocalyxin  and atherogenic index of plasma were found in PCOS women, in addition a positive correlation between serum podocalyxin and atherogenic index of plasma was found. Therefore, serum podocalyxin appears to be a predictive marker to detect early atherosclerosis in women with PCOS.
Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, atherosclerosis, podocalyxin, lipid profile, AIP

 
Eman M Abbas1,*, Basil O Saleh 2, Omar M Aljuboori3
1MSc, clinical biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, e-mail: [email protected]
2MSc, Ph.D. clinical biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, e-mail: [email protected]
3F.I.B.M.S. (Endocrinology), F.I.B.M.S. (medicine), Baghdad teaching hospital, Medical city, e-mail:[email protected]
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Background: Hypothyroidism is a clinical syndrome that is prevalent in women, even in those of reproductive age. Ovarian reserve can be defined as the number and quality of follicles in the ovary at any given time. Evaluation of ovarian reserve is recommended for patients who are at risk of decreased ovarian reserve. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of hypothyroidism on ovarian reserve in Iraqi women by hormonal measurements of serum anti-mullerian hormone AMH, FSH, and LH. Subjects and methods: This case –control study was carried out at the Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, in collaboration with Endocrinology and Diabetes clinic, Baghdad teaching Hospital, and National center for Teaching Laboratories, Medical City, during the period from November 2021 to March 2022. This study involved 88 women, age range (20-40 year). Fifty-one of them [Group I (GI)] had primary hypothyroidism who were diagnosed by an endocrinologist based on clinical analysis and thyroid function tests including serum TSH, T4 and T3. Patients who had symptoms and signs suggestive of hypothyroidism and elevated TSH with T4 less than reference level were considered overt hypothyroidism. While, patients who have elevated TSH with normal T4 and T3 were considered subclinical hypothyroidism 1. Serum thyroid peroxidase anti-body (TPOAb) was used to differentiate hypothyroidism patients with Hashimoto`s disease 2. Thirty-seven of included women were apparently healthy and served as control group and referred to group II (GII). Results: The mean (±SD) value of serum AMH of hypothyroidism women was significantly lower than that of controls (p < 0.0001). However, the mean value of AMH did not differ significantly between women who had overt and subclinical hypothyroidism, regular and irregular menstrual cycle, well and poor controlled thyroid status, and who have had positive and negative anti-TPO. The mean (±SD) value of serum LH of hypothyroidism women was significantly higher than that control group (p < 0.004), while that of FSH did not differ significantly. Serum TSH levels was significantly positively correlated with LH levels (r=0.3, p 0.03). In addition, BMI values was significantly positively correlated with FSH levels (r= 0.3, p 0.04). Conclusions: This study suggested the needed for serum measurement of AMH in women suffered from hypothyroidism.
 
Keywords: hypothyroidism, ovarian reserve, AMH.

 
   
Maysaa Taqi Al-Khazali1,*, Ban Mousa Hassan2, Salam Ahmed AbedIbrahim3
1 Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Kerbala, Iraq;
2 Department of Biology, College of Education, University of Kerbala, Iraq;
3  College of Pharmacy, University of Kerbala, Iraq.
* Correspondence: [email protected].
 
Abstract: A total of 83 oral swabs were collected from patients who were clinically diagnosed with oral candidiasis, Whom attended the Children’s Teaching Hospital in Kerbala city. Samples were culturing directly on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar medium(SDA) supplemented with amoxicillin and it was found that there was growth in 63 samples (76%) classified according to the type of pathogen 58 samples (92%) yeast and 5 samples (8%) bacteria. The majority of the isolated yeasts belonged to the genus Candida, which amounted to 93.1% (54 samples), while the non-Candida yeasts recorded 6.9% (4 samples). Candida albicans was recorded the dominance of among the Candida species 53.7% (29 isolates), followed by C. dubliniesis (18.5%) (10 isolates) , C.lusitaniae 12.9% (7 isolates), C.tropicalis 7.4% (4 isolates), C.parapsilosis 5.6%, and C.kefyr 1.9% (1 isolate). The results of the physiological examinations showed the ability of all C.albicans and C.dubliniesis isolates to produce germ tubes and chlamydo spores on cornmeal agar medium compared to the other species. All species showed the ability to produce pseudohyphae, but C.albicans isolates are the only ones has the ability to grow under a temperature of 45 m  .The results of growth on HiCrome™ Candida Differential Agar (M1297A) confirmed the physiological tests, where all C.albicans isolates appeared in light green and C.dubliniesis in dark green, while C.lusitaniae isolates appeared in color purple and C.tropicalis appeared in metallic blue, C.parapsilosis in white to pale pink, and C.kefyr in pink to purple.The diagnosis of the isolated species was confirmed using the Vitek device by the Vitek 2 YST card and the results were interpreted by comparing the results of biochemical reactions and information available in the system database. The Vitek system was also used to examine the sensitivity of the isolated species to six anti-fungals, which are Fluconazole, Flucytosine, Capsufungin, Amphotericin B, Micafungin, and Voriconazole, using the Vitek 2AST-YS08 card. All isolates of species are sensitive to Capsufungin, except one isolate of C.tropicalis and one isolate of C.parapsilosis, which showed moderate sensitivity to this antibiotic. As for Amphotericin B, two isolates of C. albicans showed resistance (6.9%) and one isolate of C. lusitaniae showed resistance to Amphotericin B by 14% compared to the other species that showed sensitivity to this antibiotic by 100%, while all species were sensitive to Flucytosine at 100% except 3 isolates of C. albicans were resistant to this antibiotic (10.3%) and 1 isolate of C. dubliniesis (10%).                                                                              
 
Keywords: Candida sp., Oral candidiasis, Fungal pathogens.

 
 
19.  Studying the chemical composition and nutritional value of Iraqi buffalo butter milk and its use in the manufacture of healthy ice cream
 
Raghad Saad Musa Al Musa1,*, Najla Hussen Saper Al Garory2
1 Department of Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah; [email protected].
2 Department of Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah; [email protected].
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Making buttermilk by fermenting raw buffalo milk with two types of commercial starters YO-MIX 495 and YO-MIX 505 and stirring it by electrophoresis and estimating the chemical content using an anlyzer Eko milk , pH, Titration  Acidity percentage, carbohydrates and organic acids using HPLC technology, active compounds with GC-MS technology, antioxidant activity, and making ice cream with three mixtures: 0:1, 1:1 and 1:3 from skimmed milk to raw milk, and physical tests were conducted on it, The results showed that the fermentation time had no effect on the chemical content, but it did affect the pH, surface Titration Acidity, the concentration of carbohydrates, organic acids and active compounds. The highest value of pH was 4.37 and ash was 0.65% for buttermilk fermented with YO-MIX 495 starter, and the highest value for Titration Acidity, protein and fat was 0.84, 2.73 and 1.24%, respectively, with YO-MIX 505 starter.The highest value of carbohydrates is for lactose sugar 3.30 % with YO-MIX starter 505 and the highest value for organic acids is succinic 169.82% with starter YO-MIX 505 and lactic 42.50 % with starter YO-MIX 495 and different ratios of active compounds reached the highest area of the peak % Acetic acid, cesium salt 25.08334% with start YO-MIX 495 and it showed the highest antioxidant activity 75% with the starter YO-MIX 495, and the highest starter diameter against Bacillus cereus was 10 mm for the starter . The mixtures manufactured with YO-MIX starter 495 excelled on the mixtures manufactured with YO-MIX starter 505 in sensory evaluation, and the mixture 1:1 showed the highest value in taste and general acceptance, while 1:3 was superior in color, texture and oral feeling, while 0:1 obtained the lowest degree of acceptance of between the three mixtures.
 
Key words: Buttermilk, organic acids, carbohydrates, active compounds, ice cream, starter.

 
   
Suha Khudhair Abbas and Majid Ali Hanshal
1 College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad;
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The experiment was conducted at Research Station A of the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Al-Jadiriyah Complex during the spring season 2020-2021. In order to study the effect of amino acid and magnesium spray on the growth and yield of the futon hybrid, a factorial experiment was conducted within a randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D.) for a total of 16 treatments and with three replications, amino acids were sprayed with four concentrations (7.5, 2.5, 2.5, 7.5) ml. L-1, which has the symbol (A3,A2,A1,A0) , Magnesium sulfate was also sprayed at four concentrations (6,4,2,0) g. L-1, which is symbolized by (M3, M2, M1, M0), by three sprays for both workers, the first one month after planting the seedlings. The sprays were every 15 days between one spray and another. The averages were compared according to the (L.S.D) test at a probability level of 0.05%.The results showed that the treatment of A3 excelled in some traits of vegetative growth, nutrients, fruiting and total yield . The M3 treatment excelled in most indicators of vegetative growth, nutrients, fruiting and total yield. The results showed that the interaction treatment A3M2 increased the height and P,K and treatment A2M3 increased the leaf area and treatment A3 M3 led to a significant increase of nutrients N, Mg in the height of leaf area, total yield, fruiting traits and percentage of magnesium in leaves.
 
Keywords: amino acids, magnesium, vegetative growth, yield, tomato

 
   
Dalal S. Al- Rubaye1, Heba Mohammed Hamza1* and Qais Ahmed Al-Khafaji2
1Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq
2Consultant Immunologist, Iraqi ministry of health
3, 4 Iraqi center for cancer and medical genetics researches/ University of AL-Mustansiriya
*Corresponding author:[email protected]
 
Abstract : Male infertility is any health issue in a man that lowers the chances of his female partner getting pregnant. The present study aimed to observe the seminal fluid parameters abnormalities among primary and secondary infertility. The total participants are 93 consisting of 83 infertile males and 10 normal males as a control group. The patients group were classified into Azoospermia, Asthenospermia and Oligoasthenospermia according to their semen abnormalities. The total number of patients divided into two groups, the primary (65) who has no children and secondary infertility (18) who are unable to conceive or carry a baby to full-term after having a previous successful pregnancy. According to the seminal analysis, there were 18 infertile males with Azoospermia, 26 infertile males with oligoasthenospermia, 39 infertile males with asthenoospermia and 10 as a control group as represented. A one-way ANOVA is used to determine whether or not there is a statistically significant difference between the means of the analyzed independent groups. The mean of all parameters represent significant differences between control group and other tested groups with few exceptions e.g., the seminal volume in control group showed no high difference than Asthenospermia. Banding technique : G-band showing 46XY ,der 2,der 3, der 4, der 7. And in der 5 but not in all cell. Abnormal karyotype for male with derivative of one copy of chromosome 2,one copy of chromosome 3 was derivative , copy of chromosome 4 was derivative, and derivative of chromosome 7.
 
Keywords: infertility 1; karyotype 2; Azoospermia 3; Asthenospermia 4; Oligoasthenospermia 5

 
   
Eman Adnan Al-Saffar1, Basima Q. Hasan AL-Saadi1 and Nabaa Ihsan Awadh2
1Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute for Postgraduate Studies University of Baghdad, Iraq
2Rheumatology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Medical City Complex
 
Abstract: Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is a multifactorial autoimmune disease affecting 1–2% of the population worldwide. It is more common in women than in men, predominately aged 40-60 years. The objective of this study is to identify the association of the polymorphism in the MIR146A gene with RA susceptibility in a sample of Iraqi patients and to examine whether these polymorphism can influence the severity and activity of the disease. Methods: The case-control study was conducted in the period between December 2021 and February 2022. A total of 120 blood samples were collected, comprised of 60 patients with the rheumatic arthritic disease who most regularly visit the chronic arthritis diseases department of Baghdad Teaching Hospital-Medical City in Iraq and 60 healthy controls. Polymorphisms were genotyped by using HRM real time PCR for genotyping assay. Results: Significant differences in the frequency of miRNA-146a rs2910164 alleles and genotypes were observed between RA patients and controls. The CC genotype of the MIR146A Gene in the (rs2910164 SNP) shows a risk for rheumatoid arthritis (50% versus 23.33% in healthy individuals), the (χ2 =5.81; O.R.= 1 and the P-value = 0.0159) respectively especially in females than males the CC genotype seems the only risk factor among the other genotypes (CG and GG) with (P-value ≤ 0.05) in (31.46%), while the other genotypes (CG and GG) show no risk for rheumatoid arthritis in the studied samples of Iraqi population. Conclusions: The study of MIR146A Gene (rs2910164 SNP) likely to play an important role in the susceptibility to RA where the CC genotype associated with higher are susceptibility markers to RA and can influence disease severity and activity in Iraqi population.
 
Keywords: MIR146a gene, polymorphism, rs2910164, HRM, RA, Iraq.

 
   
Jasim Hussein Makhrmash 1*, Azhar Jabbar Khalaf Al Subaihawi 2 and Nada Hamzah Shareef Al Shabbani
1Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Wasit, Iraq; [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9837-681X
2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Wasit, Iraq; [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9412-7840
3Department of Pathology, Al Zahra Teaching Hospital, Ministry of Health; [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6475-4467
* Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: (009647725770775)
 
Abstract: Proteus mirabilis (P mirabilis) is the major pathogenic bacteria, which etiological agent of wound infections, particularly skin wound infections. Infection of wound is the cause of morbidity and mortality on a universal scale. Different pathogens infecting wounds can colonize and multiply in the wounds, resulting damage in the host tissue. The goals of this work were to determine biofilm formation and to detect some virulence factors, and to estimate action of different antimicrobial agents i.e. antibiotics and probiotics Lactobacillus spp. P mirabilis were collected from different specimens of human. Virulence factors of P mirabilis, especially atfA,rsbA, and mrpA, were observed in the isolates P mirabilis through PCR technique. Isolates P mirabilis virulence factors were detected in more than 90%. Rate of susceptibility was 35 (94.6%) for cefoxitin, 29 (78.4%) for tobramycin, 22 (59.5%) for imipenem, followed by amikacin [16 (43.2%)], cefotaxime [11(29.7%)], ciprofloxacin [9 (24.3%)], ampicillin [1 (2.7%)]. As well as, there was different virulence biofilm genes that relating in the susceptibility for different antimicrobial agents, whether antibiotics or probiotics, such as rsbA [21 (100%)], atfA [20 (95.2%)] and mprA [19 (90.5%)]. Furthermore, probiotic lactobacilli spp. such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei shirota demonstrated high sensitivity against pathogens comparative with antibiotics in different methods, such as agar spot (22-26 mm) and well diffusion (8-13 mm). In conclusion, P mirabilis demonstrated high level susceptible to antibiotic against cefoxitin, tobramycin and imipenem and highly resistance to ampicillin, and others. Also, Lactobacillus spp. demonstrated high sensitivity against pathogens comparative with antibiotics.
 
Keywords: Proteus mirabilis, biofilm, virulence factor genes, antibiotics, and probiotics

 
   
Shahad S. Abd Al-Hussein 1,*, Alaa A.I. Al-Dirawi 2 and Rafid M.N. Al-Khalifah
1 Department of Veterinary Surgery and Obstetric, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq; [email protected] .
2Department of Veterinary Surgery and Obstetric, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq; [email protected] . ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4597-5154.
3 Department of Veterinary Surgery and Obstetric, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq; [email protected] . ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0024-8124.
* Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +964 774 488 6627
 
Abstract: Tendon is a mechanical bridge that transforms the force generated by muscle contraction into movement. This tissue is well known by its low cellularity and vascularity, therefore any tendon damage is characterized by slow and inefficient healing process resulting in mechanically, structurally, and functionally inferior tissue. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of the regenerative capacity of xenogeneic platelet rich fibrin on acceleration of Achilles tendon healing in rabbits. Totally, 24 adult rabbits weighing (1.5-2) kg were used in this study. The animals were divided equally into three groups; A-PRF group in which the tendon defect was treated with xenogeneic Advance-platelet rich fibrin , L-PRF group in which used xenogeneic for tendon defect treatment, and control groups treated with normal saline. Clinical investigation of the rabbits during experiment period revealed improvement of lameness and disappearance of swelling and redness at the operation site in A-PRF and L-PRF groups as a compare with control group at the same period. Histopathological examination revealed good tendon healing process in A-PRF group characterized by a very highly organized Achilles tendon and lightly stained collagen fibers arranged in parallel, while these are less evident in L-PRF group. In conclusion, this study suggests that treatment with xenogeneic Advanced platelet rich fibrin can be useful as biomaterial for accelerate of Achilles tendon healing in rabbits and this biomaterial.
 
Keywords: Xenogeneic platelet rich fibrin; Rabbit Achilles tendon; tendon healing; Advance platelet rich fibrin; Iraq.

 
   
Ali Thamer Al-Bayti₁ & Luma Ghaeb Alsaadi₂
1Department of Virology, Jalawla General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Diyala Health Department, Iraq
2Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Iraq
*Correspondence :[email protected]
 
Abstract: Background: Some data suggest that the liver is being affected by a new set of variables, and one of them is the Torque Teno virus which is widespread in the liver other than the well-known hepatitis A-E viruses. 0bjecte: Dialysis patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and those who are not HCV infected were compared to healthy persons using nested PCR method to evaluate the extent of the viral dissemination in the Iraqi dialysis population and how it affects infection severity. Methods: The research began in 2021 until the end of 2022. Blood was drawn from 35 HCV-infected dialysis patients, 35 HCV-uninfected dialysis patients, and 20 healthy individuals. The findings of Immunological (ELISA), chemical and hematological testing were reported. Molecular detection by nested PCR was performed to identify Torque Teno virus in this study. Results: PCR identify the Torque Teno virus in hemodialysis patient blood samples. The infection rate was 0% in healthy persons, 14.29% in dialysis patients without HCV (5 out of 13), and 20% in dialysis patients with HCV (7 out of 13). This research found a greater prevalence of the Torque Teno virus in HCV patients than in dialysis patients without HCV infection and the detection of TTV by PCR technique was 100% for sensitivity, specificity. This research demonstrated non-significant differences between Torque Teno virus infection and liver enzymes in hemodialysis patients. Conclusion: TTV may have a function in hepatitis since its presence was related to biochemical markers of liver damage, as well as with persistent HBV or HCV infection in individuals with percentage of males more than percentage of females, also, this study confirmed that PCR technique is a more accurate technique and the best test with 100% accuracy compared to ELISA technique for TTV detection.
 
Keywords: Torque Teno virus, hemodialysis, Anelloviridae

 
   
Ali Thamer Al-Bayti1 and Luma Ghaeb Alsaadi2
1 Department of Virology, Jalawla General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Diyala Health Department, Iraq 2 Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Iraq
Corresponding Author Ali Thamer Al-Bayti
 
Abstract: Background: Many evidence points to the presence of new factors that affect the liver in addition to the well-known hepatitis A-E viruses, and of these viruses is the Torque Teno virus, which was found to be more prevalent in the liver. 0bjecte: Detection of Torque Teno virus infection in patients undergoing dialysis with hepatitis C virus(HCV) patients and non-infected patients, comparing them with healthy people by ELISA technique to determine the extent of the virus spread in patients undergoing dialysis at the first time in the Iraqi community and how to affect the severity of infection. Methods: The study was conducted from 2021 until the end of 2022. Blood samples were collected from 35 patients infected with HCV undergoing hemodialysis, 35 patients not-infected with HCV undergoing hemodialysis, and 20 healthy people. Clinical information and tests for hepatitis were obtained from the patients’ registry. Chemical & Hematological tests were done and the results were recorded. A test for the detection of the Torque Teno virus was done by ELISA technology. Results: Torque Teno virus was detected in serum samples of patients using the ELISA technique. The infection rate was 0.0% in healthy people and (14.29%) in patients undergoing dialysis without HCV infection (5 out of 35) and (22.86%) in patients undergoing dialysis with HCV infection (8 out of 35), the novel result of this study showed that there is a higher prevalence of Torque Teno virus in HCV patients than in patients undergoing dialysis without HCV infection in Iraq. Also, this study found that there are non-significant differences between Torque Teno virus infection and liver function enzymes, neither with WBCs and HB concentrations. Conclusion: Hepatitis may be caused by TTV, which was shown to be connected with biochemical indicators of liver damage and persistent HBV or HCV infection.
 
Keywords: Torque Teno virus, hemodialysis, ELISA technique

 
   
Sally Taleb Mutlaq* and Raghad Harbi Mahdi
College of Science, Baghdad University, Iraq.
 
Abstract: Background: COVID-19 is a coronavirus disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was responsible for 87,747,940 recorded infections and 1,891,352 confirmed deaths as of January 9, 2021. Antibodies that target the S-protein are efficient in neutralizing the virus. Methodology: 180 samples were collected from clinical sources (Blood and Nasopharyngeal swabs) and from different ages and genders at diverse hospitals in Baghdad / IRAQ between the period 5 November 2021 to 20 January 2022. All samples were confirmed infected with COVID-19 disease by RT-PCR technique. Haematology analysis and blood group were done for all samples and IgG test was used by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Results: Complete blood count showed white blood cells, haemoglobin and platelet were higher in group 1 (without vaccine) than in control while lymphocytes showed a lower ratio, ABO group showed type A and O have more susceptible than other types. IgG level showed a high ratio in group one. Conclusions: Vaccination plays an important role in COVID-19 patients and maintains normal levels of the parameters under study.
 
Keywords:  COVID-19; Vaccinated Individuals;  IgG; CBC;  Blood group

 
   
Noor Alaubidi 1 and Faten Noori Abed Mula Abed
1Mosul University/College of Science/Biology Department , [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6718-9667  
2 Mosul University/College of Science/Biology Department , [email protected]. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7063-3706
* Correspondence: [email protected].
 
Abstract: Shiitake mushroom is the Japanese common name for the genus Lentinula edodes and Shiitake is a fungus of medicinal and industrial importance. The enzyme Mannanase was purified from the fungal culture filtrate and included a series of steps, including precipitation with ammonium sulfate and a saturation rate of 80%, in which the specific activity reached 2 units/mg and the enzymatic accumulation was 80%. It was followed by enzyme dialysis for a whole day, which caused an increase in the specific activity to 3 units/mg, and the number of purification times reached 3 times, and the enzymatic accumulation reached 71%. It is noticed from the ion exchange step using DEAE-cellulose that the specific activity increased to 10 units/mg, the number of purification times reached 10 times, and the enzymatic accumulation reached 53%. Subsequently, the last purification step was carried out using gel filtration chromatography Sephadex G-150, in which the specific activity of the enzyme reached 24 units/mg, and the number of purification times reached 24 times, with an enzymatic accumulation of 48%. The molecular weight was determined using electrophoresis in a polyacrylamide gel, and its molecular weight was 58 kilodaltons. The optimum pH for its activity was 6.5, while the pH ranged between (5.5-7) to prove its activity. While the optimum temperature for enzyme activity was 60°C, while the thermal stability was between (20-80) °C. During the study, the role of calcium and cadmium chloride was shown when they were added to the medium, and the enzyme retained most of its enzymatic activity, reaching 95.5, 97.3%, respectively. 12 amino acids present in Mannanase enzyme were selected, which include Aspartic, Glutamic, Aspergen, Serine, Histidine, Glycine, Tyrosine, Alanine, Methionine, Valine, Phenylalanine and Lysine. Mannanase enzyme was used to remove blood stains from cotton fabrics, and it gave the best performance in removing stains and improves the ability of detergents to clean clothes.
 
Keywords: Lentinula edodes, β-mannanase activity, purifi-cation, DEAE-Sephadex A-150, Characterization, removing and ability of detergents to clean clothes.

 
   
Sarah Jaber 1*, Sahera Muslim 2 and Ahmed Fadel 2,
"1 Affiliation 1; [email protected] .
2 Affiliation 2; [email protected] . 0000-0002-9036-3977
* Correspondence: [email protected];
 
Abstract: Levan is a naturally occurring fructan, the homopolymer of fructose synthesized as an exopolysaccharide (EPS) in the extracellular matrix of bacteria from various genera. Levans are produced by many lactic acid bacteria. (1) Background: In this study, 30 isolates of Lactobacillus spp. have been collected from several hospitals located in Baghdad city, these isolates were 21 Lactobacillus spp. isolates from vagina of healthy women as (16 Lactobacillus plantarum ,5 Lactobacillus acidophilus ) and 9 isolates (Lactobacillus plantarum) for infant stool samples.  (2) Methods: All isolates were tested for levan production using mucoidy and spectrophotometric method,The optimum conditions for levan production were studied included temperature , incubation time , pH , inoculum size , sucrose concentration ,Nitrogen source , culture medium. (3) Results: The optimum conditions for production were at 37 ºC for 24 h at pH 7with 4 % inoculum size and 40 g/ 100ml sucrose concentration with  best nitrogen source pepton and the best culture medium for levan production was date medium.(4) Conclusions: Lactobacillus plantarum that isolated from vagina of healthy women was a better producer for levan this research was to detect the levan production yield in Lactobacillus spp. besides to screening and optimization production condition of levans.
 
Keywords: Levan homopolymer , Lactobacillus spp.  , screening , optimum conditions

 
   
Sarah Jaber 1*, Sahera Muslim 2 and Ahmed Fadel 2,
"1 Affiliation 1; [email protected] .
2 Affiliation 2; [email protected] . 0000-0002-9036-3977
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: A single paragraph of about 200 words maximum. For research articles, abstracts should give a pertinent overview of the work. We strongly encourage authors to use the following style of structured abstracts, but without headings: (1) Background: In this study, 25 isolates of Lactobacillus spp. have been  collected from several hospitals located in Baghdad city, these isolates were 17Lactobacillus spp. isolates from vagina of healthy women as 12 Lactobacillus plantarum ,5 Lactobacillus acidophilus  and 8 isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum were isolated from feces of healthy infants; (2) Methods: The screening for determining levansucrase production was performed by mucoidy and spectrophotometric methods The levansucrase activity measured when this isolate was cultivated under the optimal conditions; (3) Results: only 14 isolates had the ability to produce levansucrase revealed specific activity ranged from 9.41 to 28.12 U/mg and the maximum specific activity was for Lactobacillus plantarumV11, which was selected as best producer isolates. The levansucrase activity reached its maximum level when this isolate was cultivated under the optimal conditions, which is consisted of using levansucrase production medium incubated at 37°C for 24 hour at pH 7 with 4 % inoculum size and 40 g/100ml sucrose concentration with  the best nitrogen source was pepton and the best carbon source was dates ; (4) Conclusions: Lactobacillus plantarum that isolated from vaginal of healthy women was a better producer for levansucrase activity this research was to detect the levansucrase activity in Lactobacillus spp. besides to screening and optimization production condition of levansucrase.
 
Keywords: Lactobacillus spp., levansucrase,  production , optimum conditions

 
   
Mohammed Raheem Saleh 1 and Khawlah Jebur Khalaf
1 Mustansiriyah university ,[email protected]
Mustansiriyah university; [email protected]
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of clinically used antiseptics on elastase production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 39 clinical isolates were collected from wounds 10 (25.64%) and burns 29 (74.35%) from hospitalized patients at Baghdad city. Elastin preparation by the autoclaving method yielded 10.5 gm of elastin powder from (250 gm) of sheep’s lungs, 3.6 gm from (50 gm) of sheep’s bladder and sheep’s ligamentum nuchae (65 gm) yielded 15 gm. All of the P. aeruginosa isolates were tested for their ability to produce elastase by being cultivated on elastin nutrient agar and observed for the enzyme's activity. The bacteria that make elastase grew, and a clear border emerged surrounding the growth after 24 hours. 32 (82.05%) of P. aeruginosa isolates produced the enzyme on the elastin nutrient agar. Elastase producing P. aeruginosa were tested quantitatively by using the ELISA reader and spectrophotometer at (A495) to detect the released amount of Congo red dye from the degradation of the elastin Congo red. P. aeruginosa (P41) showed the highest elastolytic activity thus it was selected to determine the effect of the sub-MIC of the antiseptics on the elastase production. The results showed that the acetic acid was the best agent to inhibit the production of elastase followed by silver nitrate, hydrogen peroxide and ethanol in descending order..
 
Keywords: Elastase; Elastin; Pseudolysin; Antiseptics; Acetic acid; Pseudomonas aeruginosa

 
   
Mohammed Raheem Saleh 1 and Khawlah Jebur Khalaf 2
1 Mustansiriyah university; [email protected]
2 Mustansiriyah university; [email protected]
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The present study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial effect of Moringa oleifera seed extract (MOSE) against bacterial isolates (A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus). thirty-eight bacterial isolates were collected from wounds and burns of hospitalized patients from Baghdad city A. baumannii (13), K. pneumoniae (7) and S. aureus (18). All isolates were identification based on phenotypic, microscopic, biochemical, API 20 diagnostic system. The preparation of (MOSE) by the ethanolic extraction method didn’t show any antimicrobial activity against the bacterial isolates. Thus the screening was done by using the Moringa oleifera seeds extract from the aqueous extraction method only. The results revealed that (MOSE) in the disc diffusion method has some levels of inhibition only against S. aureus isolates with inhibition zones (10 mm, 9 mm, Weak inhibition) for concentrations (1000, 500 and 250 mg/ml) respectively. Meanwhile in the Agar-well diffusion method the antibacterial activity of (MOSE) against bacterial isolates with an inhibition zone at 1000 mg (14-15 mm, 12-15 mm, 18-15 mm) for A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus respectively and at 500 mg/ml (11 mm, 14-12 mm, 14-13 mm) for A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus respectively.
 
Keywords: Moringa oleifera; K. pneumoniae; S. aureus; A. Baumannii

 
Aya Ali Hameed AL-dabbagh , Jehan Abdul Sattar Salman and Hamzia Ali Ajah
1 Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-Iraq  
2 Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-Iraq      
3 Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-Iraq                        
 
Abstract: The objective of the current study is to characterize  dextran  purified from  Lactobacillus fermentum  (Lb4) Isolates of Lactobacillus spp. were tested for dextran production using mucoidy, ethanol precipitation and spectrophotometric method. Result of Spectrophotometric method showed that all isolates  gave concentration of dextran ranging from (0.1 to 0.2 mg/ml) . Precipitation, purification and characterization of dextran from  L. fermentum (Lb4) were done. Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC), 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HNMR) Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Gas Chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Melting Point (MP), Water Solubility index (WSI), and Water Holding Capacity (WHC) had been used for dextran characterization. Characterization proved that pure dextran. nanosphered structure with a nano-diameter range of about (56.00) nm with molecular weight (73) KDa . According to melting point test, the purified dextran from L. fermentum  had been completely melted at 228o C  . The water solubility index (WSI)  had been determined (93.35%) and the water holding capacity (WHC) (300%) .
 
Keywords: Lactobacillus spp. ;  Dextran ; Lactobacillus fermentum

 
   
Hend Majed Muhsen1 , Noor Thair Tahir2*, Rana S. Jawad3
1 Mustansiriyah University/ College of Science / Iraq.
2 National Diabetes Center/ Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
3 Mustansiriyah University/ College of Science / Iraq.
Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Acromegaly is a rare disease resulting from excessive growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor -1 and is associated with long-term comorbidities. This study aimed to find the effect of hepcidin and other biochemical parameters in acromegaly diabetic patients., This study was done in the National Diabetes center/Mustansiriyah University between October 2021 and the end of April 2022.  Nighty participate in this study (50) acromegaly diabetic patients and (40) healthy control compared patients. An especially significant increase in fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, total cholesterol, Triglycerides, Growth hormone, and IGF-1 in acromegaly Diabetic patients when compared with the control group. While there was a highly significant decrease in high-density lipoprotein among acromegaly Diabetic patients compared with the control group, there was a highly significant decrease in Hepcidin, Iron, and Ferritin in acromegaly Diabetic patients when compared to control. It can be concluded that low levels of hepcidin in diabetic acromegaly patients, compared with healthy subjects, have a significant role in iron and ferritin levels in the human body, and therefore their decrease affects diabetes metabolism and heart metabolism. Therefore, moderate levels of hepcidin, iron, and ferritin must be maintained, which have a protective effect against heart disease.
 
Keywords: Hepcidin, Iron, Ferritin, Lipid profile, Acromegaly.

 
   
Sura Kamal1,*; Nebrass Chachain1; Majeed Sabbah2
1Mustansiriyah University/Collage of Science/Biology Department/Baghdad/Iraq; science @uomustansiriyah.edu.iq
2Alnahrain University/ Forensic DNA for research and training center; [email protected]
*Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: This sporadic survey mainly focused on parts of north, central, and south Baghdad, Earthworms were collected from damp habitat in orchards and agricultural fields using hand-sorting and digging methods from January 2021 to December 2021at the three regions (Rashdeyah,Jadriyah and Zafaraniyah). Identification and description were done based on several external morphological structures. During the course of the study, five earthworm species were identified, including: Aporrectodea  rosea , Aporrectodea trapezoides, Aporrectodea tuberculata, Amynthas corticis and Amynthas grasilis. Aporrectodea rosea and Aporrectodea trapezoides was the dominant species in these regions while the two species Amynthas corticis and Aporrectodea tuberculata was a new record for Iraq.
 
Keywords: Earthworms; Morphology ; Lumricidae; Megascolecidae; Baghdad governate; Iraq

 
   
Thura Adnan Yousif1, Kadhim Hashim Yaseen 1 and Ali Ahmed Ghani
1Department of biology , Collage of science, University of Mustansiriyah , Baghdad , Iraq; [email protected]
2Department of biology , Collage of science, University of Mustansiriyah , Baghdad , Iraq;
Khzwaini@yahoo. com
2Department of medical laboratory techniques, Al-Kunooze University College, Basrah, Iraq   
* Correspondence [email protected]
 
Abstract: Fifty-seven bacterial isolates were obtained from previous study; these bacterial isolates were collected out of twenty-seven soil contaminated samples in Iraq. Rumaila oil field, Bai-Hassan oil field, and finally East Baghdad oil field which are located in Iraq. The results of bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons components showed that 44% of P. aeruginosa as well as 50% of S. marcescens possessed the ability to degrade anthracene, as well 60% of P. aeruginosa and 50% of each S. marcescens, B. cepacia, and A. radioersistens with 100% of K. pneumoniae possessed the degradation ability of phenathrene. Finally, the results illustrated that 55.56%, 83.3%, and 50% of P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens, and B. cepacia respectively, in addition to 100% of each A. radioersistens and K. pneumoniae had the degradation ability of naphthalene. Optimization results showed that pH 7 and temperature 35ºwith peptone as a nitrogen source were the best degradation parameters. Finally the results showed a significant activity of OSE II in the bacterial degradation of naphthalene without any effects on both phenathrene and anthracene.
 
Keywords: OSE II, hydrocarbons, bacterial degradation, anthracene, phenathrene, and naphthalene

 
   
Iman Mahmood khudhur 1,*, Adeeba Younis shareef 2
1College of science/ Biology departments /Mosul university 1; [email protected]. ORCID 0000-0001-6055-7562
2College of science/ Biology departments /Mosul university 2; [email protected].
* Correspondence: ; [email protected]
 
Abstract: The study aimed to determine the frequency of isolates containing the gene cagE within the strains of the serotype b. The study showed the isolation of 35 strains belonging to the species Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans based on the biochemical and phenotypical characteristics of the species. 60% of isolates belonged to the serotype b and 68.5% showed a positive result for cagE. The remaining 8.5% of strains carrying  the gene cagE were not serotype b, so these isolates most likely may be diagnosed as belonging to JP2 genotype strains.
 
Keywords: Serotype b, cagE, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

 
   
Hadeel S. Al-Shrefy 1, and Safaa M. Mahmood 2*
1 Department of Biology , College of Education for Pure Sciences, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq
2 Department of Biology , College of Education for Pure Sciences, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq
2; [email protected] . ORCID: 0000-0003-3095-4588
* Correspondence: e-mail [email protected]
 
Abstract: The aim of the research is to find natural alternatives that have the ability to inhibit the growth of types of pathogenic bacteria that have become resistant to antibiotics . Lumbricus terrestris is one of the most common worms in the world, In this study, extracts of the bodies of earthworms L. terrestris it’s using against different types of bacteria isolated from different disease states .Also, effective antibacterial chemical compounds have also been using L. terrestris extract by technique Gc-mass which showed the presence of the compound Thiodiglycol in the rate of (43.38%) and the compound s-(2-Aminoethyl)-L-cysteine ( 22.11%), As well as the compound Dimethylamine in the rate of ( 21.20%). As well as the compound methylthio phosphonamidic acid in the rate of (3.85%). While the FTIR assay showed in its analysis the active groups containing the hydroxyl group OH and the amide group C = O, When using methanol and acetone solvent for worm extract, it gave a high inhibitory activity at a concentration of 6.2 mg/ml, reaching (22, 30) mm when S. typhia was treated with the two solvents. We conclude from the study that earthworms contain compounds that have the ability to inhibit bacterial growth better than antibiotics
 
Keywords: Lumbricus terrestris , Coelomic Fluid , Gc mass, Lumbricus, Extract antibacterial.

 
   
Ahmed. Sh .Ali 1, N.K. Hassan 2 , Thamir . A . Jumah
1,2 Department of physics, College of Education, University of Tikrit
3 Department of physics, College of Science, University of AL-Nahrain
 
Abstract:     The project investigate important and uninhabitable subject is that bonding the dissimilar materials such polymer - metal and making a joining between them , so the making a join between these materials  . The samples from different materials were prepared , that needed to make a join between them .  The dissimilar materials that used are the stainless steel alloy of grade 440 , these alloys used to make a join with the polymer high density polyethylene(M300054) . After the preparation  the alloys samples is putted in atmospheric tube face , many experiments was performed to determine the conditions ( temperature and holding time ) that under it the surface of sample will oxidize and a the layer of oxide growth on the surface of sample . The powdered polymer is then placed on the oxidized surface of samples and then many experiments was performed to determine the conditions that the powder wetting the surface of sample . The selected alloys  by AFM to determine the best oxidation condition and t weight gain is measured that the best oxidation U condition is at temperature 500 C and holding time 60 minutes  . The wetted filler is used to verify the bonding between the sample stainless steel and the polymer were bonded at temperature 500 ° C and holding time 1 hour , the joining strength equals to approximately 2 MPa .
 
Keywords: Oxidation limit, polymer, metal

 
   
Ali Zuhair Abed1 , Mohammad Amer Fayyad 1  and Ramin Heidari 2
1 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Basra
2 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The study aimed to study some biochemical changes such as peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, total phenols and proline that occur in cucumber plants when infected with root-knot nematodes. The cultivar Astra showed significant differences in these biochemical indicators compared to the rest of the cultivars, where the peroxidase enzyme increased to 4.423 units/gm fresh weight after 2 days of nematode inoculation and the polyphenol oxidase enzyme increased to 1.418 units/ml in the cultivar Astra after 6 days of nematode inoculation.As for the total phenols, it reached 12.12 mg g-1 after 8 days of nematode inoculation, while in proline it was 1.55 mg g-1 after 8 days of inoculation
 
Keyword: Rheumatoid arthritis, Tripartite motif-containing protein 72, Disease activity score 28
 
   
Asaad Mudhehe Al-Sultani , A.M. and Najeha – M. Bari
Al-Mussaib Technical College, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, 51009 Babylon, Iraq. , [email protected]
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The study aimed to know the effect of cold aqueous and alcoholic extract of oleander flowers. Nerium oleander L. on adults and nymphs of Sunnite. The results of the study showed the superiority of the alcoholic extract compared to the aqueous extract, where the alcoholic extract gave the highest death rate of 83.3% at a concentration of 30 mg/ml during a period of 5 days compared to the aqueous extract which gave a death rate of 80.0% at a concentration of 30 mg / ml during the same period for adults. The results also showed the effect of both alcoholic and aqueous extract on the second nymphal stage, as it gave the highest mortality rate of 100.0 at a concentration of 30 mg/ml during a period of 1 day. As for the effect of the extracts on the fourth nymphal phase, both alcoholic and aqueous extracts gave the highest mortality rate of 100.0% during the 7-day period for both extracts.
 
Keyword: sunn insect, wheat, oleander
 
   
Hadeel Qutaiba Abdel Wahab Al-Azzawi , Iman Qassem Mohammed Al-Bahrani
University of Baghdad - College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - Department of Soil Sciences and Water Resources
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract:    A field experiment was conducted at one of the research stations of the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences / University of Baghdad in Al-Jadiriyah region for the autumn season 2021-2022, located within 33.27 north latitude and 44.39 east longitude, in Clay soil with a Split Plot Design design and with three replicates to study the effect of Irrigation water quality, mineral fertilizer and methods of adding marine extracts to reduce salt stress and cauliflower growth and yield. The experiment included three factors: irrigation with two types of water, the first is regular irrigation water (tap water) with an electrical conductivity of 0.9 dSm-1, and the second is saline water (waste water) with an electrical conductivity of 4.8 dSm-1 and two levels of mineral fertilizer 50% and 100% of Fertilizer Recommendation and Extracts with six different levels of supplementation (S0, S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5).Cauliflower seedlings, Prassica oleracea, cultivar Megha, were transferred to the field on 9-15-2021. Nitrogen was added by 300 kg. N ha-1 in the form of urea (46% N), and phosphate in the amount of 100 kg. P ha-1as triple superphosphate (20% p)and potassium by 150 kg. K ha-1is in the form of potassium sulfate (42% K). Soil samples were taken over the length of the experiment and time periods (30, 45, 60 and 75 days) to estimate the electrical conductivity in the soil and at the end of the season, the yield of cauliflower was estimated. The results showed the significant effect of irrigation water quality, mineral fertilizer, and methods of adding marine extracts in reducing the electrical conductivity of the soil and increasing the cauliflower yield and treatment (W1M2S5) achieved the highest significant increase in cauliflower yield, with an increased average of 47.97%, followed by treatment (W2M2S5), with an increased average of 42.63%.
 
Keyword: water quality, seaweed extracts
 
   
Hala Jumaah Asree 1 , Siham Abdulrazzaq Salim 2
1 Department of Biotechnology , Faculty of Biotechnology , University of Al-Qasim Green , Iraq.
2 Al-Musaib Technical College, Al-Furat  Al-Awsat  Technical Universtty
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate to  acquisition of a highest fresh and dry weight of the callus tissue of the Medicinal Plant Trigonella foenum-graecum L.in vitro. To obtain this target , the explant (seeds) were cultivated to induction the callus on the , Murashige and Skooge medium (  MS )   , with the effect of two plant  growth regulators  , Benzyl Adenine (BA)  in  concentration  0.0 ,0.5 , 1.0 and 1.5 mg.L-1 ,  and  Naphthalene acetic acid in (NAA)  concentration 0.0,  0.5 , 1 , and 1.5 mg.L-1 , that added to MS cultured medium. The experiment showed that the maximum fresh weight (3.094 g ) was obtained by combination  ( 1mg.L-1  BA + 1mg .L-1  NAA ) and the maximum dry weight (0.398 g ) in the same combination  .The current study has shown the superiority of the combination (1mg.L-1  BA + 1mg .L-1  NAA) in the induction of  highest fresh and dry weight of the callus tissue of the Trigonella foenum-graecum L in vitro , as in statistical tables ( 1 and 2) .
 
Keyword: Trigonella foenum-graecum L, medicinal plant, Callus , Benzyl Adenine  , NAA
 
 
Harith Hasan Khudhair and Majid Ali Hanshal
College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq
*Corresponding author:[email protected]
 
Abstract: The experiment was coundected in the fields of the research station (B) of the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad Al-Jadriya in autumn season 2022-2021, with the aim of studying the effect of vermicompost and the vernalization period on the growth and yield of broccoli, The experiment included two factors, the first: fertilizing with organic fertilizer vermicompost (M) with four concentrations (M0) without adding fertilizer, (M1) 0.5 tons of 1 ton.dunams-1, (M2) 1 ton.dunams-1, (M3) 1.5 ton.dunams-1 and the second factor: vernalization period factor (V including V0) without exposure to cold, (4) (V1 days exposed to cold, V2) 8 days exposed to cold, (V3) 12 days exposed to cold and at a temperature of 5°C ±1.The experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment according to the randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D) with three replicates and 16 treatments for each replicate, to be 48 experimental units whose averages were compared using the L.S.D test. at a probability level of 0.05 .The results were as follows: The treatment without sequencing significantly excelled in the traits of plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter, leaf area, dry weight and leaf content of chlorophyll , While the vermicompost treatment was significantly excelled to 12 days in the traits of the flowering date of 50% of the flowering curd of the plants and it reached (81.92) days and the number of days to harvest 50% of the curds was (107.33) days and the number of days to complete the harvesting process was 117.92) days. The curd diameter was (18.41) cm, the number of secondary curd was 5.04curd. plant -1, the main curd yield was 20.45 (ton ha-1), and the total yield was 28.70 (ton ha-1).
 
Keywords: growth, yield, broccoli
 
   
Ibrahim Faris Mohammed 1 ,  Firas Ibrahim Irhaim2
1Nineveh Directorate of Agriculture  , [email protected]
2 College of agriculture , University of Tikrit
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The study included calculating production costs, marketing costs and marketing margin for poultry meat in the private sector for the three marketing channels (producer - wholesaler - retailer), where information (34) products for broilers were collected using a questionnaire distributed to producers in Al-Hamdaniya District / Nineveh Governorate for the productive season. 2021, where it is clear through the study that the absolute marketing margin between the producer and retailer channels amounted to (1590.6) dinars / kg, and the relative importance of the margin reached (31.5%).It was found that the share of each of the marketing channels of the final consumer dinars was (69.23%), and the producer’s share of the consumer dinars in the wholesale market amounted to (69.43%), and the wholesaler’s share of dinars The consumer amounted to (0.21%), and the wholesaler’s share of the consumer’s dinar amounted to (30.34%), Also, through the study, it was found that the marketing efficiency of the broiler product in Nineveh Governorate, Al-Hamdaniya District, amounted to about (61.25%), and this indicates that the marketing process is efficient in relation to the product.The research also aimed to do an economic evaluation of the marketing operations of the poultry meat product in the study area, as well as calculating both production costs and marketing costs, as well as estimating the marketing margin and marketing efficiency of poultry meat producers in the study area. The study recommended some recommendations, including working to reduce the production and marketing costs borne by broiler producers, also providing production and marketing requirements at reduced and subsidized prices, as well as limiting the import of poultry meat product from foreign markets, especially in times of peak production and to support the local product, and following Special policies to develop the broiler production sector in Iraq, provide production requirements, provide good broiler varieties for production, and establish slaughterhouses that are approved by the state.
 
Keyword: production costs, marketing, poultry meat, marketing margin, broilers
 
   
Khawlah Alwan Salman 1 , Zaher G. Ewadh 2 , Mohammad Abdul Hamza Mohsin 3, Marwa Fadhil Alsaffar 4
1,2,3 Babylon Health Directorate, Iraq.
4 Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, Al-Mustaqbal University College, Iraq, 51001 Hillah, Babil, Iraq
 
Abstract: Background : Nephrotic syndrome is a common pediatrics  kidney disease  characterize by leakage of protein from the blood to the urine through damaged glomeruli  its classically  define as nephrotic range  proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia  and edema In children with nephrotic syndrome, it is probable to determine a hypothyroid state because of significant loss of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) in presence of proteinuria. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the thyroid function in children with nephrotic syndrome and its correlation with state of patients ( relapse or remission ) . Methods: A comparative study was carried out on total of 60  patients  with nephrotic syndrome (divided into two equal groups of 30  with remission and 30 with relapse ) in the age group from 1-18 years who admitted to department of nephrology in Babylon teaching  hospital for maternity and children from November 2020 to May 2021 ,serum albumin  ,serum cholesterol  ,  thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  and  thyroxine(  T4 )were done  to all patients   and the result  compared.Result : Mean age of patients was (5.74 ± 3.77) years, Majority of patients (N=42, 70.0%) was male. Hypothyroidism represent (N=19, 31.7%) of patients with nephrotic syndrome while patients with normal thyroid function (euthyroid) represented (N=41, 68.3%). There were significant differences between means of TSH and T4 according to state of patient (remission or relapse). There was significant association between state of patients and thyroid function test. Among patients with relapse (N=19, 63.3%) presented with hypothyroidism and (N=11, 36.7%) of patients presented with normal thyroid function (euthyroid state), while among those with remission all patients (N=30, 100%) presented with normal thyroid function (euthyroid state).Conclusion :Hypothyroidism is more common in nephrotic syndrome patients   during relapse state  so it's important to asses thyroid function   during relapse state .
 
Keywords: Thyroid, nephrotic syndrome, Nephrotic syndrome
 
   
Media Jabbar Reda 1*,Luma K. Bandr 2
1 Investment Plan Division/Planning and Follow-up Department/Ministry of Agriculture
2 Department of Animal Production/College of Agricultural Engineering/University of Baghdad
*Corresponding author: : [email protected]
 
Abstract: This study was conducted in the poultry fields of the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences / University of Baghdad for the period from 10/15/2021 to 11/25/2021 .To know the effect of adding different levels of Ganoderma lucidum to broiler diets on productive performance. 200 unsexed (Ross 308) chicks of one day age with a starting weight of (40) g were used. The chicks were randomly distributed into four treatments and 50 birds .one treatment included five replicates (10 birds/replicate) and the experimental treatments were as follows: T1, T2, T3, T4, and the percentages of adding reishi mushroom were 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 g/kg of feed, respectively, and the birds were fed on three starter diets, , growth and final diets, The results of this study showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the body weight rates, feed conversion factor, weight gain rate, and decreased belly fat for treatments T2, T3, and T4 to which reishi mushrooms were added in the diet of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 g/kg of feed, respectively. With control treatment (T1) without addition .It was noted that there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the average of feed consumed for treatments T1, T2 and T3 compared to treatment T4. There was a significant increase in the relative weight of the Breast cut for treatments T1, T2, and T4 compared to treatment T3. It can be concluded from this study that adding reishi mushrooms at the diets of 0.5, 1, 1.5 g/kg has a role and importance in improving the productive performance of broilers due to their high nutritional value.
 
Keyword: average body weight, weight gain, feed consumed, food conversion ratio, reishi mushrooms, major cuts.
 
   
Media Jabbar Reda 1*,Luma K. Bandr 2
1 Investment Plan Division/Planning and Follow-up Department/Ministry of Agriculture
2 Department of Animal Production/College of Agricultural Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract      This study was conducted in the poultry field of the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences / University of Baghdad for the period from 10/15/2021 to 11/25/2021 in order to show the effect of adding different levels of Ganoderma lucidum to broiler diets on physiological traits and indicators of fat oxidation in meat.In it, 200 unsexed (Ross 308) chicks of one day old breed were used, with a starting weight of (40) g. The chicks were distributed and randomly divided into four treatments with 50 birds for each treatment. One treatment included five replicates (10 birds/repeat) and the experiment treatments were T1, T2, and T3, T4 and the percentages of adding reishi mushrooms 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 g/kg of feed respectively, and the birds were fed for the duration of the experiment on three rations: the starter ration, the growth diet and the final diet,The results showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the total protein concentration and globulin concentration for T4 treatment containing reishi mushroom by 1.5 g/kg compared with the control treatment. While the results indicated a significant decrease (P<0.05) for cholesterol and HDL in the serum of T4-treated birds compared to the control treatment. In addition, the results showed that the addition of reishi mushrooms to the diets in the proportions (1 and 1.5) g/kg led to a significant decrease (P<0.05)) in the concentration of malonaldehyde (MDA) and the value of peroxide in the meat compared with the control treatment after the storage period of 30 days. It can be concluded from this study that adding reishi mushrooms to 1.5 g/kg feed has a role and importance in improving the physiological traits of blood serum and increasing the storage period of chicken meat without deteriorating its quality
 
Keyword: average body weight, weight gain, feed consumed, food conversion ratio, reishi mushrooms, major cuts.
 
   
Radhiah Najm Abd1 , Jumana Hussein2 and Ban Tahseen3
1,2,3 Dept. of Environmental Health, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Kerbala/ Iraq.
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: Background: The transcendent side effects are normally correlated with the patients' organic sex, which signifies that the crippling instruments of bleeding problems are gendered. Bleeding turmoil are hereditary diseases. This includes debilitated blood clotting which might prompt a handicap. The mechanism of inactivation of bleeding disorders is determined by the patients' gender because of the prevailing symptoms difference. It usually depends on the biological sex. Methods: Ninety-one (91) of the male\female hemophilic patients had a complete information taken for this study from their medical records in the special department for treating patients in the hospital of the city of Kerbala. Aims of the Study: The aim of the study is to determine the association between a hemophilic patient's gender and the various risk factors in addition to reveal how much these factors have their impact upon sex. Results: The results of the current paper confirmed that males 86% were more affected than females 14% by the hereditary hemorrhagic disease due to the correlation between this disease and the chromosome of sex. The age of the diagnosis of the disease in male patients was between one and five years. In female patients, a specific age of diagnosis did not appear. There were differences between sex at the age ten (10) of diagnosis and younger than that. The affected males were suffering from VIII and IX factors deficiency 54.94%, 23.07% respectively while the females did not suffer from the previously mentioned deficiency of those factors but suffered from XI factor deficiency 14.28%. Parental consanguinity had a significant impact 32.96% on the number of injuries in males, including the first 15.3 % and the fourth degree of kinship17.5 %. With reference to results of the history, they manifested that males are more than females in Epistaxis, Skin Bleeding, Join Bleeding, Muscle Bleeding, Bleeding after Trauma. No differences were found in rates of WBC and the mount of clotting factor deficiency, while we found a significant difference in platelet mean between two gender. Conclusion: According to the data, hemophilia A and B is more frequent than C of all the studied hereditary bleeding disease. The most prevalent symptom among male patients is skin bleeding. Consanguineous marriage is the main cause behind the disease. Although the disease is linked to the sex chromosome, females are also affected.
 
Keyword: hemophilia, gender, risk factors, family history of bleeding, VIII factor deficiency, IX factor deficiency.
 
   
Rand l.H.A. Al-jaryan1, Shaemaa M. H. Al-Amery2, Noor M. Naji2, Shaymaa O. H. Al-Mamoori2, Batool M. H. AL-Adily2
"1Al- QasimGreen University Soil and Water Resources Department, College of Agriculture
2 Babylon University, Collage of sciences  
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum) was planted in pots in Feb. 2019. And when the plants were in one month age the pots divided into three groups to irrigate the first one with tap water, second with treated waste water in Al Muamira station while the third  was depended on textile waste water (from Hilla factory) in irrigated. The results showed that irrigation water caused effects on phenotypic traits,  anatomy of leaves and stem.Each of leaf area, plant's length, numbers of leaves, flowers and fruits  and the highest numbers were in the second group. The plants within third groupcharacterized with significant variations in CAT, SOD,MDA and GSH. On the anatomical levelly there are many variations in stomata frequency, length and width of stomata in both upper and lower surfaces  of leaf. The type of irrigate water caused changing in the stem's anatomy, like stonés cells disappearance in third group, so increased each of length of vascular bundle and the diameter of xylem vessel.
 
Keyword: capsicumannuum, irrigated water, phonological, physiological, stone cell..
 
   
Ayat A. Alhassan¹, Ismail A. Abdulhassan² and Amina N. Al-Thwani³
"¹High Diploma, Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Baghdad.
²University of Baghdad, Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology.
³University of Baghdad, Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology.
*Correspondence: mailto:[email protected]
 
Abstract: Infertility is a disease that affects reproduction and is one of the most common marital problems, which is considered a stigma. In our society. It is considered a big problem in countries, states and developing countries (third world countries) because of the modern lifestyle. At the present time, this type of studies is looking for the causes of this problem. This study was conducted during the period from January to June 20 in the Infertility Unit in Baghdad, Iraq, on 100 men, 60 of women were infertile and 40 of them are apparently healthy and not infertile. We used Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses was used for genotyping the rs 4938723 and  rs28362491 SNPs.The aim of this study is to study the genes NF-KB1 and Mir34b/c, to measure the antibodies to sperm, and to know the immune role of interleukin-6 in infertile and non-sterile men.that the genes appeared with desirable and natural results.Where the proportion of gene was (P≤0.05) These results were the lowest compared to previous studies studied on the same genes.
 
Keywords: DNA, Genotype, PCR, Blood,
 
   
Hayder A. Shanan1*, Khaleed F. El Bagoury2, Abdullah M. Abdelmaqsoud3 and Waleed K. ElHelew2*
"1 Department of Agricultural Machines and Equipment, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq.
2 Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain shams University, Egypt.
3 Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain shams University, Egypt.
*Corresponding author: [email protected], [email protected]
 
Abstract: This paper presents the experimental for the types of mixers used in mixing natural gas with air to operate the irrigation pump to save energy, many of measurements were carried 2021 year in workshops of Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Egypt. Used engine single-cylinder, air-cooled. A new pump with a discharge diameter of 2 inches, which was an Egyptian manufacture. Several types of mixers were manufactured to mix natural gas with air before entering the engine.  Using iron pipes of different diameters, three types of mixers were used Mixer with a perforated inner tube of 8, 10. 12cm (L8, L10, L12) selected determine the four shaft speeds (1750, 2300, 2900 and 3500 rpm) using the engine speed measuring device. The results here dealt with study the analysis of technical indicators for the types of mixers used in mixing natural gas with air to operate the irrigation pump. where the actual power (Braking power) is superior to all types when operating with gasoline was (3.07 kW). A comparison with the use of natural gas, where the mixer type (L10) (2.69 kW) was 10% less than gasoline. the lowest Specific fuel consumption (s. fc) for gasoline was (219.025 gm/Kw.h) at an engine speed of (2900 rpm), The lowest (S.fc) for the types of mixers was the mixer (L10) was (340.144 gm/Kw.h) at an engine speed of (2900 rpm). The highest pump discharge was with the L8 mixer (32.98 m3/h), an increase of 1.8% over gasoline at an engine speed of (3500 rpm), The highest actual hydraulic power with L10 type mixer compared to other type L mixers (0.782 kW) was 12 % lower than that of gasoline. As for the economic indicators the lowest Internal Rate of Return (IRR) was Gasoline ( 0.44),  and the highest (IRR) when carrying the mixer type (L8) was (0.60) an increase of 26.6 % over gasoline. the lowest payback period was the type of mixer (L8) was (1.66 year), and the highest payback period When the Gasoline it was (2.27 year).
 
Keywords:  irrigation pump, natural gas, gasoline, mixer, Engine speed, power, economic.
 
   
Sarah Alauladdine Abdulhameed1*and Bushra Jasim Mohammed2**
1,2Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for Post Graduate Studies, University of Baghdad ,Iraq
*Corresponding author: Email:[email protected]
 
Abstract: Background: Tumor necrosis factor alpha TNF-α) is pro-inflammatory cytokine which involved in pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis. Current study was designed to examine the association in between TNF-α level and TNF-α gene polymorphisms in Multiple Sclerosis of Iraqi patents. Subjects and methods: Blood samples were collected from fifty Iraqi patents suffered from Multiple Sclerosis (20 men and 30 women) with age ranged between 23-54 years, and 50 apparently healthy volunteers as a control group. Serum level of TNF-α was detected by using Enzyme-Linked Immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) and TNF-α-308 gene polymorphism was assessed by TaqMan Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (Taq-RT-PCR). Results: The results of estimation TNF-α level showed high elevation in patients group (4.88 ± 0.17 pg/ml) with high significance difference (P≤0.01) as compared with control group (2.96 ± 0.09 pg/ml). While detection of   TNF-α-308 polymorphism  in MS patients  revealed that the wild genotype  G/G was 3 (6.00%),  heterogeneous genotype GA was 15 (30.00%), and homogeneous  genotype AA was 32 (46.00%), whilst G allele  frequency was 0.21 and A allele was 0.79 with significant difference (P≤ 0.005) and even as in control G/G genotype was 47 (94 %), GA genotype was 3 (6.00%), AA genotype was 0 (0.00%), G allele frequency was 0.97 and  A allele was 0.03 with significant difference (P≤ 0.01). Conclusion: The result revealed there was a significant difference between TNF-α-308 genotype and TNFα serum level in MS patients and control.
 
Keywords: TNF-α-308,MS, ELISA, Taq-PCR.
 
   
Zahraa Khudhair Abbas Al-Khafaji1,2, Hassanin sabah hashim 1,2*, Maryam Jabbar Nasser1,2 and Mohammed A. Dabbi3
1 Medical laboratory Technique Department, The Islamic University, Diwaniya, IRAQ.
2 Research and Studies Department, The Islamic university, Najaf, Iraq.
3 Nursing Department, Al-mustaqbal University collage, Babylon, Iraq.
 
Abstract: At present, extensive varieties of pesticides are being used but the demand for Organophosphorus pesticide is increasing globally to control insects. Chlorpyrifos is a broad-spectrum, highly toxic, and chlorinated organophosphate insecticide that is synthetic in origin and is normally ester or thiol derivatives of phosphoric. The mode of action involves inhibiting acetyl-cholinesterase leading to the accumulation of acetylcholine causing neurotoxicity. Bacteria capable of degrading the pesticide, chlorpyrifos, were isolated from  soil contaminated with pesticides. In this way, three distinct chlorpyrifos degrading strains of p.mendocina were isolated, characterized using morphological and biochemical analysis. Strains were exhibited the greatest chlorpyrifos degradation rate reach to 100% and was consequently selected for further investigation. Degradation of chlorpyrifos by strains  were rapid at 20 and 37C. bacteria species  were able to effectively degrade chlorpyrifos in sterilized medium using high inoculum levels. The maximum degradation rate of chlorpyrifos was calculated as 100% during 6-12 days . Bacteria such as strain PC1, that use chlorpyrifos as a carbon source, could be employed for the biordegradation of sites contaminated with pesticides.
 
Keywords: Biodegradation, organophosphate, Chlorpyrifos, pseudomonas putida, Hplc.
 
   
Maryam Jabbar Nasser1,2, Doaa AbdulWahid Jasim1,2, Ammar Nabil Mujjed1,2 and Dr. Nagham Mahmood Aljamali*3
1Medical Laboratory Technique Department, The Islamic University, Diwaniya, Iraq
2Research and Studies Department, The Islamic University, Najaf, Iraq
3Professor, Ph.D., Department of Chemistry, Synthetic Organic Chemistry, Iraq.
 
ABSTRACT: Wastewater contains many bacteria that cause many diseases. For example, one gram of body output (sweat, urine or feces) contains 10 million viruses, in addition to a million bacteria. For example, salmonella bacteria that lead to typhoid fever and gastroenteritis. Shigella bacteria cause diarrheal diseases, and Escherichia coli causes vomiting and diarrhea, and may lead to dehydration, especially in children. Leptospira bacteria cause inflammatory diseases of the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system, while Vibrio bacteria cause cholera. These types of bacteria and others cause various diseases as a result of dealing with water contaminated with sewage, whether by drinking, bathing, or even eating fish caught from this water, instead of staying near contaminated water bodies, it can be referred to diseases such as polio, yellow fever, scabies and malaria
 
Keywords: Bacteria, Disease, Environment, Microbial, contamination.
 
   
Rima N. Hasan and Ali Anok Njum*
Samawa technical institute, AL-Furat AL-Awsat Technical University. Iraq
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: A total of 150 blood and stool samples maturing between the ages of 10 and 60 were collected and cultured on BHI medium, MacConkey, and XLD. agars were all found to contain Salmonella typhi after biochemical testing for the bacteria. Disconnects of Salmonella typhi and 12 segregates of the pathogen were detected in the stool and blood cultures, respectively. Similarly, seropositive serum samples from patients infected with salmonella tested by ELISA assay to evaluate the concentration of cytokines and immune marks(IL-18,TNF-B,CD8 and CD4). Results showed that acute cases of disease express high level of cytokine and immune marks as compared with chronic and asymptomatic infection                                          
 
Key word. Immunity, CD Markers, cytokines and salmonella.    
 
   
Salim Abdullah Younis Al-Ghazal*, Waleed Khalid Shahatha AL-juheiehy and Moyassar Mohammed Aziz
Department of Field Crops, College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul, Iraq
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during the spring agricultural season of 2021 in two locations, the first in the village of Al-Tilga (10 km northwest of Mosul) and the second in the village of Al-Shuhada (35 km west of Mosul). The experiment was applied according to a randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D) with a split plot system. Where the levels of bio-fertilizer occupied the main plots and the levels of humic acid and seaweed extract (Alggren-Twin) secondary plots and in three replications and the two factors of the study were as follows: The first factor was biofertilizer (Bactofed) at two levels of zero and 750 ml / 1000 L of water / ha. The second factor is four levels of two levels of seaweed extract with the trade name (Algaren Twin): 3 and 6 ml /L of water. The third and fourth levels are 8 and 16 kg / ha of humic acid. The results of the study were as follows: The addition of bio-fertilizer caused a significant increase in plant height, the yield of fresh and dry forage, number of dahlias per plant, the weight of panicles grains, and grain yield of individual and total plants in both locations. Also, the addition of seaweed extract and humic acid increased in most of the studied traits, to achieve the highest average for most traits and in both locations at the level of humic acid 16 kg/ha. The interaction between biofertilizer, seaweed extract and humic acid had a significant effect on most of the studied traits.
 
Keywords: Boi-fertilizer, Humic acid, Sea Algae, Sudn agrass, Sorghum sudanense L.
 
   
Abeer Ali Kadhim 1 ; Muntaha M. Al-Kattan 2 ,Ahmed M. Abou 3
1,2 College of Sciences Depart. of Biology, University of Mosul, [email protected]
3 Al-Salam Teaching Hospital and Nineveh Health Directorate, [email protected]
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The oxidative stress (OS) and the sperm DNA fragmentation have been associated with sub-infertility in males and infertility due to lack of means of protection and defense (antioxidants) for spermatozoa, and an increase in reactive oxygen spices (ROS) related to wrong life style (cigarettes and hookah) or what also known as Shisha. The study included (90) men between the ages of (23-40) years, (60) infertile men who smoked cigarettes and hookahs, they were divided into two groups, the first oligozoospermia and the second asthenozoospermia, according to the guidelines of the World Health Organization for seminal fluid analysis (SFA), 5th edition, WHO(2010). Each group included (30) smoking infertile males with a control group included (30) non-smoking fertile males. The study aimed to estimate the concentration level of Ascorbic Acid (AA) in the seminal plasma of two groups of infertile men smoking cigarettes and hookahs using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, with calculating the concentration of Malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as estimating the percentage of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) using sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD), Halo view. In comparison with healthy fertile men of non-smokers of cigarettes and hookahs as one of the biomarkers of oxidative stress in infertile men in Nineveh Governorate-Iraq. The results indicated that there were significant differences at the probability level (p<0.01) for the studied parameters (AA, MDA, SDF) compared to the control group (fertile men), the results showed an increase in the percentage of sperm DNA fragmentation with increasing the concentration of MDA in seminal plasma and decreasing the concentration of AA.Conclusion: Cigarette and hookah smoking increased the generation of ROS with a decrease in the water-soluble non-enzymatic antioxidant Ascorbic acid (AA) and thus increased the oxidative processes of the plasma membranes of spermatozoa and the occurrence of oxidative stress and impaired fertility and causes infertility.
 
Keywords: male infertility, oxidative stress, sperm DNA fragmentation, Ascorbic acid, MDA.
 
   
Ali Hammoud Raheef Al-Shammari, Amira Imran Hussein Al-Janabi
College of Environmental Sciences, Al-Qasim Green University, Iraq, [email protected]
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract:   The aim of this study is to prove the ability of Chlorella vulgaris to treat some pollutants such as nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, ammonia, the chemical oxygen requirement and some heavy metals such as cadmium and copper present in the water of municipal wastewater treatment plants. Water samples were taken from Al-Rumaitha Central Water Treatment Plant, Al-Muthanna Governorate, Iraq. Contaminated water was added to the algal culture after the algae reached to the Stationary phase, after 10 days of growth. The tests were performed on the water after two periods of time, the first after 4 days of the algae reaching to the Stationary phase and the second after 8 days before the arrival of the algae to the Death phase. The results showed a high efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris in treating polluted water. Where the percentage of removal after 4 days of exposure period was as follows, BOD5 86.6%, nitrate 62.9%, nitrite 14.7%, ammonia 94.2%, phosphate 86.2%. As for the heavy elements, they were as follows: copper 98.9%, cadmium 94.75%. While after 8 days of the treatment process, the efficiency of the algae was better than the previous days, where the results showed the following removal percentages, BOD5 88.4%, nitrate 63.7%, nitrite 23%, ammonia 97.9%, phosphate 87.3%. As for heavy metals, the percentages were as follows: copper 99.2%, cadmium 97.9%. The results of this study showed the efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris in the treatment process and its high ability to remove pollutants from water, especially nutrients and heavy metals, and thus green algae is a promising, highly efficient and environmentally friendly biological treatment technology.
 
Keyword: heavy metals, Chlorella vulgaris, wastewater
 
   
Fatima Ibrahim Hussein and Abdu lbaqi D.S Al Maamouri
University of Baghdad , College of Agriculture Engineering Science
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of fulvic and humic acids in the kinetics of phosphorus liberation and adsorption in calcareous soils, as they were added at levels of 20 and 40 kg.H-1 with three levels of phosphorus in the form of triple superphosphate fertilizer, 0, 50 and 100 kg. H-1, the five kinematic equations were used which are the zero order equation, the first order equation, the exponential function equation, the diffusion equation and the Eloveg equation. The results showed the superiority of the exponential function equation, as it gave the highest values of the determination coefficient R2 was 0.953 and the lowest standard error value SEe amounted to 0.0584 and the superiority of fulvic acid over humic acid in increasing the speed of release of the added phosphorous at both levels and with an increase rate of 72.0, 45.5 and 25.0% at Level 20 kg.ha-1, 41.2, 7.1 and 19.7% at the level of 40 kg.ha-1 And the levels of added phosphorous were 0, 50 and 100 kg H-1, respectively, and the results showed in the adsorption experiment that the type of acid had an effect on the values of binding energy k and maximum adsorption Xm, as fulvic acid outperformed humic acid in reducing them and the percentage of decrease in energy values was Binding 38.7, 41.5 and 52.2%. As for the maximum adsorption values, the percentage of decrease was 44.2, 46.2 and 44.7%. An increase in the maximum adsorption values with time was also observed, as they were 1714, 2075 and 2083 µgP.gm-1 soil. The average binding energy values were 1.55 and 1.83 and 2.34 µg P.gm-1 in the case of humic, while in the case of Volvic, the maximum adsorption values were 955.5, 1079.5 and 1151.5 µg P.gm-1 in soil, while the binding energy values were 0.95, 1.07 and 1.11 ml. µg P-1 during three time periods. of adding both acids to the soil are 20, 60 and 100 days, respectively.
 
Keywords: fulvic acid, humic acid, phosphate, kinetics, adsorption calcareous soil
 
   
Hajer Walid Khammas Jaafar1,*, Ghid Hassan Abdulhadi1, Mohammad Hadi Munshid2
1 College of Medicine, University of Baghdad
2 Baghdad Teaching Hospital
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: All major organs may be impacted by the connective disease systemic lupus erythematosus, which is also a separate risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Adhesion molecules like intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) can be used to detect endothelial damage and dysfunction, which appear to play a crucial role. This study investigated whether people with SLE had elevated risk factors for both subclinical and clinical atherosclerosis. This elevation cannot be entirely explained by traditional CAD risk factors such as smoking, hypertension and hyperlipidemia; It is thought that immunological dysfunction also increases CAD risk in SLE patient. The study aimed to assess early endothelial changes in SLE Iraqi female patients without previous coronary artery lesions by explored a potential relationship between circulating VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 as risk factors for atherosclerosis and the relationship of CAD with SLE disease and its severity; further, the study explained the effect of the hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on the lipid profile levels of the patients. In total 92 female SLE patients divided into mild, moderate and sever, according to the SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2k), compare with 30 apparently healthy control individual. All of them without history of CAD.  Serum VCAM-1, ICAM-1levels, VCAM-1/ICAM-1 ratio, TC, HDL, LDL levels TC/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios were measured. sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 levels and VCAM-1/ICAM-1 ratio were significantly and gradually increased in patient groups compared with control. Serum TC, HDL and LDL levels significantly reduced in the SLE patients compared to control, while the TC/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios were significantly elevated with the severity of the SLE disease. sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 levels and VCAM-1/ICAM-1 ratio together with serum TC/HDL and LDL/HDL may offer an improvement in the risk categorization of coronary artery disease in SLE patients that without acute coronary syndromes. Furthermore, they were more sensitive in severe SLE instances than the moderate and mild ones, suggesting that they may be related to the extent of coronary lesions in SLE patients. VCAM-1 had a higher sensitivity than ICAM-1 in detecting and severity screening for CAD in SLE patients.
 
Keyword: VCAM-1, ICAM-1, SLE, Atherosclerosis
 
   
Hiba Mahdi Abdul-Hussein and Kareem U. Hassan
"College of Agricultural Engineering, University of Baghdad.Iraq.
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in clay mixture soil according to the randomized complete block design with three replicates in one of the fields of the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences / University of Baghdad. The study aims to identify the effect of the bio fertilizer (Bacillus megaterium) and the addition of yeast on the availability of phosphorus, the yield, and growth of onions after adding 50% of the fertilizer recommendation for phosphorus. The study results showed the superiority of Bacillus megaterium treatment in the phosphorous availability, yield, vegetative growth and phosphatase enzyme activity (7.444 mg.kg-1, 0.540%, 0.298%, 35.521 μg) respectively. In comparison, the treatment of not adding Bacillus megaterium gave an average of (4.113 mg.kg-1, 0.363%, 0.198%, and 23.740 µg) respectively. Also, the results of the interaction between Bacillus megaterium and yeast showed the superiority of the treatment of adding yeast spraying to the vegetative part in the concentration of phosphorous in the soil. Besides, the yield, the vegetative part, the activity of phosphatase enzyme (5.925 mg.kg-1, 0.480%, 0.292%, 32.483 μg) respectively compared to the treatments of no yeast addition (5.630 mg.kg-1, 0.423%, 0.205%, and 26.778 μg)..
 
Keywords: Biofertilizer, Yeast, Soil, Onions
 
   
Hussam Majeed Kadhim1, Marzah Hamzah Hadi2 ,  Adil Abaed Hassoni3
1,2,3 Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University,Al-Musayyib Technical College
 
Abstract: This study was conducted at the AL- Musayyib Technical College / Department of Biological-Control Techniques for the period from 1/10 /2021 to 1/4 /2022. The study aimed to of the effectiveness of essential oils (anise, clove) and Bacillus thuringienesis in controlling Varroa mites (Varroa destructor) on honey bees Apis mellifera .The results revealed that the efficiency of the bacterial suspension with different concentrations was less effective in the average destruction of the adult Varroa mite in the field compared with Epistan pesticide and the control treatment in which only distilled water was used and the natural fall of the Varroa mite. The highest mean of Varroa mites killed using the bacterial suspension spray at a concentration of (33 x 106) CFU/ml after 48 hours of treatment was (6.63), which indicates a significant difference with the control treatment, which amounted to (4.54), while the lowest mean of Varroa death was at a concentration of (33). × 104) CFU / ml after 24 hours of treatment, as it reached (4.25). As for the Epistan pesticide treatment, it was used for the purpose of comparing it with the rest of the results of the study, where the pesticide treatments were significantly superior in all time periods on the concentrations of the bacterial suspension and the control treatment and the natural fall with a significant difference, the average of death was (34.25, 34.00, 31.46, 27.4, 42.25) after ( 24, 48, 72, 96, 142) hours, respectively.  The results  showed that the treatment of bee hives by the method of cotton soaked in essential oil (for cloves, anise) had a significant effect on the average mortality of Varroa mites .  it was shown that clove essential oil was significantly superior to the essential oil of anise with two concentrations (1, 2) ml/cell in the time periods (24,48) hours after treatment.Whereas, the average mortality of Varroa at a concentration of (1) ml/cell of clove oil (19.12, 23.17), while at a concentration of (2) ml/cell, it reached (27.17, 32.12) after (24, 48) hours, respectively. While the average mortality of Varroa mites was at a concentration of (1) ml/cell of anise oil (17.4, 21.00), while at concentration (2) ml/cell it reached (24.96, 28.83) after (24, 48) hours, respectively compared with the control treatment and the natural fall.
 
Keyword: Bacillus thuringienesis, Pimpinella anisum, Varroa destructor,Apis mellifera.
 
   
Inas Abdulsattar Abduljabbar1, Khalid Saad Ahmed 2
1Al-Mussaib Technical College, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Iraq
2 College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq                 
*Corresponding author: [email protected],  [email protected]
 
Abstract: Lemongrass  (Cymbopogon citratus)  is  an  herb  that  belongs  to  the  genus Cymbopogon of aromatic grasses and contains volatile oil with fine lemon flavor there is dearth of information on how drying affects the chemical content and specific qualities promoting properties of the leaves. Hence, this study sought to investigate the effect of different drying methods and soaking with ascorbic acid on the chemical content and specific qualities of oil in the leaves of the lemongrass plant. An experiment was applied according to the CRD design. The experiment included two factors, first factor: Soaking with ascorbic acid at a concentration of (0.5) g / L for 15 minutes. In addition to a non-soaking treatment and the second factor: the drying methods (solar drying, shadow drying, electric oven drying at a temperature of 40 °C for a period of 8 hours) in addition to the comparison by soft weight. The following characteristics were measured (percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, volatile oil, oil density and oil refractive index) and the results were statistically analyzed using the SAS statistical analysis program. The mean of the coefficients was compared according to the Duncan polynomial test. The results showed significantly superior drying in the oven over other treatments, as well as superior soaking of ascorbic over non-soaking treatment and gave the interference (drying in the oven + soaking with ascorbic) the highest averages of the studied traits amounted to (2.3806)% for nitrogen and (2.691)% for potassium and (1.092)% for volatile oil and (0.879) mg / microliter of volatile oil density. The differences between these drying methods selection were significant variations in the oil content of lemongrass leaves and election in obtaining products with high yield Essential oil compositions have also been observed to be dependent on the drying conditions. However, the order of preference of the drying methods which ensures adequate retention of chemical content and volatile oil of the leaves as observed in this study is oven drying > shadow drying > sun drying >, in the order of decreasing magnitude.
 
Keyword: lemongrass, drying methods, ascorbic, chemical composition
 
   
Mustafa Farqad A.Hameed Al-Sammarraie  , Mohammed Hassan Bahia
College of Agricultural Engineering, University of Baghdad.Iraq.
*Corresponding author: [email protected], [email protected]
 
Abstract: This study aims to verify the predictability of selected measured properties of soil and plants at depletion rates of available water and the use of soil conditioners, using the root zone water quality model RZWQM2. A field experiment was conducted for the cultivation of the Cabbage crop for the autumn season of 2021 at the field experiment station F / College of Agricultural Sciences in Al-Jadiriyah region, Baghdad- Iraq. The effect of depletion rates of available water and the addition of soil conditioners on dry weight, yield, water consumption, reference and potential evapotranspiration, water absorption by the plant, and the crop water use efficiency of the Cabbage plant, was evaluated using the model RZWQM2. The experiment treatments were: D1: Irrigation after depleting 30% of available water, D2: Irrigation after depleting 60% of available water, C0: without addition, C1: adding organic matter (Compost) 20 Mg.ha-1, C2: adding perlite 4 Mg.ha-1, C3: adding organic matter (Compost) 10 Mg.ha-1 + perlite 2 Mg.ha-1. A scenario was created in the RZWQM2 model to simulate the studied traits at filed conditions. The results showed that the percentage of depleting 30% of available water was better than the percentage of depleting 60% of available water using the RZWQM2 model, at dry weight, yield, water consumption, reference, and potential evapotranspiration, water absorption by the plant, and the crop water use efficiency of the Cabbage plant. Also, the treatment of adding compost exceeded the rest of the conditioners and the comparison treatment at depletion rates of 30 and 60% of available water in the measured properties. Furthermore the treatment of adding compost reduced water consumption compared to the rest of the study treatments.
 
Keywords: RZWQM2 Model, Water Consumption, Cabbage, Brassica oleracea L.
 
   
Najla Hussen Saper Al Garory , Sinan J. Abdul-Abbas, Alaa G. Al-Hashimi
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Agriculture University of Basrah, Iraq.
*Corresponding author: [email protected] .
 
Abstract: Fermented dairy has a profound effect on human health. Fermented dairy foods affect human health through the secretion of biologically active compounds through microorganisms' protein digestion and the interaction between beneficial microbes present in them and the intestine. An unbalanced diet and an unhealthy lifestyle are directly linked to inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhea, hypersensitivity, lactose intolerance, and gastroenteritis. Studies have shown that fermented dairy products (fermented milk, yogurt, cheese, koumiss, kefir) helped in the immune response against pathogens by adding antioxidants, anti-microbials, anti-fungals, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-atherosclerotic agents. Fermented products have also been widely used as the most effective means of delivering beneficial or digestible probiotic microbes. Fermented milk has many health benefits. It relieves the symptoms of lactose intolerance and is used to prevent colon cancer. Several studies have indicated the ability of lactic acid bacteria to prevent and inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Curd also has a laxative effect and facilitates the passage of waste, which contributes to preventing the risk of constipation and its complications, such as diverticulosis and colon cancer. The results of scientific research have shown the ability of the metabolites found in fermented milk and other foods containing it to further improve the immune capabilities of the intestine through increasing immune proteins IGA, which helps humans in the prevention and protection of diarrhea and intestinal infections, especially in children, Fermented milk is also used to reduce the severity of the winter cold. It was used as a vital stimulant in treating patients with cold, influenza, and colds. The results showed a remarkable difference in the ability of these vital stimulants to reduce the severity and duration of colds and colds, but they did not show an effect in the treatment of influenza in addition. Fermented milk reduces allergy to milk protein, as many people suffer from milk protein allergy. the focus in this article is mainly on the health effects and the most important functional components of fermented milk, thus providing an excellent opportunity to develop functional dairy products supported by new lactic acid bacteria that support human health.
 
Keywords: Fermented Dairy Products, Human Health, Fermented
 
 
67.  Myrtus Communis is a plant that can be used to clean up hydrocarbon pollution
 
Wafaa  Subhi  Kazem,*, Amira Imran Al-Janabi
Al-Qasim Green University , College of Environmental Sciences
*Corresponding author: [email protected] .
 
Abstract: The current study's aim is to see if phytoremediation can be utilized to treat soil that has been contaminated with crude oil, and it used the  Myrtus Communis  plant, which was grown in industrially polluted soil, to do so. With four crude oil concentrations: 25, 50, 75, and 100 g/kg The soil was clayey clay with mild alkalinity and acidity, according to the results of the physical and chemical investigation. The findings revealed the impact of crude oil on various soil parameters, including low pH and high total nitrogen, moisture content, organic matter, EC, and the total carbon to total nitrogen ratio. Plant phenotypic and biochemical measurements, such as chlorophyll Super oxide dismutase ( SOD), Catalase activity (CAT) measurement, were also included in the study. in addition, sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified. As priority pollutants recognized by the US Environmental Protection Agency as naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorine, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysine, and benzene [b] in plants by extraction and chromatography utilizing HPLC analysis technique. The results show that majority of these chemicals accumulate in Myrtus Communis  including benzo[k]fluoranthene,benzo[a]pyrene,dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3cd-pyrene]. After a month of testing, in the plant, demonstrating the plant's efficacy in eliminating polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).
 
Keyword: Phytoremediation, Myrtus Communis, accumulation, HPLC analysis, poly aromatic  hydrocarbons (PAH).
 
   
Ausama Y. Salih1,*, Hayder Kh. Ibraheem1
1Department Of Horticulture And Landscape Design, College Of Agricultural Engineering Sciences , University Of Baghdad, Iraq ; [email protected]
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: This study was conducted in one of  lathe house that follows to station (B) in Horticultural and Landscape Design – Agricultural Engineering Sciences-University of  Baghdad (Al Jadria ), to investigate   effect of foliar spraying of Gibbrllen and soil application of Humic Acid on Tangerine Saplings (Citrus reticula L.). The experiment describes there were significant effect from GA and Humic acid upon most of vegetative characteristics like (Height of plant, number of shoots, number of leaves and percentage of dry matter in vegetative system ) ,also there were  an especial effect for two factors on  most Root tarts such as (root's volume, number of roots , root diameter and percentage of  dry matter in root system) and they have significant effect on rest leave chemical contents traits under consideration. On other hand the interaction between two factors has significant effect upon most tarts under investigation.
 
Keyword: mandarin, Gibbrllen, Humic Acid , vegetative and root system.
 
   
Ruaa Atiya Hadid1, Ridha Mustafa Abdul Hussein Al-Ubaidy  2
1 College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad;
2 College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad;
* Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The research was conducted at Research Station (A) of the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad in autumn season 2022-2021 to know the effect of spraying the organic fertilizer Fertiorgan and adding potassium fertilizer on the growth and yield of red cabbage. The research was cabbage according to a randomized complete block design R.C.B.D and with three replications. The first factor included spraying with the organic nutrient (Fertiorgan) with three concentrations (0, 1.5 and 3 ml. L-1) symbolized by F0, F1, F2 respectively. The second factor included the addition of potassium fertilizer in the form of potassium sulfate at four levels (0, 100, 135 and 170 kg.ha-1) with a symbol K0, K1, K2, K3 respectively. The results showed the superiority of the concentration (3 ml. L-1) of the organic nutrient in the characteristics of plant height (47.53 cm), stem length (18.83 cm), a number of outer leaves (18.74 leaves. plant-1) and leaf area (1214.96 dm2.plant-1). The dry weight of the vegetative total was (225.92 g) and the total yield (45.53 tons. ha-1), and the level (170 kg. ha-1) of potassium fertilizer showed a significant increase for the same trait above, reaching (45.80 cm) and (17.72 cm) and ( 18.18 leaves. plant-1), (1171.02 dm2.plant-1), (208.11 g) and (40.48 tons. ha-1), As for the two working interactions, the interaction treatment (F2K3) was excelled in giving it the highest values for these traits, as it reached (52.62 cm), (21.39 cm), (21.55 leaves. ) and (1296.97 dm2.plant-1) and (248.33 gm) and (50.00 tons.ha-1)
 
Keywords: organic nutrients, red cabbage, potassium fertilizer, Fertiorgan
 
   
Rafid S. Al Ubori1,*, Alaa Ahmed Obaid1
1 Department of Field Crop Science, College of Agriculture, Al-Qasim Green University, Babylon, Iraq;
* Correspondence anher email: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The experiment was conducted in Babylon province, Al-Shomali district, during the winter season 2020-2021 in a clay-loam soil texture. to study the effect of cultivars and planting distances between rows and comparison between tillers and the interaction on growth, grain yield and their components in wheat crop. The complete randomized block design RCBD was used in the study to four cultivars of bread wheat (C1 : Buhooth 22 – C2 : French wafea – C3: S 483 and C4 :  IPA 99). The experiment was analyzed using the spilt plot design into complete randomized block design with three replicates, the cultivars were considered included main plot and the study of tillers in plants was the sub plot (T1 : main tiller – T2 : Second tiller and T3 : Third tiller). The most important results can be summarized as follows: The results showed the C3 cultivar excelled in plant height, number of tillers, flag leaf area, number of spikes m-2, spike length, number of grains per spike, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index, while the C4 cultivar was excelled in chlorophyll content and grain 1000 weight. The tillerring system showed the main tiller T1 excelled on the rest of the tillers in each chlorophyll content, flag leaf area, spike length, number of grains per spike,  grain 1000 weight,   germination power,  germination speed,  percentage of germination,  seedling weight and the percentage of protein, The interaction between cultivars and tillers appeared  C4T1 excelled in chlorophyll content, spike length and grain 1000 weight, while C1T2 excelled in plant height, C3T1 interaction in flag leaf area and the number of grains per spike.
 
Keywords: cultivars, seeds, tiller, wheat.
 
   
Manal S. Mahdi1, Raghad S. Mouhamad2,*, Risala H. Allami3, Khlood A. Al-Khafaji1
1 Tikrit University, College of Agriculture, Deportment of food science, Tikrit-Iraq.
2 Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq; [email protected]
3  College of Biotechnology, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq.
 
Abstract: Obesity is a major problem in human health and increases the chances of various diseases such as type 2 diabetes, particularly heart disease, systemic hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular and certain types of cancer, and arthritis and authorities. Obesity is a significant health problem in human beings. The overweight, overweight individuals at various ages (50-65y) and the BMI (kg/m2) were >25 visiting Al-Mustansiriyah University/Baghdad National Diabetes Centre. The research period was between October 2018 and June 2019.  This was randomised, controlled, uni blind test with a parallel design (1 control and 2 therapy groups) comparing the effects on 75 overweight individuals and obese during a 12-wk intervention period of standard Canola oil and nanoemulsion canola oil. In addition to the traditional Canola oil group (CCO, n=25) and the canola nanoemulsion groups (NCO, n=25) who used the customary dietary ingredients, the control group participants (CO, n=25). Confirmation of fatty acids showed that oleic acid affected the principal fatty acid by a mean percentage up to 61.6±5.78 followed by linoleic and alpha linoleic respectively, which represented 21.7±3.1 and 9.6±0.87.Nanoemulsion canola oil emulsified with a sonic effect by means of the tween 80 and a milipore 0,22 μm of tiny nonionic surfactant molecule. There has been no change in the indices of body composition (body weight, fatty body, total slurry tissue and bone mineral density). Fasting glucose reduction seen following nanoemulsion canola oil ingestion. Experimental findings showed that no major fluid profile alterations between and between treatments. In both canola oil groups, however, LDL-cholesterol reduced compared to sunflower oil while participant intake HDL-cholesterol rose. On the other hand triglyceride in the canola oil group rose in the three groups with a similar total concentration of cholesterol. The leptin level in the nanoemulsion canola oil group was significantly less compared with the control group, but the leptin exclusion was not significant in classical and canola oil groups The leptin level was significantly reduced.
 
Keywords: Chronic conditions; nano-production; diet of feed; pressures of the blood.
 
   
Zainab G. Aljassim1,*, Haitham M. Kadhim2, Abbas S. Al-mizraqchi3   
1 Pharmacology department, College of Dentistry, Baghdad University;
2 Pharmacology & Toxicology department, College of Pharmacy, Al-Nahrain University;
3   Medical microbiology department, College of Dentistry, Baghdad University;
* Correspondence: : [email protected]
 
"Abstract: Pleurotus ostreatus or oyster mushroom, is a common edible wild mushroom characterized by its high nutritional values and promising diverse biological activities. It contains many bioactive components which have been found to possess several therapeutic functions. Because of the rising threat in the treatment of serious and resistant infections, there is a developing need to discover a new treatment strategies and compounds that can be used effectively to eradicate infections. This study aims to evaluate and measure the antimicrobial activity and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and Minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of Pleurotus ostreatus methanol and aqueous crude extracts on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Mutans Streptococci, Lactobacillus, and Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activity of mushroom extracts was evaluated against ten purified microbial isolates using agar disc diffusion assay, and minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentration assay. The results show that P. ostreatus methanol and aqueous crude extracts revealed antibacterial activity against the tested microorganisms and growth inhibition zone were formed. Methanol crude extract show more potent growth inhibition than the aqueous extract and in a lower concentrations. This present study shows that the tested oyster mushroom extracts possesses antimicrobial effects on different pathogens. Methanol crude extract of P. ostreatus revealed more powerful antibacterial and antifungal activity than the aqueous crude extract.
 
Keywords: Oyster mushroom, Antimicrobial activity, Methanol crude extract.
 
   
Tamara Walid Basil M. Khalid1, and Kais Kassim Ghaima2,*
1 Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for postgraduate studies, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
2 Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for postgraduate studies, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
*Correspondence:  [email protected]"
 
Abstrac:TThe urinary tract infections with K. pneumoniae have increased over many years. The emergence of antibiotic resistance among these bacteria presents a challenging problem for the clinician in terms of manage-ment and treatment of infections. The multidrug resistance in K. pneumoniae  is due to several mechanisms, one of which is the role of efflux pumps.  The current study investigated the role of Efflux Pump Inhibitors Phenylalanine-Arginine β-Naphthylamide (PAβN) and Berberine as an antibacterial agent with multidrug re-sistant K. pneumonia isolates from urinary tract infections.  The collection of study samples has taken place at the period between December 2021 and completed at end of April 2022, it included 260 urine samples collect-ed from outpatients and inpatients suffering from urinary tract infections during this period, from   both   gender   with   ages   ranging   from 15 to 72 years in five hospitals in Baghdad. The results of selective me-dia, biochemical tests, and VITEK2 system identified 76 isolates (65.5%) as K. pneumoniae from all collected bacterial cultures. The results of the antimicrobial susceptibility test by using the disc diffusion method for the isolates under study showed that K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were moderately resistant to the majority of the antibiotics tested. The majority of K. pneumoniae isolates were highly resistant to Amoxicillin (96.1%) and Trimethoprim (80.3%), also, it was obvious resistance to Gentamicin, and Amikacin, while the lowest percent-age of resistance was for Meropenem (55.1%) and Ciprofloxacin (53.9%). The susceptibility of the strains to Ciprofloxacin was highly increased in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor (PAβN). The PAβN reduced the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) by 4- to 64-fold. The results of minimum inhibitory concentra-tions (MICs) of Berberine against ten K. pneumoniae isolates with multidrug resistance revealed that the range of MICs of Berberine was (3.9-500 µg/ml) and it was obvious that there is a significant effect of Berberine on the growth of K. pneumoniae at very low concentrations. In this study, it was concluded that the use of Berber-ine as an efflux pump inhibitor and antimicrobial agent may become a new generation of urgently needed anti-microbials that can overcome bacterial resistance mechanisms.
 
Keywords: UTIs infections, MDR, Berberine, Klebsiella pneumoniae
 
   
Sarah  Kassab  Shandaway Al-Zamali 1  , Jawad Kadhim Tarrad AL-Khafaji2 ,Ahmed Asmar Mankhi3
1 College of Nursing , Department of Medical Microbiology, Telafer University, Telafer, Iraq.
2College of Medicine , Department of Microbiology, Babylon University, Babylon, Iraq.
3National Tuberculosis Institute (NTI) / National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Tuberculosis in Baghdad, Ministry of Public Health, Baghdad, Iraq.
 
*Corresponding author: [email protected] , [email protected]  
 
Abstract: Introduction: Despite international control programs, tuberculosis remains a public health issue. People with latent TB infection (LTBI) significantly increase the number of active tuberculosis (TB) cases and carry a lifelong risk of developing the disease. Therefore, the present study aims to determine the changes in cytokine production at two phases during the development of active pulmonary  and latent tuberculosis infection  and to evaluate their role as predictive markers in active and latent infections.Method: Blood specimens were collected from  60 patients with active pulmonary TB, 60 cases with latent TB infection and 40 healthy controls to obtain serum. ELISA kit for IL-17A and IL18  was used to determine the concentrations of IL-17A and IL18  according to the manufacturer's instructions (Elabscience  / China).Result: The results of the current study found that the mean serum concentration of  interleukin-18 was significantly higher in cases with Active pulmonary tuberculosis compared to cases with latent TB infection and healthy control, respectively (P<0.001), also the mean serum concentration of  IL-18 was significantly higher in subjects with latent TB infection as compared to healthy control ( P<0.001). Also, The present study found that the mean serum concentration of  IL-17A showed an insignificant variation in cases with Active pulmonary TB compared to healthy control (P< 0.069). In contrast, the mean serum concentration of  IL-17A was significantly higher in subjects with latent TB infection as compared to healthy control(P<0.002)  and Active pulmonary TB (P<0.001)Conclusion: A comparison of latent and active tuberculosis cases may provide some insight into factors that shield them from disease development, as well as new insights into the roles of interleukin -17A and interleukin -18 at two critical stages of the M. tuberculosis infection. These findings suggest that IL-17A and IL18 play distinct roles in two phases of tuberculosis infection and can potentially be used to develop novel diagnostics. The IL-18 ELISA results revealed a highly significant difference between the three groups. All of this information allows to distinguish TB patients and LTBI from healthy controls. Furthermore, the current findings indicated that IL-17A could be  alternative biomarker for LTBI diagnosis.
 
Keyword: Interleukin 17A , Interleukin 18 , ELISA, Active TB, Latent TB.
 
   
Sineen S. Al-Shammari 1 ,  Faiza M. Abdul-Ameer 1
"1 Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad. Iraq
Corresponding author: Sineen Salam Ahmed
 
Abstract:  Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has been used as a model for many different dental materials. However, PMMA appliances and products don't have the best mechanical properties. Various fillers and oils such as bergamot essential oil, thymol, eucalyptus, meramia, and ginger have been added to address this issue. So, this study looked at what happened when lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) was added to heat-cured PMMA denture base material and how it changed the properties of PMMA. Methods: 120 samples were prepared and split into four equal groups based on the tests that were done (the transverse strength, impact strength, surface roughness, and surface hardness), and each group their specimens were prepared and divided into three groups; control 0 vol.% without additive and two experimental groups (with 2.5 vol. % LGEO additive, with 5 vol. % LGEO additive) Results: The addition of 5 vol. % LGEO has the best effect on the acrylic's improved mechanical and physical properties (transverse strength, impact strength, and surface roughness) except for the surface hardness, which is less affected with the addition of 2.5 vol. % LGEO at p < 0.05. Conclusion: By adding LGEO to heat-curing acrylic material, it is possible to make a material with better mechanical and physical properties
 
Keyword: Essential oils, Lemongrass essential oil, Mechanical properties, Physical properties, polymethylmethacrylate material
 
   
Rawaa Noureddin Asaad 1, Hamdi Jassim Hammadi2
"12Department of Biology- College of Education for Women - University of Anbar
*Correspondence: mailto:[email protected]
 
Abstract : Used in this study four cultivars of wheat (Abu Gharib  ,Barcelona , German , French ) and three concentration of chemical mutagenic  sodium azide (0, 5Mm,10 Mm) if the grains were immersed in concentration above from the chemical mutagenic and for two hours. The grains planted in the field according to the Random Completely Block Design  (R.C.B.D )using the Factorial experiment system in the form of experimental units each repeater contains 12 ex-perimental unit dimensions 2.5 m X 2m  planning experimental units by 10 lines per pilot unit ,   the distance between the line and another 20 cm ,  the fertilization process has been added by adding phosphate fertilizer P2O5 and rate of 200 (kg .ha-1)  during agriculture and then add urea fertilizer with concentration ( 46%) N and rate 400 (kg .ha-1) on two payments when the plant arrives at the height of 7 cm and the second installment has been added before flowering D4 2 Pesticide was used and the hoeing process was conducted to control the bush. When the plants reached the stage of full maturity, random samples were taken from the plants grown in the field (10) plants from each experimental unit to study the effect of sodium azide NAN3 on some quantitative characteristicis :the  plant height ,the flag leaf area , the number of per spikes , the spike length , the number of per grains in spike , the weight of thousand grain and the grains yield.The results showed the presence of moral statistical differences for all studied characteris-tics. The highest average appearance in the number of per spikes  cultivars Barcelona was 323.2 spike while the average high for the mutagenic concentration Mm10 Mm 334.1 spike for the number of per spikes   and was the highest interference to cultivars  Barcelona with10 Mm concentration  reached 333.1 spike for the number of per spikes . Statistical and genetic analyzes were conducted on averages to estimate each of the genetic parameters that represent the percentage of heritability in the broad sense (%H2 b.s), the coefficient of genetic varia-tion(%GCV), the coefficient of phenotypic variation(%PCV), and the expected genetic im-provement.As such Various statistical parameters were estimated, including variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, arithmetic mean and standard error for each of the studied characteristics.. Statistical analyzes showed the effect of variance in their values, where the value of the coefficient of difference in the characteristic of the flag leaf area was 12.40%, while it de-creased in the characteristic of the number of grains per spike it recorded 0.99%, while the vari-ance recorded its highest value in the characteristic of the number of spikes, which amounted to 27.24, and this value decreased in the characteristic of the grains yield  0.25.
 
Keywords: Triticum aestivum L. , Sodium azide , Genetic variation , Spike length
 
 
77.   Problems facing the coordination process between the Guidance Department and the research center in Baghdad governorate.
 
Farah Emad Sbeih1,*, and Mithal Abdullateef Salman AL-Mashhadani2
1 College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq
2 College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The research aimed was to identify the reality of the coordination process between the Guidance Department and research centers in the Baghdad governorate, in terms of organization, planning, implementa-tion, follow-up, and evaluation, and to recognize the problems of the coordination process, between the Guid-ance Department and research centers, (represented by problems of coordination policy, problems of organiz-ing coordination, problems of the nature of the work mechanism coordination, training and capacity building problems, and funding problems), besides improving the effectiveness of the coordination process between the Guidance Department and research centers, (represented by simplifying the organization of coordination, har-mony, and integration between coordination plans, programs, and policies, research partnership, and linkage, means of communication and information technology, training and capacity development, financial and tech-nical support). The research was conducted in the Baghdad governorate, where a proportional, stratified ran-dom sample of 15% was selected from the research population of 935 respondents where a rate of 22 from the Ministry of Agriculture, 63 from the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, 33 from the College of Veterinary Medicine, and 19 from the Agricultural Research Department, in addition of taking the entire popu-lation of the Guidance Department, totaling 23 respondents graduate degree holders. Thus, the number of re-spondents subject to the research became 160 respondents. To achieve the research objectives, a questionnaire, consisting of 112 items divided into two domains and 11 themes, was prepared to collect data from the re-spondents. There were 35 items within the domain for identifying the problems of the coordination process be-tween the Guidance Department and research centers, distributed over five themes: 10 items of them for the problems of coordination policy, 7 items for the problems of organizing coordination, 8 items for the problems of the nature and mechanism of coordination work, 6 items for training and capacity building problems, 4 items for financing problems. For the domain of improving the effectiveness of the coordination process between the Guidance Department and research centers, the items to improve the effectiveness of the coordination process between the Guidance Department and research centers were 77 items distributed among 6 themes involving, 14 items of them to simplify the organization, 12 items Including harmony and integration between coordina-tion plans, programs, and policies, 15 items for partnership and research link, 18 items for means of communi-cation and information technology, 9 items of training and capacity building, and  9 paragraphs for financial and technical support. To analyze and display the results, the SPSS statistical analysis software and manual analysis were used, as frequencies, percentages, arithmetic mean, weight percent, weighted mean, and Cronbach’s Alpha equation were calculated. The research concluded that there is a multiplicity and diversity of coordination problems between the Guidance Department and research centers in the Baghdad governorate, and the approval of the majority of respondents to the domains, themes, and items to improve the effectiveness of the coordination process between the Guidance Department and research centers. The researcher recom-mends the necessity of having a guiding system prepared scientifically and capable of being an effective com-munication link between the target audiences and their problems on the one hand and the scientific research de-vices on the other hand.
 
Keywords: coordination process, Guidance Department, research center
   
Galib A. AL-KAISSY1, Hasan S.A. Jawad2*, Nihad Abdul-Lateef Ali3 and Ihsan H. AL-TIMIMI1        
1National University of Science and Technology, Thi qar, Iraq
2Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq
3Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture. Al-Qasim Green University, Iraq
 
Abstract: The experiment was carried out in private poultry farm during the period from 20/9/2021 to24/10/2021. Four hundred eighty chicken of Ross 308 strain were used; the chicks were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups. Several plant protein sources available in Iraq were used as the major protein source instead of soya bean meal to cover the diet requirement from protein and calories, and the following characteristics were studied; average live body weight gain, efficacy of feed and CP utilization in addition of chemical and calculated physiological fuel value for boneless meat in 6 weeks of age.
 
Keywords: Protein, poultry diets, poultry industry
   
Israa Abdul Razzaq Majeed Aldobaissi
Department of biology, Collage of science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
ABSTRACT: G. tuberculosa is a new recorded species from Caryophyllaceae family for Iraqi flora, collected from Arbil district from May to August, morphological descriptions with macro and micro feature illustrated with plates and dimensions, the species is related to G. pallida and distinguished from calyx properties especially the presence of large prominent druses crystals.    
 
Keywords: Caryophyllaceae, Gypsophila, Iraq, New record, pallida
 
   
  Hadeel H. Kadhum*1, Zainab H. Abood2
  1  Instiute of Genetic Enginrreing and Biotechnology for Postgraduate studies, University Of Baghdad, Iraq.
  2   Instiute of Genetic Enginrreing and Biotechnology for Postgraduate studies, University Of Baghdad, Iraq.
 *  Correspondence: mailto: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The present study determined the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins (B, C, Luk-pv) of atopic dermatitis isolated from (AD) cases in Laboratories of Baghdad.A total of 54Staphylococcus aureus isolates were subjected to primary identification tests by using various methods (cultural characteristic, gram staining, biochemical tests, vitek2 system).In this study, Antibiotics Disc diffusion was used in fifty four S. aureusisolates .Multidrug resistance (MDR) against different antimicrobial agents applied to polymerase chain reaction to amplify different genes coding for Staphylococcal enterotoxins including 3 types (seb, sec and luk-pv) ,To ensure that the sequences of these genes match NCBI, DNA sequencing was performed for isolate No. (3).As a resultof this study established that 25 isolates had a multidrug resistance (MDR) percent (46.2%) against different antimicrobial agents. And The results of DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction directed to amplify the specific enterotoxin coding genes;The results of this study showed that (seb) gene is present in isolates of staph aureus bacteria isolated from patients with atopic dermatitis 12 /25 at a percentage (48 %). and absence of the sec gene in all isolates of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients with atopic dermatitis,while The results of the detection of the luk-pv  23\25 (92%) gene encoded for lukucidin.Polymerase chain reaction usingdifferent primers is successful for identifying Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins (B , C)and luk-pv, luk-pv gene which was the most frequent.
 
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxingenes ,polymerase chain reaction, Staphylococcus aureus,atopic dermatitis.
 
   
Zena Nema Salomi*1 , Zainab H. Abood 2
1 Instiute of Genetic Enginrreing and Biotechnology for Postgraduate studies, University Of Baghdad, Iraq.
2 Instiute of Genetic Enginrreing and Biotechnology for Postgraduate studies, University Of Baghdad, Iraq.* *Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: One hundred midstream urine samples were collected from pregnant women aged from less than 20 to more than 36 years suffering symptoms referred to as urinary tract infections (UTIs) from a private laboratory in Baghdad city. 90 of urine sample give positive culture and 10 urine sample give negative culture .According to microscopic examination, cultural characteristics and biochemical test, the Escherichia coli was identified as the most causative agent  53(58.9%) that causing UTIs among all bacterial isolates, which confirmed the diagnosis by Vital Index of Traditional Environmental Knowledge (VITEK 2) systems and at final genetically by diagnostic gene( UidA )  gene .  Genetic study  including extraction of chromosomal DNA from   25 E.coli isolates which have multidrug resistance  (MDR) against different antibiotics classes, then identification by UidA gene and detection of   acrA,acrB genes that encoding for efflux pump proteins to all 25 E.coli isolates by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification technique with specific primer for each gene.The results showed the UidA gene identification found in all E.coli isolates, and the result of detection efflux pump genes, showed that acrA,acrB gene present  together inall E.coli isolates. The results of DNA sequence analysis of E3 bacterial isolate showed that the diagnostic genes UidA and acrA , acrB gene were 99% belonging to E. coli as found in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
 
Keywords: Pregnant women, Urinary tract infection, E. coli,
 
   
Akram J. Hammood¹ , Wasan Abdulrazzak Gharbi² , Safaa Abdul Karim Abdul Razzaq³
1B. Sc. Biology / university college of madenat Al-Elem Iraq.
2University of Baghdad, Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology.
3The Iraqi Ministry of Health, Medical City Department, Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Hospital.
*Correspondence: [email protected].
 
Abstract: Hepatitis, including autoimmune hepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, drug-induced hepatitis, bacterial hepatitis, viral hepatitis, and others, was a typical occurrence in clinical work. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), both non-cytopathic viruses, were shown to be frequent in liver damage. It has been observed that IL-35 is linked to a reduction in inflammation, and that it can limit T cell proliferation as well as the activity of its effector cells. The hepatitis B virus is a virus that causes liver disease. Serum IL-35 was shown to be higher in chronic hepatitis B virus patients, At the same time, research has discovered that Tregs and other cell types (such as activated myeloid, endothelial cells, and regulatory B cells) can secrete IL-35.The quantity of specific viral DNA or RNA in a blood sample is known as viral load count, and it is one of the potential biomarkers of hepatitis. A high viral load suggests that the immune system has failed to combat viruses. Real-time quantification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA viral load is possible. Hepatic chronic, cirrhosis, and undetected patients is measured using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and non-invasive methods.In the normal course of HBV infection, HBV DNA is the only thing that survives. HBV DNA levels represent viral levels and derives from mature infectious particles. reproducibility.Various hospital-based and community-based case-control and cohort studies have repeatedly demonstrated substantial correlations between blood HBV DNA levels and the risk of liver cirrhosis and HCC.Chronic hepatitis B has a variable course in disease activity with a risk of clinical complications like livercirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. As clinical symptoms present in a late stage of the disease, identification of risk factors is important for early detection and therefore improvement of prognosis. Recently,two REVEAL-HBV studies from iraq have shown a positive correlation between viral load at any point intime and the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
 
Keywords: Hepatitis B virus HBV, Interleukin-35 IL-35, polymerase chain reaction PCR.
 
   
Jaber Bander Zghair Al-Rawashi1 and Ali Hussain Salman2, Ahmed Jawad Al-Yasiri3 and Jassim Kassim Al-Gharawi4
"1,2,3,4Animal Production Department, Agriculture College, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq.
*Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: A total of 75 common carp fish with an average weight of 65.08±0.42 g were used. The fish were fed on experimental diets, was divided into five equal treatments in terms of protein percentages, different in the proportions of adding Moringa seed powder, was 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2%, respectively, the fish were fed on the experimental diets at 5% of the live weight, divided into 4 meals a day. The results of the liver histological examinations in T2 and T3 treated fish showed a significant improvement in the histological characteristics of hepatocytes and the contents of the liver tissue parenchyma, while it was observed that the liver tissue was slightly affected in the fish of the fourth and fifth treatments without affecting the health status of the fish. Histological examinations also showed the improvement and superiority of T2, T3, T4 and T5 treatment fish compare control treatment fish on histological parameters of small intestine and gill tissue, this indicates that the addition of Moringa seed powder to fish diets at low rates, it stimulated the immune system and raised the concentration of IgM and IgG immunoglobulins, to improving the tissue health status of fish.
 
Keywords: Moringa oleifera, immunological, histological, common carp fish Cyprinus carpio L.
 
   
Jassim Kassim Al-Gharawi and Athraa Kassim Mohammed
"Animal Production Department, Agriculture College, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq.
*Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: This study was carried out at a private field for duck breeding in Al-Muthanna Governorate, from 12/14/2021 to 02/14/2022. The field experiment was included to study the effect of adding aqueous extract of licorice to drinking water on the productive performance of Chinese ducks. A total 60 unsexed, one day Chinese duck chicks were used, prepared from one of the hatcheries in Al-Qadisiyah Governorate, were randomly distributed to 4 treatments, included 3 replicates, (5 chicks each replicate), the treatments were as follows: T1: control treatment. T2, T3 and T4 were 5, 10 and 15 ml aqueous extract of licorice /liter of drinking water. The results show that there was a significant improvement in all the studied productive traits (body weight, weight gain, feed intake, food conversion) at the treatment of licorice aqueous extract in drinking water, in addition to the high level of licorice aqueous extract (15 ml of licorice per each liters of drinking water), which gave the best results and significantly.
 
Keywords: licorice aqueous extract , productive traits, Chinese ducks.
 
   
Jassim Kassim Menati Al-Gharawi and Nuha Talib Shareef Al Salman
Animal Production Department, Agriculture College, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq.
*Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The study was conducted in the poultry field, the Agricultural Research and Experiment Station at the College of Agriculture, University of Al-Muthanna, to determine the effect of adding locally extracted and imported aloe vera oil on some carcass traits of broilers, from 22/2/2022 to 29/3/2022. A total of 405 unsexed one-day-old chicks of Ross 308 were used, chicks were randomly distributed with 45 chicks for each treatment, with three replicates of the treatment (15 chicks for each replicate), with nine treatments, which are T1 without any addition, as for the treatments T2, T3, T5, T4, the olive oil was a local extract, and the treatments (T6, T7, T8, T9) were imported aloe vera oil, the addition of oil was at the levels  0.3 and 0.4 ml per kg feed. The results of the experiment indicated a significant improvement on carcass traits for broilers (carcass weight, dressing percentage without giblet, the relative weight of liver, heart and gizzard, the dressing percentage with giblet, the main cut and secondary cuts) and deboning percentage. The treatments of the oil extracted locally showed the best results in a significant way compared to the rest of the treatments of the imported oil of the aloe vera plant.
 
Keywords: locally extracting, aloe vera oil, carcass traits, broiler.
 
   
Doaa Talib Munshid Kinanah, Muhammad Jodi Shahid
"1 Animal Production Department, College of Agriculture and Marshes, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq.
2 Animal Production Department, Agriculture College, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq.
*Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: This experiment was conducted in the poultry field of the research station at the College of Agriculture and the Marshes of Thi-Qar University, from 1/11/2021 to 1/4/2022, to determine the effect of replacement different levels of gras pea seeds instead of soybean meal in the diet, and their effect on the growth parameters of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix). A total of 216 Japanese quail birds of 45 days old were used, distributed randomly to four experimental treatments and three replicates (18 birds/replicate). The treatments were as follows: T1: control transaction; T2: The birds were fed a diet containing 20% soybean meal with 10% local grass pea seeds; T3: The birds were fed a diet containing 10% soybean with 20% local grass pea seeds; T4: The birds were fed a diet containing 30% local grass pea seeds. The results of the study indicated that feeding quails on diets containing 20% local grass pea seeds did not differ significantly with the control treatment in some growth parameters (body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion factor) for Japanese quail. Increasing the concentration of succulent plant to 30% in the ration led to a significant deterioration in the growth characteristics.
 
Keywords: local grass pea, soybean meal, growth parameters, Japanese quail.
 
 
87.  The effect of added the Iraqi probiotics to diet on some productive traits of Chinese ducks
 
Alaa Ahmed Marzouk, Ibrahim Fadhil Al-Zamili and Jassim Kassim Al-Gharawi
1Animal Production Department, Agriculture College, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq.
2Animal Production Department, Agriculture College, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq.
3Animal Production Department, Agriculture College, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq.
*Correspondence: [email protected]*Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: This study was conducted in one of the private fields, from 6/12/2021 to 2/2/2022, to determine the effect of adding the Iraqi bio-enhancer to feed on some productive traits of Chinese ducks. A total of 75 unsexed one-day-old chicks of Chinese ducks, it was randomly distributed to 5 treatments with 3 replicates for each treatment (5 chicks for each replicate). The treatments were as follows; T1: control treatment, T2, T3, T4 and T5 were added the Iraqi probiotic at levels of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 g/ kg of the basal diet, respectively. The results indicated that there was a significant improvement (P≤0.05) in the Iraqi probiotic treatments in the average body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion factor compared to the control treatment during weeks 4 and 8 of the birds' life. T5 showed a significant improvement (P≤0.05) in total weight gain, cumulative feed consumption and total feed conversion factor compared to the rest of the treatments.
 
Keywords: Iraqi probiotics, productive traits, Chinese ducks.
 
   
Adbul-Kadhum Dakhil Raysan and Ali A. Abdul-Kareem
Animal Production Department, College of Agriculture and Marshes, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq.
 Corresponding author: [email protected]   [email protected]
 
Abstract: A total of 100 birds of commercial broiler Ross308, one day were used. The results showed the success of the amplification process for the studied segment of the CAPN1 gene through electrophoresis assay. Three genotypes, CC, CT and TT, were identified, whose frequency was 0.52, 0.34 and 0.14, respectively. C allele frequency 0.69, and T allele was 0.31. No significant differences on body weight and weight gain among CC, CT and TT genotypes. The results showed that there were highly significant differences (P<0.01) on the Water Holding Capacity (WHC) among the genotypes, CC genotype was superior to the CT and TT genotypes. Also, there were significant differences in the pH values (P<0.01) among the genotypes, CC genotype was superior to the CT and TT genotypes. There were significant differences on flavor between the genotypes, CC genotype was superior to the CT genotype, and the CT genotype was superior to the TT genotype. A significant differences (P<0.01) on tenderness, CC genotype was superior to the TT genotype, CT genotype did not differ significantly from the CC and TT genotypes. A highly significant differences (P<0.01) among the genotypes on the juiciness, CC genotype was superior to the CT and TT genotypes. No significant differences in color and general acceptable.
 
Keywords: genetic analyzes, polymorphisms, CAPN1 gene, productive, meat qualitative, broiler.
 
   
Ali Sabbar Fahad Al-Hussaini, Ali Hussain Salman and Jassim Kassim Al-Gharawi
Animal Production Department, Agriculture College, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq.
 
Abstract: The current study was conducted at experimental cages in mud pond, First Agricultural Research and Experiment Station, Agriculture College, Al-Muthanna University, to determine the effect of different levels of ginger oil to the diets of common carp Cyprinus carpio L., the experiment lasted for 82 days, including the 10-day acclimatization period. A total of 80 common carp fish with an average weight of 77±0.56 g were used, it was randomly distributed to 5 treatments with 3 replicates (5 fish each replicate). The fish were fed on experimental diets, was divided into four equal treatments in terms of protein percentages, different level of ginger oil, the percentage of seeds added to the treatments was 0, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00%, respectively, the fish were fed on the experimental diets at 5% of the live weight, divided into 4 meals a day. The results indicated that there was a significant superiority of all ginger oil treatments in the growth parameters of carp fish, represented by body weight, weight gain, daily, specific and relative growth rate, the level of adding 0.50% of ginger oil gave the best results, compare with of all ginger oil treatments in growth parameters of carp fish.
 
Keywords: ginger oil, growth parameters, common carp Cyprinus  Carpio L.
 
   
AL – MAIDI A. H 1,  ASAAD KH. DARAJ2, and VDOVINA Y. S.3
1Plant Protection Dept, Coll. of Agriculture, University of Misan, Misan, Iraq.
2Department of Vocational Education / Basra.
3 Department of Technical mechanics and machine parts, Tambov State Technical University
 
Abstract: The technological scheme of the machine diesel engines used in agriculture  parts recovery process is provided by electric welding using the middle layer of the article. Experimental studies of the properties of coatings obtained after conducting electrode welding using an intermediate layer were described. The results of the studies are presented and analyzed. Technical and economical evaluation of the application of electric welding on the example of crankshafts of diesel engines used in agriculture . As a result, the main results of the studies are given.
 
Keywords: recovery methods, mounting methods, electrolysis, middle layer, metallic powder, welding tape.
 
   
Fatima Muhammad Abdul-Jabbar, Maryam Jassim Muhammad, Ali Hussain Salman and Jassim Kassim Al-Gharawi
Animal Production Department, Agriculture College, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq.
*Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The study was conducted at special cages in mud pond, Agricultural Research and Experiment Station, Animal Production Department, Agriculture College, Al-Muthanna University, to study the partial replacement of safflower seed powder by levels of 0, 5, 10 and 15%, in the diets, instead barley and yellow corn, and the effects on the growth and blood parameters of common carp fish. The experiment was designed as four treatments with four replicates for each treatment (five fish/ replicate). The results indicated that there was a significant increase in T1, T3 and T4 on Final Weight (FW), Weight Gain (WG) and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) compared to T2. A significant improvement in T2 showed on Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) compared to T1, T3 and T4. Significant increase on Protein Production Value (PPV) in T1 and T3 compared to T2 and T4. As for the hematological characteristics, an increase in hemoglobin (Hb), Red Blood Cell (RBC) count, and White Blood Cell count (WBC) was observed in T3 and T4 compared to T1 and T2. It was concluded that 10% of raw safflower seed powder had a good role in growth and blood parameters.
 
Keywords: safflower seed, growth, blood, common carp Cyprinus carpio L.
 
   
Mohammed Hammadi Mousa, Abbas Salim Al Machi, Saad Attallah Abdalsada and Jassim Kassim Al-Gharawi
Animal Production Department, Agriculture College, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq.
*Correspondence: [email protected]
 
Abstract: This study was conducted in a private field for duck breeding in Al-Muthanna Governorate, from 12/14/2021 to 02/14/2022, the study was included the effect oxytetracycline on some productive traits of Chinese ducks. A total 60 unsexed, one day Chinese duck chicks were used, prepared from one of the hatcheries in Al-Qadisiyah Governorate, were randomly distributed to 4 treatments, included 3 replicates for each, (5 chicks each replicate), the treatments were as follows: T1: control treatment. T2, T3 and T4 were added 0.125, 0.250 and 0.375 mg oxytetracycline/ kg diet. The results indicated that the use of oxytetracycline significantly improved some productive traits of Chinese ducks, body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion factor. Added the antibiotic to feed at a concentration of 0.375 mg per kg of feed gave the best results significantly compared to the rest of the treatments.
 
Keywords: Oxytetracycline, productive traits, Chinese ducks.
 
   
Rahman M. Msawil Al-Shouki, Asaad Y. Ayied & Amera K. Nasser
Animal Production- College of Agriculture, University of Basrah
Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: A total of  139 calves of the Jenoubi breed and crossbred were used (73 and 66 calves respectively), their ages ranged between 2-3 years, from Thi- Qar governorate. Blood and meat samples were collected and tests were performed on them. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used, and the sequencing technique was used to detect the genotypes of the gene. The results showed moderate to high allelic frequencies that correlate with tenderness of CAPN1 gene. The two genotypes GG and AG showed significant variations (P< 0.05) in the majority of the sensory traits at sites 316 and 530, including tenderness, juiciness, and general acceptability. Additionally, the genotype GG within Jenoubi breed significantly outperformed in terms of pH, water holding capacity, and cooking loss, with values of 5.81, 7.65, and 49.76, respectively. While the GG genotype of cross animals at site 316 showed better water holding capacity and the cooking loss. As there are relationships between genotypes of this gene in different two sites, it might be used in the selection program of local and their crosses.
 
Keywords: CAPN1 gene, Meat quality, Tenderness, Jenoubi cattle
 
   
Abbas, Mayar, Hezam1 and Ahmed Majeed Abd Zaid2
1Biology Department, College of Science ,University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq and
2College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The our study, was carried out to detect of virulence genes in Serratia marcescens , It has many virulence genes that cause nosocomal infections in immunocompromised persons and neonates . A total of 24/100 (24%) S. marcescens were obtained from neonates suffering from meningitis ,and, which,,were, identified,using, culture characteristics , biochemical- tests, and confirmed, by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique ,using16S rRNA gene . All virulence factors  including fimA gene that encode of type-1 fimbria, bsmB gene that encode of exo polysaccharide production, ampC that encode ß-lactamase enzymes were done using PCR technique. The results revealed that S. marcescens  isolates  have 16S rRNA gene at percentage (100%), fimA gene at percentage (54%), bsmB gene at percentage (71%) and ampC gene at percentage (100%).  Finally the DNA sequencing of  (fimA, bsmB,and ampC genes) was done using a DNA sequencer technique to determine the sequence of nucleotides. The results revealed the  similarities of the genes in local isolates of S. marcescens (98%) with S. marcescens isolates globally registered on the NCBI-Genbank website .
 
Keywords: fimA gene, bsmB gene, ampC gene, Serratia marcescens, DNA sequencer
 
 
95.  GrindingQuality Criteria of Local Black Rice and Its Comparison with Anber 33 Rice
 
Ahmed Sobhi Khudair1* and Makarim Ali Musa2
1Ministry of Agriculture - Plant Protection Department
2University of Baghdad - College of Agriculture - Department of Food Sciences
*Correspondence: mailto: [email protected]
 
Abstract: The study aimed to evaluate the quality criteria of grinding local black rice and compare it with non-colored rice (Anber 33 variety). The physical traits of raw rice were studied, represented by the weight of a 1000 grains, specific weight, bulk density, particle density, impurities percentage and their impact on the husking process and the extraction rate of husked rice (the hulls removed), the results indicated that the Anber 33 rice had higher valuesfor these traits compared with local black rice. A manufacturing process (husking and grinding) was conducted for the two rice varieties, and the quality criteria of the husking and grinding process, and knowing the percentages of brown rice, outer shell, bleached grain resulting from brown rice, whole grains, broken grains and bran, the results showed that the percentage of extracting of the total bleached grains and the percentage of whole grains for bleached rice (removed the hulls) in the rice Anber 33 rice was higher compared with local black rice, while the percentage of bran and broken grains was higher in local black rice compared with Anber 33 rice. Anber 33 rice recorded higher values of the whiteness degree and hardness degree, whereas the local black rice recorded higher percentages of protein, lipid, ash and fiber. Removing of hulls for 25 seconds reduced the nutritional components of the two rice varieties, as the loss of components varies depending on the grinding period and the quality of the variety. The ground local black rice was distinguished by its retention of higher percentages of protein, lipid, fiber and ash, which were 6.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 1.1% respectively. Regarding the sensory evaluation traits, ground black rice for 25 seconds recorded the highest degrees of taste and texture and chewing, whilethe raw black rice recorded a highest degree of flavor. Regarding of the general acceptance degree and color, the Anber 33 rice model achieved the highest degree of these traits.
 
Keywords: Black rice, rice grinding, white rice, sensory evaluation.
 
   
Nada F. Ayyed1 and Raam Sh. Mahmood2
1,2 Department of Field Crops, College of Agriculture Engineering Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq
*Correspondence: mailto: [email protected]
 
Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in the experimental field of the Department of Field Crops Sciences - College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad during the summer season 2021 to study the effect of spraying nano- mineral boron and vitamin B6 on the growth of mung bean crop. The experiment was carried out in the order of the factorial trials according to the RCBD randomized complete block design and with three replications. The first factor included spraying nano-boron at two concentrations (100 and 150 mg. l-1 )and metallic boron at a concentration of 100 mg. l-1  as well as the comparison treatment (spraying with water only), while the second factor included spraying Vitamin B6 in three concentrations (100, 150 and 200 mg.  l-1) as well as the comparison treatment (spraying with water only).The results indicated that the concentration of 100 mg.l-1 boron nanoparticles exceeded by giving it the highest averages for plant height, number of bacterial nodes, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf content of chlorophyll, number of flowers, number of pods, the lowest average for the percentage of precipitation and the highest average for the fertility rate, compared to the control treatment that gave the lowest averages. The results also showed that the concentration exceeded 200 mg.l-1 of vitamin B6 by giving it the highest average for each of the plant height, number of bacterial nodes, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf content of chlorophyll, number of flowers, number of pods, the lowest drop percentage and the highest fertility rate as compared to the comparison treatment that gave the lowest averages. The interaction significantly affected the concentrations of boron and vitamin B6, as the combination gave 100 mg.l-1 of nano-boron with 200 mg.l-1 of vitamin B6, the highest average for plant height and number of bacterial nodules reached 151cm and 12.53 plant node-1  compared to the comparison treatment, which gave the lowest average, while the combination between 100 mg.l-1 of  nano-boron with 100 mg.l-1of vitamin B6 gave the highest average number of branches and number of flowers compared to the comparison treatment that gave the lowest average.
 
Keywords: boron, nanospray, vitamin B6, mung bean.
 
   
Alwan A. Fadil 1*, Al-Souz Mohammed Abdul -Hadi khalil2 and Tareq Hafdhi Abdtawfeeq AL-Khayat3.
1 &3 prof.,2 Assist. Prof., AL-Farahdi University. Medical Technology College. Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.
*Correspondence   Author: Ali Fadil @alfarahidi.Edu.iq.
 
ABSTRACT: Daily administration of 10mg Dexamethasone s/c from55 days of pregnancy for 6 days resulted in a depression of fetal body  and organ weight and a depression of maternal and fetal plasma T4 ,T3 and cortisol concentration but an increase in fetal plasma T4 and T3 concentration rate suggesting enhanced de iodination  of T4. Human fetus late in gestation rise in plasma cortisol may be not necessary for organ maturation.  Considerable species differences have been observed with regard to  the type of hormone secreted by adrenal cortex.
 
Keywords: Dexamethasone, fetal cortisol, Thyroxin, Triiodothyronine, Guinea pigs.
 
   
Alhan Ali Salih1, Sami A. Zbaar 2, Hassan Khuder Rajab3
"1Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine University of Tikrit, Tikrit, Iraq;https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0392-2989; [email protected]
2Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine University of Tikrit, Tikrit, Iraq; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3330-9018; [email protected]
3 College of Medicine University of Tikrit, Tikrit, Iraq
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0297-5461; [email protected]
corespondeing anther Email: [email protected]
 
Abstract:  Aim to our study to investigate the impact of Vitamin D supplementation on the plasma glucose, lipid and other metabolic and endocrine parameter also to evaluate the therapeutic effect of Vit D and how improve insuline levels in patients with Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).Material and method: From January 5th through June 10th, 2022, a follow-up research was conducted in Kirkuk. There were 80 PCOS women in the research, both married and unmarried, ranging in age from 15 to 45 years old. These patients were hospitalized to Azadi Teaching Hospital's obstetrics and gynecology section.in the present study, 80 PCOS was diagnosed based on the presence of two of the Rotterdam criteria: oligo and/or anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries in ultrasound, which were defined as the presence of 12 or more follicles measuring 2-9 mm in diameter in each ovary and/or ovarian volume greater than 10 cm3. All 80 PCOS patients were given a comprehensive medical                                                examination as well as anthropometric measurements such as weight and height, as well as a generic questionnaire to fill out. The formula for calculating the Body Mass Index (BMI) was weight (kg)/height2 (m2).Result:The mean of BMI for PCOS patients were 28.2 (Kg /m²) and mean for age 30   years. By our  study insulin level  decreased significantly at  P value (0.0045 )  with statically   no correlation  between vitamin D  and insulin after three months  of vitamin D administrate  , while  insulin resistance level  was  reduced significantly at P value (< 0.0001)  with negative correlation  between vitamin D and insulin resistance ,while serum  FSB level was  raised significantly at  P value  < (0.0001).ConclusionThe majority of women with PCOS that enrolled in this study were within the child bearing age, and the majority of PCOS women were overweight, Vitamin D was most deficient in PCOS women, in PCOS women hirsutism, acne, and irregularity of menstrual cycle were more frequently occur.
 
Keyword: Polycystic ovarian syndrome; vitamin D;  insulin Body Mass Index
 
   
Rand Manaf Abd Al-Rhman1,*, Rasha Al-sahlanee2, Jinan Mohammed Jawad Al-SAffar3, and Aida Hussain Ibrahim
"1 Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, IRAQ
2 Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, IRAQ
3 Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, IRAQ
4 Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, IRAQ
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused enormous issues worldwide and the most infectious pandemic disease. 50 subjects (evenly distributed between sexes) were in-cluded in this study, as well as their rang of ages starting 2 to 67 year. According to the study's result, ages and gender of subject include susceptibility to COVID-19, males were found to be more infected than females and the ages among of 36 to 67 were more common than other ages range. Also, BMI calculations were revealed male patients with COVID- 19 that highest percentage obesity. The clinical parameter results have been found serum C‐reactive protein (CRP) as an essential indicator that changes significantly in infection with COVID‐19 and inflammation. The concentration of CRP is that higher levels for positive COVID‐19 patients (male and female) with mild symptoms COVID-19 than negative COVID‐19 infection, and CRP levels was found at higher in the male than female patients. The results D-dimer levels were determined a non-significant different of D-dimer levels in COVID-19 patients and non COVID-19 patients than normal concentration (N: Less than 500mg/dl.). The results hemoglobin blood levels demonstrated significant variations between COVID-19 patients and non COVID-19 patients also demonstrated that a decrease Hb concentration compared to normal concentration (N: 11-16 g/dl.); thus a link between anemia and inflammation. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels increase in positive COVID-19 patients male were (178.79 ± 56.08) mg/dl and positive COVID-19 patients female were (141.57 ± 46.90) mg/dl than normal (N: Less than100mg/dl.), and significant variation was observed between positive and negative COVID-19 patients.
 
Keywords: COVID-19; C‐reactive protein; hemoglobin; lactate dehydrogenase.
   
Mohammed Tareq Azeez Latif1 and Moayed Rajab Abood 2
"1. Ministry of Agriculture
2. Dept. of Hort. and Landscape- Coll. of Agric. – University of Baghdad, Iraq
*  Correspondence: [email protected]"
 
Abstract: This study was conducted in a lath house, Dept. Of Hort. and Landscape, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Univ. Baghdad, during 2021 growing season to investigate the influence of organic and Biological fertilizers on growth and leaf mineral content of three Citrus rootstocks. The first factor is addition of liquid organic fertilizers Vit-Org (O) at three levels is without addition (O0), soil addition at 10 ml.L-1 (O10) and soil addition at 20 ml.L-1 (O20). The second factor is addition of nitrogen fixing bacteria is without addition (N1), add 30 ml.Transplant-1 of Azotobacter chroococcum (N2) and add 30 ml.Transplant-1 of Azospirillum brasilemse (N3). The third factor is three citrus rootstocks, sour orange (R1) and Rangpur (R2) and C-35 Citrange (R3). Treatments were replicated three times (three transplants in experimental unit) at split blocks de-sign in a RCBD. The number of transplants used was 243 transplants. The experimental results showed that addition of Vit-Org liquid organic fertilizer had a significant effect in increasing vegetative growth characteris-tics and leaves mineral content, as treatment with a concentration of  20 ml.L-1 (O20) was superior to increase in stem diameter of  2.99 mm and increase in leaves nitrogen content of 1.49%, phosphorous was 0.35%. While treatment with a concentration of 10 ml.L-1 (O10) was superior in increased of leaves number of 66.27 leaves. Transplants-1 and leaf area of  17.70 cm2. The addition of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, especially addition of Azospirillum brasilemse (N3), showed significant superiority in most vegetative growth traits; it gave the high-est increase in leaves number of 65.28 leaves.transplant-1, highest leaves nitrogen content of 1.56%, phospho-rous 0.32%. Addition of these bacteria did not significantly affect in increased in stem diameter and leaf ar-ea.Rootstocks varied among themselves in vegetative growth characteristics and leaves minerals content, as Rangpur rootstocks (R2) excelled in increasing of stem diameter of 2.32 mm and increased of leaves number of 83.90 leaves.transplant-1 .While sour orange rootstock (R1) was superior in increased in leaf area of 21.49 cm2 and leaves phosphors content of 0.30%. Whereas, C-35 rootstock (R3) outperformed in leaves nitrogen content of 1.44%.Twice and triple interactions between the study factors significantly affected in all studied vegetative growth traits and leaf mineral content
 
Keywords: Citrus Rootstocks, Organic, Biological Fertilizers
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